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Transitions In Hydraulic Engngineering


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Contribution of Delta Works in NL to hydraulic developments

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Transitions In Hydraulic Engngineering

  1. 1. Transitions in Hydraulic EngineeringImpact of the Delta Works on the RecentDevelopments in Hydraulic Engineering Krystian W. Pilarczyk (former) Rijkswaterstaat Hydraulic Engineering Institute, Delft
  2. 2. Transitions in Hydraulic Engineering Content: • Introduction • (brief) History of Netherlands in coping floods • Delta Works overview • Impact of Delta Works on recent developments in hydraulic engineering • Conclusions- erosion – scour - closures – bottom protection – revetments – filters – geotextiles
  3. 3. Introduction The Netherlands Low-lying countryWith dikes "God created the world, and the Dutch createdWithout dikes the Netherlands"
  4. 4. Dutch History "God created the world, and the Dutch created the Netherlands" Flood protection in The Netherlands through the centuries
  5. 5. Dutch history(MSL)
  6. 6. Watersystem & Rainfall problems in NL Storage Storage Storage land River Sea Polder water water water "God created the world, and the Dutch created the Netherlands."
  7. 7. Zeeland about 1500
  8. 8. Turning point: Disaster 1953 Dike breaches and inundation
  9. 9. Why is flood defenceimportant ? Flood events: flood event damage victims Sea 1953 ƒ 1.500 106 1835 Meuse 1993 ƒ 250 106 ---- 6 Rhine 1995 ƒ 500 10 ---- Meuse 1995 ƒ 165 106 ---- Rainfall 1998 ƒ 1.100 106 ---- Road and Hydraulic Engineering Devision, Delft 1 US $=2 fWe can not avoid the floodsbut we can/must minimize theconsequences(victims, economical damage)High safety standards needed
  10. 10. 1997From Disaster 1953 (open)Eastern Scheldt barrier Western Scheldt to Delta Works Antwerp Deltaplan
  11. 11. Closure Techniques Dike wheel Scour hole Caisson-closureCable-line(also during the 1st stageEastern Scheldt closure) scour Bottom protection
  12. 12. From Closed to Open Eastern Scheldt Project Environment & Ecology 1973 start discussion on environmental issues !974 stop execution full closure 1976 decision Open Storm Surge Barrier
  13. 13. Storm-surge barrier Eastern Scheldt Final
  14. 14. From the past to the presentEasternScheldt Zierikzee Rotterdam City rights 1248 Vlissingen Zierikzee Eastern Scheldt View from the Expo Center Vlissingen Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier
  15. 15. Techniques Overview of the Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrierscour – bottom protection – foundation –superstructure – high tolerance requirements
  16. 16. Techniques
  17. 17. TechniquesFrom traditional to modern
  18. 18. Modern Techniques
  19. 19. TechniquesStorm-surge barrier Rotterdam (1997)
  20. 20. Transition into integrated/multidisciplinary approach Transitions in hydraulic engineering Impact Delta Works Soil –Water – Structure interactions but also Environment Environmental Impact Assessment
  21. 21. Transition from deterministic to probabilistic approachDesign Philosophy & Methodology Failure or inundation Risk <Typ naam hier> Loading <Typ titel hier> Resistance <Typ naam hier> <Typ naam hier> <Typ naam hier> <Typ titel hier> <Typ titel hier> <Typ titel hier> Failure modes & Failure tree
  22. 22. Transition from traditional to Closure by dumpedmodern techniques method (rock, blocks, bags) Closing using cable-line techniques• Gradual closures – Horizontal – Vertical Principles of closure techniques• Sand closures – Pipe discharged – Dumped• Sudden closures – Caissons
  23. 23. Transition to innovative techniques Sand Closures
  24. 24. Techniques & problemsGrevelingen Dam and sluice(Siphon) High salinity DensityLow salinity current High salinity and erosion Low salinity
  25. 25. Scour and Bottom protection600m
  26. 26. Scour and Bottom protection Eastern Scheldt Barrier
  27. 27. Research as design tool Scour research Scour prediction
  28. 28. Scourresearch Prototype tests Brouwersdam Discharge sluice
  29. 29. Scourprototype results underminingPrediction instability of upper slope- still a problem
  30. 30. Flow slides Flow slide (Zeeland)schematic viewof a flow-slide After flow-slide Before flow-slide
  31. 31. Liquefaction and flow slide in sandmaximum 200m Average slope Shear failure 30 m after flo w s lide in sand maximum 50 m average slopeclay 30 mloose sand after flow slide with cla y on top
  32. 32. Scour & bottomprotection design rules
  33. 33. Transition in design techniques of revetments Revetments Riprap/rubble mound structures From Hudson: Hs/∆Dn50 = (KD cotα)1/3 0.2 Hs = 6.2 0.18 ⎛ S ⎞ -0.5 Into Van der Meer: P ⎜ ⎟ ξm ∆ Dn 50 ⎝ N⎠
  34. 34. From riprap into pitched stone/blocks BlockRevetments Internal erosion
  35. 35. Bank To RotterdamProtectionBasic researchModel testsPrototype tests Also PIANC guidelinesApplication To Antwerp
  36. 36. environmental TechniquesSalt-fresh water separation
  37. 37. Transition in filter design: from extension of design criteria for filtersgeometrically closed into load-based designGranular Filters Various test facilities
  38. 38. Filters From granular filters into geotextiles and composite filters ; from geometrically open to hydrodynamically sandtight (based on loading)geotextiles
  39. 39. FiltersPossible extension of designcriteria for filters
  40. 40. Some other aspects • Geosynthetics • Geosystems • Waste & Alternative materials • Technology Transfer
  41. 41. Disseminationof knowledge Validation
  42. 42. Knowledge development: Laboratory testsSimulation of the flow through adikeTesting grass cover as revetment gap Delta flume
  43. 43. Transition into Alternative Techniques Sand and clay bags closure Granular filters from brick material
  44. 44. Conclusions Large projects (like Delta Works) need usually some specific solutions. It stimulates new research andinnovation, which contribute strongly to new developments in hydraulic & coastal engineering A systematic & comprehensiveapproach must be taken to solve stream & shoreline problems
  45. 45. Knowledge is Knowledge cyclesalways going ahead We are always in Transition
  46. 46. Thank you foryour attention Further information:
  47. 47. I wish you a pleasant stay in the Netherlands
  48. 48. The, (english, downloads)