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I Microformati ed Il Web Semantico

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Un piccolo itinerario sull'infrastruttura della semantica nel web attuale. Slides presentate al barcamp PiùBlogCamp del 9 Dicembre 2007 al Palazzo dei Congressi dell'Eur di Roma

http://open4blog.blogspot.com/2007/12/piblogcamp-le-slides-del-mio-intervento.html

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I Microformati ed Il Web Semantico

  1. 1. Piergiorgio Lucidi
  2. 2. <ul><li>Microformati </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cosa sono e come visualizzarli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applicazioni </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Semantico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ingredienti </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ontologie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prima fase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seconda fase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roadmap </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Informazioni: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formato XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immerse (embedded) all’interno della pagina HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadati </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>meta-informazioni </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non sono visualizzate come contenuto </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rappresentazione del contenuto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collegamento (wiring) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interoperabilità </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>FireFox </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V. 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tails Export </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operator (categorizzati) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V. 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supporto nativo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V. 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supporto nativo </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>metadati interrogabili da remoto come un db: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>microformati </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disponibili a tutti (o almeno nel dominio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linkabili </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>agenti software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Vantaggi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estendibilità </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>riuso </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interoperabilità </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Svantaggi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficile da gestire </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Data Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>microformati </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>metadati </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aspetto semantico del contenuto </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ontologie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distribuite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>estendibili </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wiring tra diverse entità del dominio di interesse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asserzioni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regole di inferenza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linguaggi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RDFS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DAML+OIL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OWL </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Nate in ambito di IA per formalizzare problemi di rappresentazione della conoscenza </li></ul><ul><ul><li>base di conoscenza (KB - Knowledge Base) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>descrive il legame tra concetti del dominio di interesse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relazioni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proprietà </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vincoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regole di inferenza </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Base di conoscenza tradizionale (KB) </li></ul><ul><li>Base di conoscenza su Web </li></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insieme di assiomi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limitati </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Costanti </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inizializzazione del database </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data entry costante </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ingestibile (infinito) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dinamico </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggiunta di pagine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rimozione di pagine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modifica di pagine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dati inconsistenti </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>senza vincoli </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dati inaffidabili </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>senza controllo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dati non disponibili </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Distribuite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>domini differenti </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estendibili </li></ul><ul><ul><li>da tutti gli utenti del web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wiring tra diverse entità del dominio di interesse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>domini differenti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tipi diversi di contenuto </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asserzioni </li></ul><ul><li>Regole di inferenza </li></ul><ul><li>Linguaggi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDFS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAML+OIL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Modello di formule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tassonomia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerarchia di classi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modus Ponens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Premesse -> Conclusione </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Soddisfacibilità </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tempo limitato </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Resource Description Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Vantaggi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basato su XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>è un linguaggio ontologico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solo se utilizzato con RDF Schema (RDFS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poco potere espressivo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>è possibile definire: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>risorsa-proprietà-valore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grafo orientato </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>come KL-ONE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperabilità </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prima vera convenzione sintattica tra gli agenti semantici </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 18. relazione = grafo orientato (simile a KL-ONE -1977)
  13. 19. <ul><li>è un linguaggio ontologico </li></ul><ul><li>è possibile definire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>classi, risorse e relazioni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proprietà </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vincoli di dominio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vincoli di range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>documentazione </li></ul></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>Svantaggi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poco potere espressivo: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definisce solo entità e valori </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non definisce proprietà di proprietà </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nessun meccanismo di ragionamento </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>difficoltà nello sviluppo di un agente software </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>DARPA Agent Markaup Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DARPA = Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basato su RDFS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OIL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology Inference Layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology Interchange Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basato su RDFS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Basato su: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguaggi basati su frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DL (Description Logic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logica formale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Orientato agli oggetti (Object Oriented) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietà </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vincoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardinalità </li></ul></ul>
  16. 25. <ul><li>Web Ontology Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basato su DAML+OIL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Science Technologies (IST) della Commissione Europea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL Lite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>limitata cardinalità </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL DL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decidibilità </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL Full </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>massimo potere espressivo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non garantisce la decidibilità </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relazioni = sinapsi </li></ul></ul>
  17. 26. <ul><li>Java </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protégé </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creazione di una tassonomia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creazione del modello del dominio di interesse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include un motore di inferenza </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporta RDF, RDFS e OWL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RDF Data Query Language (RDQL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reasoner (classificatore) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inferenza su basi di conoscenza (KB) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 28. <ul><li>Promozione </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge e Content Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data integration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementazione </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gruppi di lavoro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Framework (SWSF) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language (SWSL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realtà aziendali: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mondeca, Ontoprice, TopQuadrant </li></ul></ul>
  19. 30. <ul><li>http://open4blog.blogspot.com/ </li></ul>
  20. 32. <ul><li>Questa presentazione è pubblicata sotto licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione (BY) </li></ul><ul><li>Per visionare la copia di questa licenza, è possibile visitare il sito </li></ul><ul><li>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.it </li></ul><ul><li>Oppure è possibile contattare direttamente Creative Commons per posta ordinaria a questo indirizzo: 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Eccetto laddove espressamente indicato, per poter riprodurre o ridistribuire interamente o solo in parte questa presentazione, è necessario dare l’attribuzione a Piergiorgio Lucidi, con un link al sito </li></ul><ul><li>http://open4blog.blogspot.com/ </li></ul>

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