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# Basic biomass power plant efficiency

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Basic theory of power plant efficiency. Simple example provided for biomass power plant case

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### Basic biomass power plant efficiency

1. 1. Basic Biomass Power Plant Efficiency
2. 2. Biomass Heating Value Fuel Moisture (%) (AR) Lower Heating Value (kJ/kg) (AR) Higher Heating Value (kJ/kg) (AR) Woodchip 45 8,820 1100 Rice Husk 12 13020 14500 Bagasse 55 7140 9200 EFB 60 7120 9130 * This is indicative value only. Accurate value shall be tested by certified laboratory
3. 3. Ideal Rankin Cycle on T-S Diagram Temperature Entropy (1) (2) (3) (4) P Constant 2-3 water from feed water pump is heated up temperature @ constant pressure to be rated steam condition 3-4 steam is expanded its pressure in steam turbine . Steam pressure gradually decrease in each stage of turbine blade. Super heated steam @3 become low pressure mixing steam @4 4-1 low pressure mixing steam is extracted its energy by cooling system . Then mixing steam become liquid phase “condensate water” 1-2, condensate water pressure is increased by feed water pump to boiler rated pressure (2)
4. 4. Power Plant Equipment BFWP Condenser Steam Turbine Boiler (1) (2) (3) (4) G Energy Input (Fuel) Work Output (Electricity) Plant Efficiency (ɳ) = 𝑾𝒐𝒓𝒌 𝑶𝒖𝒕𝒑𝒖𝒕 𝑬𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒚 𝑰𝒏𝒑𝒖𝒕 𝒙𝟏𝟎𝟎% Plant Heat Rate = 𝟑𝟔𝟎𝟎 𝑷𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝑬𝒇𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒚 kJ/kWh
5. 5. Energy Input and Work Output Energy input is fuel fed into boiler then combust and release energy to boil water to from liquid phase to vapor phase (typically refer to super heated steam) Example: boiler consume 15 T/H of wood chip to generate steam. It is equivalent to 15𝑥1000𝑥8820 3600 = 36750 kW Work Output is electricity generated from steam turbine generator Example: from 15 T/H of woodchip, steam turbine generator produces electricity 9900 kW Plant Efficiency is = 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐼𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑥100% = 9900 36750 𝑥100% = 26.93% Plant Heat Rate = 3600 𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 = 3600 26.93 = 13,368 kJ/kWh
6. 6. Effecting parameter on plant efficiency • Boiler Efficiency • Steam Turbine and Generator Efficiency • Condenser Efficiency • Cooling Tower Efficiency
7. 7. Boiler Efficiency Boiler Efficiency 79.5% Fuel 100% Steam 79.5% Loss from moisture in fuel 7 % Loss from radiation 0.2% Loss from CO 0.3 % Loss from H2 in Fuel 6% Loss from Unburn Carbon 2% Loss in dry flue gas 5 %
8. 8. Steam Turbine Efficiency Steam Turbine SteamAdmissionloss Leakageloss Frictionloss Aerodynamicloss Leakageloss Exhaustloss
9. 9. Condenser Efficiency Condenser - Less cooling water flow rate - Fouling on tube - Incondensable gas - Overheat duty
10. 10. Cooling Tower Efficiency Hot Water Cold Water Hot Air Cold Air - Evaporation loss - Drift loss - Blow down loss - Etc.
11. 11. Heat and Mass Balance Diagram
12. 12. Heat and Mass Balanced Diagram • Conceptual Design • Off Design Analysis • What-if Analysis • Off-line and On-line Performance Monitoring