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Transport Planning &
Policy
What is PESTLE onTransport Planning & Policy
Political
• These are all about how and to what degree a government intervenes in the
economy.
• Example: Government policy, Political stability or Instability in Overseas
markets, Foreign trade policy,Tax policy, Labor law, Environmental law,
Trade restrictions and so on.
• Organizations need to be able to respond to the current and anticipated
future legislation, and adjust their marketing policy accordingly.
Economical
• Economic factors have a significant impact on how an organization does business
and also how profitable they are.
• Example: Economic growth, Interest rates, Exchange rates, Inflation, disposable
income of consumers and Businesses and so on.
• These factors can be further broken down into macro-economical and micro-
economical factors.
Macro-economical factors deal with the management of demand in any given economy.
Micro-economic factors are all about the way people spend their incomes.
Social
• Also known as socio-cultural factors, are the areas that involve the shared
belief and attitudes of the population.
• Example: Population growth, Age distribution, Health consciousness, Career
attitudes and so on.
• These factors are of particular interest as they have a direct effect on how
marketers understand customers and what drives them.
Technological
• We all know how fast the technological landscape changes and how this
impacts the way we market our products.
• Technological factors affect marketing and the management thereof in
three distinct ways:
New ways of producing goods and services
New ways of distributing goods and services
New ways of communicating with target markets
Legal
• Example: Health and safety, Equal opportunities, Advertising standards,
Consumer rights and laws, Product labelling and product safety.
• It is clear that companies need to know what is and what is not legal in order
to trade successfully.
• If an organisation trades globally this becomes a very tricky area to get right
as each country has its own set of rules and regulations.
Environmental
• These factors have only really come to the forefront in the last fifteen years or
so.
• They have become important due to the increasing scarcity of raw materials,
pollution targets, doing business as an ethical and sustainable company, carbon
footprint targets set by governments (this is a good example were one factor
could be classes as political and environmental at the same time).
• These are just some of the issues marketers are facing within this factor.
• More and more consumers are demanding that the products they buy are
sourced ethically, and if possible from a sustainable source.

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Transport planning & policy

  • 2. What is PESTLE onTransport Planning & Policy
  • 3. Political • These are all about how and to what degree a government intervenes in the economy. • Example: Government policy, Political stability or Instability in Overseas markets, Foreign trade policy,Tax policy, Labor law, Environmental law, Trade restrictions and so on. • Organizations need to be able to respond to the current and anticipated future legislation, and adjust their marketing policy accordingly.
  • 4. Economical • Economic factors have a significant impact on how an organization does business and also how profitable they are. • Example: Economic growth, Interest rates, Exchange rates, Inflation, disposable income of consumers and Businesses and so on. • These factors can be further broken down into macro-economical and micro- economical factors. Macro-economical factors deal with the management of demand in any given economy. Micro-economic factors are all about the way people spend their incomes.
  • 5. Social • Also known as socio-cultural factors, are the areas that involve the shared belief and attitudes of the population. • Example: Population growth, Age distribution, Health consciousness, Career attitudes and so on. • These factors are of particular interest as they have a direct effect on how marketers understand customers and what drives them.
  • 6. Technological • We all know how fast the technological landscape changes and how this impacts the way we market our products. • Technological factors affect marketing and the management thereof in three distinct ways: New ways of producing goods and services New ways of distributing goods and services New ways of communicating with target markets
  • 7. Legal • Example: Health and safety, Equal opportunities, Advertising standards, Consumer rights and laws, Product labelling and product safety. • It is clear that companies need to know what is and what is not legal in order to trade successfully. • If an organisation trades globally this becomes a very tricky area to get right as each country has its own set of rules and regulations.
  • 8. Environmental • These factors have only really come to the forefront in the last fifteen years or so. • They have become important due to the increasing scarcity of raw materials, pollution targets, doing business as an ethical and sustainable company, carbon footprint targets set by governments (this is a good example were one factor could be classes as political and environmental at the same time). • These are just some of the issues marketers are facing within this factor. • More and more consumers are demanding that the products they buy are sourced ethically, and if possible from a sustainable source.