How did the Sahara affect trade and travel to South and Central Africa? How do you think Islam spread through Africa?
How would African kings benefit from warfare with other kingdoms?
Starving irish family How could these catastrophes affect European society?
Hundreds of battles and uneasy peace; France eventually expelled England from Aquitane but England had won many battles. How does war affect society?How has the war in Iraq affected Americans, Iraqis, the world? Explain.
Why do you think Renaissance writers and artists valued classical art, architecture, etc? Why did people start to question the Catholic Church? Do people question religious organizations today?
How did the printing press change Europe? What books have made you curious about the world, your community, learning, etc?
Rainforests (near the equator in Central and West Africa): tall forests that grow in moist, hot climates Sahara (North): largest desert in the world Savanna (North & South of rainforests): long, flat grassland with abundant wildlife, thorny bushes & scattered trees (I.e., Kalahari)
<ul><li>How does geography affect a culture? </li></ul>
Africa in the North ECONOMY: People used trade routes on Mediterranean Sea; Sahara limited trade and travel to Central & South Africa SOCIETY: Life in Sahara = isolated Religion: Islam brought by Arab merchants Muslims: people who follow Islam
West Africa ECONOMY: centered on the Niger, Volta, & Senegal Rivers & transported crops to Atlantic; soil was rich for farming POLITICAL: 2 kingdoms: Ghana & Mali; Controlled trade routes for salt & gold
<ul><li>Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Most kingdoms fought one another for crops, land, & trade goods. African kings captured and enslaved enemies. Europeans arrive in 1480s- establishing the profitable slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>3 goals of slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy enemy’s military strength </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slave trade in return for crops, weapons, & gold </li></ul></ul></ul>
The Black Death: one of Europe’s catastrophes during the 14 th -15 th c; killed millions
Great Famine: 13 th century; widespread food shortage
Hundred Years War: fought between Britain and France
European Society - 14 th -16 th century Renaissance (rebirth): widespread cultural revival of classical art, architecture, learning & literature Reformation: people started to question the role of church in society & the corruption of the clergy (I.e., sale of indulgences) Catholics vs. Protestants (to protest)
<ul><ul><li>But…wind & currents controlled ocean travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horse latitudes: (30 to 35 degrees latitude north & south) weak currents/winds failed to move sailing vessels, thus horses & other livestock were dumped overboard to decrease the ship’s weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUILDING AN EMPIRE…Monarchs wanted new trade routes to Europe and Asia </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>How were the cultures of Africa and Europe different (pre-1492)? How were they similar? </li></ul>