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Containing the Semantic Explosion

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Presentation by Jaimie Murdock, Cameron Buckner and Colin Allen at PhiloWeb 2012 (WWW 2012), Lyon, France.

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Containing the Semantic Explosion

  1. 1. Containing the Semantic Explosion Jaimie Murdock Cameron Buckner Colin Allen Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) Project Indiana University – Bloomington, IN, USA inpho@indiana.edu 17 April 2012 Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 1 / 33
  2. 2. Introduction Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Building Ontologies 3 Dynamic Ontology 4 Future Directions Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 2 / 33
  3. 3. Introduction The Information Explosion Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 3 / 33
  4. 4. Introduction The Information Explosion Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 4 / 33
  5. 5. Introduction Guiding Principles “Augmented intelligence” Let humans and computers each do only what they do best Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 5 / 33
  6. 6. Introduction Guiding Principles “Augmented intelligence” Let humans and computers each do only what they do best “Guided serendipity” Provide useful tools for scholars: cross-referencing semantic search document classification visualizations Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 5 / 33
  7. 7. Introduction What Philosophers Know Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu 1522 authors 127 subject editors 1315 articles since 14 Sep 1995 1 million weekly article downloads Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 6 / 33
  8. 8. Introduction What Philosophers DON’T Know What’s in the SEP! http://plato.stanford.edu 16.3 million words — equivalent to 27,250 pages at 600 words/page Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 7 / 33
  9. 9. Introduction The Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) Project https://inpho.cogs.indiana.edu/ Pragmatic attempt to organize the discipline of philosophy through a three step process of: data mining expert verification machine reasoning Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 8 / 33
  10. 10. Introduction The Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) Project https://inpho.cogs.indiana.edu/ Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 9 / 33
  11. 11. Introduction The Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) Project https://inpho.cogs.indiana.edu/ Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 10 / 33
  12. 12. Building Ontologies Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Building Ontologies 3 Dynamic Ontology 4 Future Directions Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 11 / 33
  13. 13. Building Ontologies Computational Ontology “A body of formally represented knowledge is based on a conceptualization: the objects, concepts, and other entities that are presumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them . . . A conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose . . . An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization.” — Gruber (1993) Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 12 / 33
  14. 14. Building Ontologies Domain Ontologies GOLD: General Ontology for Linguistic Description Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 13 / 33
  15. 15. Building Ontologies Domain Ontologies Gene Ontology Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 14 / 33
  16. 16. Building Ontologies Formal Ontology Goals: interoperability, permanence, precision ULOs represent the most basic, enduring features of reality — not just a “conceptualization” Upper-level ontologies (ULOs) unite domain-level ontologies Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 15 / 33
  17. 17. Building Ontologies Formal Ontology Concerns “Double experts” required Manual design and change Bias, controversy Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 16 / 33
  18. 18. Building Ontologies Formal Ontology Concerns “Double experts” required Manual design and change Bias, controversy Battlefield cluttered with ULOs . . . BFO, Dolce, DnS, SUMO, Cyc, GFO, IDEAS, GOL, BWW, COSMO, OCHRE, Gist, OBO, PROTON, IFF, MSO, Sowas, . . . In civil war, population suffers most . . . Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 16 / 33
  19. 19. Building Ontologies Folksonomy Can we induce an ontology from tagging behavior? “Wisdom of the crowds” Del.ico.us, Flickr, Wikipedia Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 17 / 33
  20. 20. Building Ontologies Folksonomy Concerns Uncontrolled vocabulary Ambiguity, idiosyncrasy, no definitions Tagging behavior changes over time Unstructured or training required The world is not flat — expertise matters! Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 18 / 33
  21. 21. Building Ontologies Formal vs. Dynamic Ontology Formal Ontology Dynamic Ontology Large projects in business, Smaller, open-access projects in medicine, and natural sciences fluid domains Stable consensus Emergent consensus Manual construction Semi-automated construction Monolithic perspective Multiple perspectives Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 19 / 33
  22. 22. Building Ontologies Formal vs. Dynamic Ontology Formal Ontology Dynamic Ontology Large projects in business, Smaller, open-access projects in medicine, and natural sciences fluid domains Stable consensus Emergent consensus Manual construction Semi-automated construction Monolithic perspective Multiple perspectives Wish: Top-down quality for a bottom-up price! Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 19 / 33
  23. 23. Dynamic Ontology Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Building Ontologies 3 Dynamic Ontology 4 Future Directions Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 20 / 33
  24. 24. Dynamic Ontology The Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) Project https://inpho.cogs.indiana.edu/ Pragmatic attempt to organize the discipline of philosophy through a three step process of: data mining expert verification machine reasoning Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 21 / 33
  25. 25. Dynamic Ontology 1. Data Mining Use statistical techniques to make predictions about content J-measure (n-grams) Measures similarity using co-occurrences Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 22 / 33
  26. 26. Dynamic Ontology 1. Data Mining Use statistical techniques to make predictions about content J-measure (n-grams) Entropy (TF-IDF) Measures similarity using Measures generality based on co-occurrences prevalence Further details: Niepert et al. 2007, Murdock et al. 2012 Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 22 / 33
  27. 27. Dynamic Ontology 2. Expert Verification Present hypothetical relations to users. Allows for untrained ontologists. Amazon Mechanical Turk Further details: Allen et al. 2008, Niepert et al. 2009, Buckner et al. 2010, Eckart et al. 2010 Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 23 / 33
  28. 28. Dynamic Ontology 3. Machine Reasoning Input – Expert feedback combined with statistical data Output – Populated ontology with taxonomic projection Further details: Niepert et al. 2008 Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 24 / 33
  29. 29. Dynamic Ontology Applications Automated cross-referencing Context-aware search Citation management Document classification Visualizations Change and controversy discovery Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 25 / 33
  30. 30. Dynamic Ontology Applications Automated cross-referencing Context-aware search Citation management Document classification Visualizations Change and controversy discovery “Macroscopes” (B¨rner) o Metaphilosophy Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 25 / 33
  31. 31. Future Directions Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Building Ontologies 3 Dynamic Ontology 4 Future Directions Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 26 / 33
  32. 32. Future Directions CodEx Workbench Dynamic ontology toolkit for arbitrary corpora Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 27 / 33
  33. 33. Future Directions CodEx Workbench Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 28 / 33
  34. 34. Future Directions CodEx Workbench Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 29 / 33
  35. 35. Future Directions CodEx Workbench Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 30 / 33
  36. 36. Future Directions Guiding Principles “Augmented intelligence” Let humans and computers each do only what they do best. Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 31 / 33
  37. 37. Future Directions Guiding Principles “Augmented intelligence” Let humans and computers each do only what they do best. “Guided serendipity” Provide useful tools for scholars: cross-referencing semantic search document classification visualizations Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 31 / 33
  38. 38. Future Directions Acknowledgements IUB New Frontiers in the Humanities NEH Digital Humanities Initiative NEH-DFG Bilateral Digital Humanities Program Digging into Data Challenge Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Views expressed are the authors, and not necessarily the views of any funding angencies Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 32 / 33
  39. 39. Future Directions Acknowledgements Project Director Project Staff Colin Allen Alex Frost, Wesley Pettyjohn, Sam Waggoner Project Founders Cameron Buckner, Mathias Niepert CogSci Support Ruth Eberle, Nubli Kasa Graduate Students Jaimie Murdock, Robert Rose Application Consultants Ed Zalta & Uri Nodelman (SEP), Former Staff Tony Beavers (Noesis) Evan Boggs, Tarun Gangwani, Scott Weingart Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 33 / 33

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