Related Reading StrategiesRelated Reading Strategies
ByBy
Puan Iris SapokPuan Iris Sapok
““It was one of the most radical ...
ReadingReading
 Reading has always been viewed as essentiallyReading has always been viewed as essentially
concerned with...
ContinuationContinuation
 reading is also a social act as people read to knowreading is also a social act as people read ...
ContinuationContinuation
 The ability to read is a unique process that canThe ability to read is a unique process that ca...
Teaching ReadingTeaching Reading
 Teaching reading has never been easy. WhileTeaching reading has never been easy. While
...
Three Desirable Teacher BeliefsThree Desirable Teacher Beliefs
1.1. All students, with support, can experience the joy,All...
Belief 2Belief 2
 Effective reading specialist and teachersEffective reading specialist and teachers
listen to their stud...
Belief 3Belief 3
 Effective reading teachers intervene on behalfEffective reading teachers intervene on behalf
of their s...
How can we make reading moreHow can we make reading more
successful?successful?
 Apply different strategies according to ...
Constructivist learning theoriesConstructivist learning theories
 Piaget (1969) described learning as the modification of...
Interactive learning theoriesInteractive learning theories
 clearly stated that readers construct meaning using a combina...
TheThe sociolinguistic learning theorysociolinguistic learning theory
 stresses the thought and language isstresses the t...
The reader response learningThe reader response learning
theoriestheories
 extend the constructivist theories aboutextend...
StrategiesStrategies
Few examples:Few examples:
a.a. Identifying Children’s Linguistic Repertoires (readingIdentifying Chi...
StrategiesStrategies
 Language storiesLanguage stories
 Shared book experiencesShared book experiences
 Directed Listen...
StrategiesStrategies
 GMA (Group Mapping Activity)-GMA (Group Mapping Activity)- based on visual representation,based on ...
Teaching ReadingTeaching Reading
vocabulary instruction in contentvocabulary instruction in content
Step 1:Step 1: Identif...
How to do it? ExampleHow to do it? Example
 Preview the story or material to be read, and select fourPreview the story or...
Eg. Story reading and SharingEg. Story reading and Sharing
 Select and examine the books in advance. How will you present...
Few examples reading activitiesFew examples reading activities
 Mind- mappingMind- mapping
 Picture governed story attem...
ConclusionConclusion
 EvaluationEvaluation
 Group work presentationGroup work presentation
 Individual presentationIndi...
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Related reading strategies

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Related reading strategies

  1. 1. Related Reading StrategiesRelated Reading Strategies ByBy Puan Iris SapokPuan Iris Sapok ““It was one of the most radical discoveriesIt was one of the most radical discoveries Gandhi was to make in a lifetime ofGandhi was to make in a lifetime of experimentations: In order to transform others,experimentations: In order to transform others, you have to transform yourself”.you have to transform yourself”. Aknath Eawaran,Aknath Eawaran, Gandhi the ManGandhi the Man
  2. 2. ReadingReading  Reading has always been viewed as essentiallyReading has always been viewed as essentially concerned with meaning “especially transfer ofconcerned with meaning “especially transfer of meaning from mind to mind: the transfer ofmeaning from mind to mind: the transfer of message from writer to reader”. Understandingmessage from writer to reader”. Understanding what one reads mean comprehending meaningswhat one reads mean comprehending meanings in the text. This is a process of communication inin the text. This is a process of communication in reading or what Widdowson would describe asreading or what Widdowson would describe as focusing “the learner’s attention to the value offocusing “the learner’s attention to the value of the sentences rather than on their significance”the sentences rather than on their significance” (1978:102).(1978:102).
  3. 3. ContinuationContinuation  reading is also a social act as people read to knowreading is also a social act as people read to know somethingsomething  it is one way to communicate with people,it is one way to communicate with people,  It is also a private cognitive process which involves aIt is also a private cognitive process which involves a reader in trying to follow and respond to a message fromreader in trying to follow and respond to a message from a writer who is distant in space and time,a writer who is distant in space and time,  It is also a complex process and extensive study acrossIt is also a complex process and extensive study across a wide range of different disciplines reflected in the vasta wide range of different disciplines reflected in the vast literature on reading and on teaching in the contexts ofliterature on reading and on teaching in the contexts of both mother tongue and foreign language classrooms.both mother tongue and foreign language classrooms.  Learners should be encouraged to concentrate onLearners should be encouraged to concentrate on processing meaning at discourse level and at theprocessing meaning at discourse level and at the discrete level of the text. Thus teachers should bediscrete level of the text. Thus teachers should be sensitive to learners and to the potential of the textualsensitive to learners and to the potential of the textual display and its relationship with the phonological systemdisplay and its relationship with the phonological system of language and be aware of the relevance ofof language and be aware of the relevance of background knowledge.background knowledge.
  4. 4. ContinuationContinuation  The ability to read is a unique process that canThe ability to read is a unique process that can open human eyes to the world or what isopen human eyes to the world or what is happening around them. It is an interactivehappening around them. It is an interactive process because during the act of processingprocess because during the act of processing the text, readers are constantly interpreting thethe text, readers are constantly interpreting the meaning of the text. Thus, they are able to makemeaning of the text. Thus, they are able to make connections, predicting outcomes, readingconnections, predicting outcomes, reading between the lines and seeking for explanationsbetween the lines and seeking for explanations and meanings. Reading is selective, purposefuland meanings. Reading is selective, purposeful and it is carried out for various purposes otherand it is carried out for various purposes other than just learning the language.than just learning the language.
  5. 5. Teaching ReadingTeaching Reading  Teaching reading has never been easy. WhileTeaching reading has never been easy. While oral language seems to develop naturally fororal language seems to develop naturally for most children, reading does not. In addition tomost children, reading does not. In addition to the "unnaturalness" of reading for many children,the "unnaturalness" of reading for many children, reading instruction has often been at the centerreading instruction has often been at the center of philosophical and political debate. Teachers,of philosophical and political debate. Teachers, administrators, and parents have watched theadministrators, and parents have watched the pendulum swing one way and then another forpendulum swing one way and then another for so long that they are weary. However, enough isso long that they are weary. However, enough is now known about reading that the destructivenow known about reading that the destructive and often rancorous debates about how best toand often rancorous debates about how best to teach it can and should be put to rest.teach it can and should be put to rest.
  6. 6. Three Desirable Teacher BeliefsThree Desirable Teacher Beliefs 1.1. All students, with support, can experience the joy,All students, with support, can experience the joy, growth, and fulfillment that comes from expert literacygrowth, and fulfillment that comes from expert literacy abilities even though the number of student whoabilities even though the number of student who avoids literacy activities is increasingavoids literacy activities is increasing. Ostosis (2000). Ostosis (2000) He pointed out that do we continue blaming theHe pointed out that do we continue blaming the children as they deficit and lack of readiness forchildren as they deficit and lack of readiness for performing to school expectation or we must activelyperforming to school expectation or we must actively reconstruct our teaching methods, techniques andreconstruct our teaching methods, techniques and strategies approaching them. No one method, materialstrategies approaching them. No one method, material is adequately enough to achieve the needs of theis adequately enough to achieve the needs of the children.children.
  7. 7. Belief 2Belief 2  Effective reading specialist and teachersEffective reading specialist and teachers listen to their students every day.listen to their students every day.  It helps to evaluate their beliefs aboutIt helps to evaluate their beliefs about literacy and enables the students toliteracy and enables the students to realize the effects of their achievement.realize the effects of their achievement.  Teachers must reflect on their instructionalTeachers must reflect on their instructional program and alter their teaching accordingprogram and alter their teaching according to their needs.to their needs.
  8. 8. Belief 3Belief 3  Effective reading teachers intervene on behalfEffective reading teachers intervene on behalf of their students and take direct action to helpof their students and take direct action to help them.them. a.a. to overcome individual physical, cognitive,to overcome individual physical, cognitive, social, cultural and effective barriers tosocial, cultural and effective barriers to maximum reading achievements.maximum reading achievements. b.b. they should be excited to try differentthey should be excited to try different strategies, methods and techniques to overstrategies, methods and techniques to over come struggling readers who want to learn.come struggling readers who want to learn. c.c. teachers should intervene on their students toteachers should intervene on their students to help weaker children being accepted by theirhelp weaker children being accepted by their peers.peers. d.d. Engaged and seek reader’s involvement inEngaged and seek reader’s involvement in shared experiences in class. This can becomeshared experiences in class. This can become memorable episodes.memorable episodes.
  9. 9. How can we make reading moreHow can we make reading more successful?successful?  Apply different strategies according to theApply different strategies according to the children’s needs. Use varieties ofchildren’s needs. Use varieties of approaches, techniques, methods andapproaches, techniques, methods and creativity.creativity.  Integrate the four learning theories suchIntegrate the four learning theories such as the constructivist, interactive,as the constructivist, interactive, sociolinguistic and reader responsesociolinguistic and reader response theories.theories.
  10. 10. Constructivist learning theoriesConstructivist learning theories  Piaget (1969) described learning as the modification ofPiaget (1969) described learning as the modification of student’s cognitive structures and schemata, as theystudent’s cognitive structures and schemata, as they interact with and adapt to their environment. Schematainteract with and adapt to their environment. Schemata are like mental filing cabinets and information isare like mental filing cabinets and information is organized with prior knowledge in the filing cabinet.organized with prior knowledge in the filing cabinet. Teachers should engage students with experiences soTeachers should engage students with experiences so that they modify their schemata and construct theirthat they modify their schemata and construct their knowledge.knowledge.  Children are active learners.Children are active learners.  Children relate new information to prior knowledge.Children relate new information to prior knowledge.  Children organize and integrate information in schemataChildren organize and integrate information in schemata
  11. 11. Interactive learning theoriesInteractive learning theories  clearly stated that readers construct meaning using a combination ofclearly stated that readers construct meaning using a combination of text-based information and reader-based information. Thesetext-based information and reader-based information. These theories echo the importance of schemata described in thetheories echo the importance of schemata described in the constructivist theories.constructivist theories.  Teachers focus on reading as a comprehension process and teachTeachers focus on reading as a comprehension process and teach both word-identification skills and comprehension strategies.both word-identification skills and comprehension strategies.  The key concepts are:The key concepts are:  Students use both their prior knowledge and features in the text asStudents use both their prior knowledge and features in the text as they read.they read.  Students use word-identification skills and comprehensionStudents use word-identification skills and comprehension strategies to understand what they read.strategies to understand what they read.  Teachers help students become fluent readers.Teachers help students become fluent readers.
  12. 12. TheThe sociolinguistic learning theorysociolinguistic learning theory  stresses the thought and language isstresses the thought and language is interrelated, social interaction is importantinterrelated, social interaction is important in learning, teachers provide scaffolds forin learning, teachers provide scaffolds for students and teachers plan instructionstudents and teachers plan instruction based on student’ zone of proximalbased on student’ zone of proximal development.development.
  13. 13. The reader response learningThe reader response learning theoriestheories  extend the constructivist theories aboutextend the constructivist theories about schemata, and making meaning in theschemata, and making meaning in the brain, not eyes. Students negotiate orbrain, not eyes. Students negotiate or create a meaning that makes sense basedcreate a meaning that makes sense based on the words they are reading and theiron the words they are reading and their own background knowledge. Readerown background knowledge. Reader response theorists agree with Piaget thatresponse theorists agree with Piaget that readers are active and responsible forreaders are active and responsible for their learning.their learning.
  14. 14. StrategiesStrategies Few examples:Few examples: a.a. Identifying Children’s Linguistic Repertoires (readingIdentifying Children’s Linguistic Repertoires (reading conventions and concepts)conventions and concepts)  Directional concepts, geometrical shape language,Directional concepts, geometrical shape language, class rules participation rules, picture and printclass rules participation rules, picture and print knowledge, big books and oral story reading, languageknowledge, big books and oral story reading, language charts, letter recognition knowledge, phonemiccharts, letter recognition knowledge, phonemic Awareness knowledge (syllable breaks such asAwareness knowledge (syllable breaks such as kit-ten,kit-ten, pen-cil, neig-bour-hood, 3 taps, at in cat etc).pen-cil, neig-bour-hood, 3 taps, at in cat etc).
  15. 15. StrategiesStrategies  Language storiesLanguage stories  Shared book experiencesShared book experiences  Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DL-TA)Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DL-TA)  PreReading Plan (PreReading Plan ( PREPPREP) (a strategy for developing the specific) (a strategy for developing the specific comprehension skill of activating and applying backgroundcomprehension skill of activating and applying background knowledgeknowledge  QARQAR ( Question-Answer Relationship) Strategy( Question-Answer Relationship) Strategy  ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) strategy to develop children’sReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) strategy to develop children’s active reading comprehension purposes, integrate and synthesizeactive reading comprehension purposes, integrate and synthesize information designed by Manzo (1969)information designed by Manzo (1969)  Reciprocal TeachingReciprocal Teaching ( a strategy for teaching comprehension self-( a strategy for teaching comprehension self- monitoring skills, based on modeling (pridicting, questionmonitoring skills, based on modeling (pridicting, question generation, clarifying and summarizinggeneration, clarifying and summarizing
  16. 16. StrategiesStrategies  GMA (Group Mapping Activity)-GMA (Group Mapping Activity)- based on visual representation,based on visual representation, through integration and synthesis of story ideas and concepts.through integration and synthesis of story ideas and concepts.  Directed Reading Activity (DRA)Directed Reading Activity (DRA) primary reading programme toprimary reading programme to remove comprehension barriers by preparing children to read, toremove comprehension barriers by preparing children to read, to develop word recognition, comprehension skills, guided readingdevelop word recognition, comprehension skills, guided reading through selected text in elementary school years. It relies onthrough selected text in elementary school years. It relies on teachers’ basal guide. Eg: shared reading, one-to-one tutorialteachers’ basal guide. Eg: shared reading, one-to-one tutorial (reading recovery) paired reading, guided reading, phonic reading(reading recovery) paired reading, guided reading, phonic reading etc.etc.  Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) – for higher level– for higher level thinking children’s story text. Children exchange ideas about thethinking children’s story text. Children exchange ideas about the stories from the text.stories from the text.
  17. 17. Teaching ReadingTeaching Reading vocabulary instruction in contentvocabulary instruction in content Step 1:Step 1: Identify the new vocabularyIdentify the new vocabulary Step 2:Step 2: establish meaningful storyestablish meaningful story Step 3:Step 3: Introducing new wordsIntroducing new words Step 4:Step 4: evaluating vocabulary knowledgeevaluating vocabulary knowledge
  18. 18. How to do it? ExampleHow to do it? Example  Preview the story or material to be read, and select fourPreview the story or material to be read, and select four or five words to be taughtor five words to be taught  Write the words in text sentences on the chalkboard orWrite the words in text sentences on the chalkboard or chart (list the words on the board with locationalchart (list the words on the board with locational information)information)  Read the sentences aloud, and ask students toRead the sentences aloud, and ask students to speculate on the word meanings.speculate on the word meanings.  Record the children’s ideas on the boardRecord the children’s ideas on the board  Arrive at an-agreed upon class definition of each wordArrive at an-agreed upon class definition of each word (check a dictionary/glossary if necessary).(check a dictionary/glossary if necessary).
  19. 19. Eg. Story reading and SharingEg. Story reading and Sharing  Select and examine the books in advance. How will you present it?Select and examine the books in advance. How will you present it? What stops point will you use?What stops point will you use?  Practice using the expression when you read so that your voice fitsPractice using the expression when you read so that your voice fits the dialogue and characters.the dialogue and characters.  Use pacing to emphasize suspenseful parts and build the mentalUse pacing to emphasize suspenseful parts and build the mental interest as the story progressesinterest as the story progresses  Slow down your reading presentation. Think of the mental imagesSlow down your reading presentation. Think of the mental images you are creating in the minds of the children through the language ofyou are creating in the minds of the children through the language of the story.the story.  Be sure that all children are seated comfortably and can see theBe sure that all children are seated comfortably and can see the storybook pictures that you are sharing.storybook pictures that you are sharing.  Use a storytelling aids to heighten interest. Eg. A small toy, puppetsUse a storytelling aids to heighten interest. Eg. A small toy, puppets or anything related to the story.or anything related to the story.  Help children to understand the book. Introduce the writers,Help children to understand the book. Introduce the writers, illustrators or publishers.illustrators or publishers.  Use questioning strategies to encourage children to interact with theUse questioning strategies to encourage children to interact with the story content or following the story.story content or following the story.  Create an atmosphere of informality and enjoyment for childrenCreate an atmosphere of informality and enjoyment for children during book sharing time.during book sharing time.
  20. 20. Few examples reading activitiesFew examples reading activities  Mind- mappingMind- mapping  Picture governed story attempts (plot or story sequence)Picture governed story attempts (plot or story sequence)  Identifying wordsIdentifying words  Story mapStory map  JournalsJournals  Spelling & dictationSpelling & dictation  Concept webConcept web  Semantic mapsSemantic maps  Semantic feature analysis eg. Pets, feelings, house, weather, colour etcSemantic feature analysis eg. Pets, feelings, house, weather, colour etc  Cut and pasteCut and paste  Synopsis of the material/textSynopsis of the material/text  Role play/simulation/discussionRole play/simulation/discussion  Developing simple words, phrases and simple sentencesDeveloping simple words, phrases and simple sentences  diariesdiaries  etcetc
  21. 21. ConclusionConclusion  EvaluationEvaluation  Group work presentationGroup work presentation  Individual presentationIndividual presentation  Get the students to present their work toGet the students to present their work to build up their confidence.build up their confidence.

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