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A Alegoria Da Caverna 2008 09

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A Alegoria Da Caverna 2008 09

  1. 1. I Módulo Inicial Iniciação à Actividade Filosófica
  2. 2. SUMÁRIO Análise do texto “Alegoria da Caverna”, de Platão: - caracterização da Filosofia; - valor e utilidade da Filosofia. I Módulo Inicial Iniciação à Actividade Filosófica
  3. 3. “ Alegoria da Caverna” Manual página 22 Alegoria é uma representação figurativa de uma proeza, de uma virtude, de uma ideia ou ser abstracto, apresentada como ficção, com o objectivo de tornar mais acessível a mensagem.
  4. 4. Guião de leitura • Quem representam os homens da caverna? • O que representa o mundo da caverna? • O que vêem os prisioneiros? • O que representa a luz do Sol? • Quem representa o prisioneiro que consegue libertar-se? • Ao regressar à caverna como é recebido pelos outros prisioneiros?
  5. 5. Proposta de análise Numa alegoria, temos de inventariar as imagens , depois os conceito s que elas veiculam, relacionando ambos. Manual, página 22
  6. 6. Proposta de análise <ul><li>1. Descrição da situação </li></ul><ul><li> IMAGENS CONCEITOS </li></ul> A caverna O mundo sensível Os prisioneiros Condição humana Trevas Ignorância Confusão sombras/objectos Indistinção aparência/realidade
  7. 7. Proposta de análise <ul><li>2. Problematização da situação </li></ul><ul><li> IMAGENS CONCEITOS </li></ul>Dificuldade de olhar a luz e os objectos Força dos hábitos adquiridos Dificuldade do despertar e resistência dos prisioneiros Perturbação dos prisioneiros ao descobrir o mundo exterior Etapas da ascensão até ao mundo exterior Espanto filosófico Poder do conformismo Progressiva eliminação dos preconceitos
  8. 8. Proposta de análise <ul><li>3. Resolução dos problemas sugeridos pela situação </li></ul><ul><li> IMAGENS CONCEITOS </li></ul>Contemplação da luz do Sol Conhecimento da verdade Comparação mundo exterior/ vida na caverna O regresso do filósofo à caverna Compreensão da situação na caverna Amor/dever do filósofo Trabalho de análise Tomada de consciência/ mutação do modo de ser Perigosidade de falar a verdade Risco do filósofo
  9. 9. Proposta de análise <ul><li>a. Tema </li></ul><ul><li> Natureza, existência e condição humanas </li></ul>
  10. 10. Proposta de análise <ul><li> Vivendo os seres humanos aprisionados à sua própria ignorância (trevas da caverna), pergunta-se: </li></ul>1. Como libertar-se das trevas e aceder ao conhecimento (a luz do Sol)? 2. Como mudar se não temos consciência da ignorância? b. Problema
  11. 11. Proposta de análise <ul><li>Esta alegoria caracteriza o imobilismo da existência dos humanos; vivemos mergulhados na ilusão e na inconsciência; acorrentados à nossa ignorância. Mas podemos libertar-nos e alcançar o conhecimento se fizermos o esforço necessário. </li></ul>>>> C. Tese do autor
  12. 12. Proposta de análise Tese do autor Esta alegoria caracteriza o imobilismo da existência dos humanos; vivemos mergulhados na ilusão e na inconsciência; acorrentados à nossa ignorância. Mas podemos libertar-nos e alcançar o conhecimento Com efeito, segundo Platão: 1. os humanos (os prisioneiros) vivem num estado de inconsciência causada pela ignorância 2. só uma minoria consegue libertar-se 3. libertar-se é aceder à Sabedoria através da Filosofia
  13. 13. Proposta de análise d. Argumentos ▪ vivemos acorrentados na escuridão, não temos a experiência de outros modos de ver a nossa existência; ▪ não temos consciência da nossa ignorância e por comodismo e medo não queremos mudar; ▪ no entanto, a mudança é possível e vale a pena sair da caverna; ▪ essa mudança exige esforço, aprendizagem contínua e gradual; ▪ aquele que sai e se libertou, compreendeu; ▪ ao compreender alegrou-se, lamentou a situação dos prisioneiros e decide tentar libertá-los.
  14. 14. Conclusão Na Alegoria a Filosofia corresponde a uma actividade difícil que exige disciplina intelectual , esforço crítico e autocrítico . CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA ACTIVIDADE FILOSÓFICA • Lança a dúvida sobre o que nos habituamos a considerar verdadeiro sem razões para tal • Exige que avaliemos os nossos preconceitos , as nossas crenças mais básicas • É crítica, pressupõe uma análise cuidadosa e imparcial de todas as ideias para determinar as razões da sua verdade ou falsidade.
  15. 15. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA ACTIVIDADE FILOSÓFICA (cont.) • A crítica filosófica exerce-se mediante o pensamento argumentativo • Pressupõe uma tomada de posição devidamente fundamentada, o que corresponde ao uso de um pensamento livre e autónomo • Opõe-se ao dogmatismo APESAR DE DÍFICIL, ESTA AVENTURA VALE A PENA…
  16. 16. Conclusão <ul><li>O valor ou utilidade da Filosofia </li></ul><ul><li>Uma vez que somos como os prisioneiros, a Filosofia poderá ajudar-nos a fazer a viagem do fundo da caverna em direcção à luz : </li></ul>Aprender a ver a realidade sob nova perspectiva Libertar-nos do pseudo-saber Pensar por nós próprios Procurar orientação para a existência Alcançar autonomia e liberdade através do saber
  17. 17. O valor ou utilidade da filosofia (cont.) <ul><li>A filosofia desenvolve uma capacidade para argumentar e debater problemas filosóficos e não filosóficos. </li></ul><ul><li>Esta capacidade é importante por duas razões: </li></ul><ul><li>Pode fazer de nós cidadãos mais informados e participativos na vida pública. </li></ul><ul><li>Quem souber argumentar bem tem maiores probabilidades de tomar melhores decisões , as quais podem afectar decisivamente a nossa vida. </li></ul>

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