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Gorry Seminar Ott

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“Technology transfert in France : an overview, Dr. B. Stanton, OTT-NIH, Bethesda, February 28, 2006.

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Gorry Seminar Ott

  1. 3. Plan <ul><li>French research in the EEC </li></ul><ul><li>French research organization </li></ul><ul><li>Allegre Law </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Pitfalls for US R&D contractors </li></ul>
  2. 4. Innovation & Research in the EEC Number of patents granted by the United States Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO) per million inhabitants , Structural Indicators database. EU25 20 20 80 110 140 170 200 230 260 290 320 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Japan United States EU15
  3. 5. The objectives of Lisbon Strategy Objectives : Teaching and Researching are the heart of the strategy defined at Lisbon Meeting in March 2000, for a transition toward a Knowledge-based Economy in 2010 <ul><li>Creation of: </li></ul><ul><li>- knowledge-based society </li></ul><ul><li>European research area </li></ul><ul><li>favourable environment for innovation in SMEs </li></ul>
  4. 6. France and R&D : a fact sheet <ul><li>France : 60 M inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>GDP per capita in purchasing power standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= 105 % of the EU average in 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R&D expenditures : 1,4-2,2 % of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>R&D funding : 2,25 % of GDP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 % from government and NGO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,25 % from companies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2 types of institutions directly involved in research operations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National research organizations (CNRS, INSERM, …) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions of higher education (University, « Grandes Ecoles ») </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Defense research, nuclear, space & aeronautics, basic and technological research </li></ul>
  5. 7. BUSINESS EXPENDITURE ON R&D
  6. 8. Ministre délégué de la recherche <ul><li>Ministere de l’Education nationale, de l’enseignement superieur et de la recherche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>youth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>New Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>THE ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>To create a legal environment </li></ul><ul><li>To adopt new rules when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>To assist the researchers </li></ul><ul><li>To explain and explain again </li></ul>
  7. 9. Organisation of the Research in France <ul><li>Public Research (fundamental) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large public organisations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CNRS, INRA, INSERM, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities and “Grandes Ecoles” (engineering & commercial schools, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private Research (applied) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large companies: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EADS, TotalFinaElf, Michelin, Thales, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMEs less active </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Public researchers in France <ul><li>Civil servants during all their professional life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No risk of loss of employment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuity in research themes… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… But lack of reactivity! (few project funding) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Public research & links to industry <ul><li>Large enterprises part of a Global Market : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research needs are international… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… with short term financial objectives! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Links not very popular among public researchers …) </li></ul><ul><li>Long term research to be done by public organisations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakly linked to needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient transfer toward SMEs </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Located in the Aquitaine Region, in the South West of France. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific, cultural and professional public establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Medical schools, Faculty of Biology, Human Science dispilines </li></ul><ul><li>3 geographical sites </li></ul><ul><li>Number of students 16.000 (<10% foreigners) </li></ul><ul><li>Research budget 18 M€ </li></ul><ul><li>Number of employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1300 reseachers & professors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600 technical & administrative staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>57 laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CNRS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INSERM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University Hospital </li></ul></ul>University Victor Ségalen -Bordeaux2
  11. 13. What is C.U.R.I.E? <ul><li>Association based on the 1901 Law, was launched in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>On 2004, 1st September, the network counted more than 90 members, among them are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70 universities and 15 French Engineering Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 national research agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 consulting firms, private companies and diverse structures of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To organise exchanges allowing to share various experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To increase the level of skills of the members through training sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To boost the cooperations between public research and the private sector </li></ul></ul>the French « AUTM »
  12. 14. From a centralized control of innovation to new public/private partnerships <ul><li>1936 Centre national de la recherche scientifique </li></ul><ul><li>1945 Commissariat general au Plan </li></ul><ul><li>1953 Association nationale de la recherche technique (ANRT) </li></ul><ul><li>1967 Agence nationale de valorisation de la recherche (Anvar) </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Innovation Act (Allegre Law) </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Adoption of an Intellectual Property Charter </li></ul><ul><li>2003 The plan in favour of innovation </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Budget 2002 573 M€ </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel 63% </li></ul><ul><li>- scientits 7500 </li></ul><ul><li>- technical & adm. staff 3500 </li></ul><ul><li>Research units 360 </li></ul><ul><li>Spin off 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Patent portefolio 468 </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical trials 110 </li></ul>INSERM (National Institute for health & medical research) Lille Amiens Reims Metz Heidelberg Strasbourg Nancy Rouen Caen Brest Paris Rennes Angers Nantes Poitiers Tours Orléans Dijon Besançon Lyon Clermont Ferrand Limoges Bordeaux St- Etienne Grenoble Toulouse Montpellier Monaco Nice Marseille Perpignan Bastia Ajaccio CORSE
  14. 16. From a centralized control of innovation to new public/private partnerships <ul><li>1936 Centre national de la recherche scientifique </li></ul><ul><li>1945 Commissariat general au Plan </li></ul><ul><li>1953 Association nationale de la recherche technique (ANRT) </li></ul><ul><li>1967 Agence nationale de valorisation de la recherche (Anvar) </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Innovation Act (Allegre Law) </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Adoption of an Intellectual Property Charter </li></ul><ul><li>2003 The plan in favour of innovation </li></ul>
  15. 17. Association nationale de la recherche technique (ANRT) A think tank supported by the French government <ul><li>Created in 1953 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Research Organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major French colleges of engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives of the Ministries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological research fellowships (CIFRE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to European research programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National and international innovation benchmarking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion and exchange informal forum </li></ul>
  16. 18. From a centralized control of innovation to new public/private partnerships <ul><li>1936 Centre national de la recherche scientifique </li></ul><ul><li>1945 Commissariat general au Plan </li></ul><ul><li>1953 Association nationale de la recherche technique (ANRT) </li></ul><ul><li>1967 Agence nationale de valorisation de la recherche (Anvar) </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Innovation Act (Allegre Law) </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Adoption of an Intellectual Property Charter </li></ul><ul><li>2003 The plan in favour of innovation </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>ANVAR </li></ul><ul><li>Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support to innovation in SMEs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by advances, loans or guaranteed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the most decisive phases of their cycle of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(creation, innovation, development, business transfer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group OSEO is carried by a structure of head (holding) to the statute of national publicly-owned establishment, equipped with the legal entity and financial autonomy . </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. From a centralized control of innovation to new public/private partnerships <ul><li>1936 Centre national de la recherche scientifique </li></ul><ul><li>1945 Commissariat general au Plan </li></ul><ul><li>1953 Association nationale de la recherche technique (ANRT) </li></ul><ul><li>1967 Agence nationale de valorisation de la recherche (Anvar) </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Innovation Act (Allegre Law) </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Adoption of an Intellectual Property Charter </li></ul><ul><li>2003 The plan in favour of innovation </li></ul>
  19. 21. Allègre’s Act : Law for Innovation &Research
  20. 22. Allègre’s Act: (12/07/99) Law for Innovation & Research <ul><li>Researchers mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal & legal framework for innovative companies </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation between public research and private sector </li></ul>
  21. 23. Allègre’s Act (cont’d) 1- Researchers mobility <ul><ul><li>creating (Art. 25.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consulting (Art. 25.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>managing (Art.25.3) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Allègre’s Act (cont’d) 2-Fiscal incentives <ul><li>Research Tax Credit for companies “ Crédit d’Impôt Recherche ” </li></ul><ul><li>Guarantee framework for investment in innovative companies by public research organisations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First round table as venture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Investment Funds for Innovation </li></ul>
  23. 25. Allègre’s Act: (12/07/99) 3- Cooperation between public research and private sector <ul><ul><li>SAICs (Service d’Activités Industriels & Commerciales) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubators </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Allègre’s Act (cont’d) 3-Public Incubators another « exception française » ? <ul><li>Their common rationale is to exploit the potential results emanating from public institutions pursuing scientific & technical research by means of founding new innovative businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Total numbers, as of 31/12/03 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>31 incubators (5 in Paris) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>964 projects, leading to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>519 creations of companies </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. From a centralized control of innovation to new public/private partnerships <ul><li>1936 Centre national de la recherche scientifique </li></ul><ul><li>1945 Commissariat general au Plan </li></ul><ul><li>1953 Association nationale de la recherche technique (ANRT) </li></ul><ul><li>1967 Agence nationale de valorisation de la recherche (Anvar) </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Innovation Act (Allegre Law) </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Adoption of an Intellectual Property Charter </li></ul><ul><li>2003 The plan in favour of innovation </li></ul>
  26. 28. Recommandations for an IP charte <ul><li>Protecting the results is of paramount importance </li></ul><ul><li>Specific IP policy </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership / co-ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Cautions & recommendations in case of a partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation of IP services </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>LEGAL ISSUES / RIGHT TO TITLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art. L. 611-6 CPI : « The right to the industrial property title referred to…shall belong to the inventor or his successor in right » </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art. L. 611-7 CPI : Employee’s inventions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* mission inventions </li></ul><ul><li>* not mission inventions, but… </li></ul><ul><li>* other cases </li></ul>Recommandations for an IP charte
  28. 30. <ul><li>LEGAL ISSUES / FINANCIAL MEASURES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art. L. 611-7 : private sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art. L. 611-7.5 : public sector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* October 1996 Decrees : 25% </li></ul><ul><li>* February 2001 Decrees : 50% up to 65 000 € / year, and then 25% </li></ul>Recommandations for an IP charte
  29. 31. From a centralized control of innovation to new public/private partnerships <ul><li>1936 Centre national de la recherche scientifique </li></ul><ul><li>1945 Commissariat general au Plan </li></ul><ul><li>1953 Association nationale de la recherche technique (ANRT) </li></ul><ul><li>1967 Agence nationale de valorisation de la recherche (Anvar) </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Innovation Act (Allegre Law) </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Adoption of an Intellectual Property Charter </li></ul><ul><li>2003 The plan in favour of innovation </li></ul>
  30. 32. Plan for innovation <ul><li>Joint presentation of a draft by the ministers in charge of Industry and Research </li></ul><ul><li>Financial incentive for increasing the number of filings of patent applications </li></ul><ul><li>National campaign for sensitizing the researchers in the field of patents </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>1- Increased budget </li></ul><ul><li>Yearly increase in R&D funding: € 1 B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ € 3 B over 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project for New Agency in 2005: ANR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agence Nationale pour la Recherche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First year budget of € 350 M for research projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2- New priorities </li></ul><ul><li>New Foundations supporting R&D: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected: private funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Healthcare, aerospace (EADS Foundation), etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3- National territory organisation </li></ul><ul><li>New poles of competitiveness ( pôles de compétitivité ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federations of research centres, universities, companies, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>€ 750 M over coming 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ RENATER ”: French research and teaching network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of Trans-European research network </li></ul></ul>Project for fiscal year 2005
  32. 34. INSERM’s TLO statistics <ul><li>95 inventions disclosed in 2004 to INSERM’S TLO approximately 50% file </li></ul><ul><li>92 patent applications filed in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>by INSERM and other co-owner </li></ul><ul><li>587 patents families </li></ul><ul><li>481 licenses and option </li></ul><ul><li>479 cooperative research </li></ul><ul><li>53 new companies since 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>9 companies financed </li></ul><ul><li>by Inserm-Transfert </li></ul>+ 60% patents since 1999
  33. 35. University Tech Transfert Office Year 2005 MTA 17 CRADAs 78 Income 4M€ Spin-off 2 Patent filling 17 Licensing 16
  34. 36. Conclusion <ul><li>A wishful policy </li></ul><ul><li>The legal problem(s) </li></ul><ul><li>The cultural issue </li></ul>
  35. 38. Pitfalls for US R&D contractors <ul><li>Researcher level </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory level </li></ul><ul><li>Institution level </li></ul><ul><li>Regional level </li></ul><ul><li>Political level </li></ul>

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