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Mega Event Transport 2013


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Mega Event Transport 2013

  1. 1. Mega-event transport planning legacy and sustainability - I Philippe BovyHonorary Professor / Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne / Switzerland IOC Transport Expert MSA Mastering Sports – February 2013 – Mastering Sports February 2013 MSA 1
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  3. 3. Olympic Games...Since 1896, every four years (almost), the SummerOlympic Games unite the world through sports andfair competitionAthletes of 204 nations compete in a free-access multi-mediaenvironmentEvery two years (Summer+ Winter) ONE Olympic City hosts thesport world with tremendous media coverageFrom Games to Games, the Olympic program is slightlyadapted …….but cultural, historical, political, institutional,infrastructural, economical Host City specificities generateoutstanding different GamesNo two Games are the same! MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 3
  4. 4. A 116 year (1896-2012) case studyAfter IOC two-stage bidding process and selection, the winning Host City has “only” seven years to:• built, extend or renovate all supporting sport, transport, accommodation, media and other urban basic infrastructures• train and activate considerable human resources involved in Games support, from volunteers to event managers• build and test all Olympic venues one to half year prior to Games opening• deliver the Olympic and Paralympic Games• conduct the Olympic Games debriefing to transfer knowledge to future Games organizers and potential bidders MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 4
  5. 5. Agenda1.  What are mega-events?2.  Mega-event structural organization3.  Key Olympic numbers and evolution4.  Transport and traffic management main challenges5.  Olympic transport major progresses since 2000 – Sydney – Athens – Beijing – London – Rio de Janeiro6.  Olympic transfer of knowledge7.  Host City and Games vision, legacy and sustainability MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 5
  6. 6. 1. What are mega-events ?No universal definition of mega-eventsIn this presentation mega-event imply “very substantial”temporary and durable changes in City transport and logisticsA 80 000 football match at Wembley/London or Maracana/Rio,both 8 million population Cities, “are not mega-events” in thissense. For Stadium and City transport operations this a “routine”weekly-monthly event!The Olympics or the FIFA World Cup “are mega-events” implying“extraordinary” transport infrastructure build-up andextensive City traffic management to be deployed for thesespecific mega-events MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 6
  7. 7. 1980 – 2020 induced behavioural changesfrom 95% by car to 95% by public transport! MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 7
  8. 8. Mega-event characteristics•  TEMPORARY events in different locations lasting from 2-3 days to a maximum of 5 months for a World Expo like Shanghai 2010•  Very strong pressures on CITY LOGISTICS such as transport, airports, accommodation, medical, security and police, power, utilities, global hospitality, City image and communication, etc…•  Subject to intense WORLD MEDIA COVERAGE•  Mega - event Cities become WORLD CITIES (Barcelona 1992)•  Opening and Closing Ceremonies are WORLD EVENTS which cannot be postponed by 5 seconds! MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 8
  9. 9. Other world and major mega-eventsOther very large sport mega-events :FIFA-Football World Cup, UEFA-EURO Cup, CommonwealthGames, Pan American Games, South American Games, AsianGames, All-Africa Games, Youth Olympic Games, MediterraneanGames, Universiades, Continental Football CupsOther multi or mono-sport mega- events can trigger Citypositive development impacts if a vision of sustainabledevelopment and legacy is integrated in mega-eventplanning from the beginning MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 9
  10. 10. 2. Mega-event organization•  The mega-event owner (1)•  The mega-event organizer (3)•  The mega-event product (4) : Olympic Games, EURO football, World cups, etc•  The product is the outcome of a complex organization designed to optimize expectations and minimize risks•  Among organizational domains, only 18 main logistical domains (IOC has 34 functions) are shown on a simplified presentation graph: competition venues, transport, accommodation, security, media+technology, marketing, communication, etc…. MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 10
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  12. 12. Mega-event organizational structureThe preceding graph is a much simplified illustration ofmega-event global organization18 generic domains (34 functions in the case of the Olympics)are shown in three general categories: •  Mega-event governance (6) •  Public sector involvement (7) • Mega-event support functions (5) MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 12
  13. 13. Mega-event global governanceSix key generic elements:•  Mega-event OWNER (1)•  BIDDING PROCESS (2) to select a mega-event organizer•  Mega-event ORGANIZER (3)•  Mega-event SPORT PRODUCT (4)•  Monitoring or COORDINATION COMMISSION (5) controlled by the OWNER to supervise and assist the ORGANIZER•  TRANSFER-OF-KNOWLEDGE (18) by the mega-event OWNER MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 13
  14. 14. Public sector involvementOrganizing major mega- event requires strong andreliable public sector support and partnerships:• GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT (6): often massive infrastructurerenovation and construction of new facilities, Games deficitguarantee, labor regulations, visas•  VENUE SPORT INFRASTRUCTURE (12+13) developments•  Non Competition venues: Olympic Village, IBC/MPC, Media Village•  AIRPORT (8) and City TRANSPORT (7) extensions and upgrades•  SECURITY (9)/ Health / Medical•  ENVIRONMENT and SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT(16) MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 14
  15. 15. Mega-event support functionsMany functions– only to mention the closest to TRANSPORT:•  ACCOMMODATION for Olympic Family•  ACCOMMODATION for general public, spectators, visitors•  MEDIA Right holding broadcasters, Press, Photographers, new media and mega-event TECHNOLOGY•  Mega-event MARKETING / ticketing•  Mega-event FINANCES (OCOG and non-OCOG budgets)) MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 15
  16. 16. 3. Key Olympic numbersSummer Olympic Games = largest World megamulti-sport event = biggest transport challengeVery high traffic demands reaching 1,25 to 3.0 millionjourneys per day to be added to Host City backgroundordinary traffic4 to 8 million ticketed spectators up to 500’000 per day +unknown number of NTV “non-ticketed visitors” in Host Cityduring 16 daysUp to 200 000 logistic and service workforce, staff andvolunteers to be transported every day (multiply by 2.5 tohave trips or “journeys”) MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 16
  17. 17. Summer Olympic Games numbers28 sport competition programs (26 in London +2 Rio)running simultaneously with their own schedules across34 competition venues•  >600 competition sessions during 16 days•  10’500 athletes, 5’800 team and 3’000 technical officials from 204 countries•  5’000 Olympic officials and VIP•  21’000 accredited media (TV and radio broadcasting, written press, photographers and new medias)•  >30’000 sponsor guests•  200’000 workforce including more than 70’000 volunteers MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 17
  18. 18. Athens 1896 to Rio 2016 Olympic Summer Games key numbers 1.Nb 2.Nb 3.Nb 4.% 5.Nb 6.Nb 7.Nb 8.Nb 9.Total NOC. Events Comp. Female Medias Volunt Tickets TV.vw TV rights1896 Athens 14 43 240 01924 Paris 44 126 3100 41936 Berlin 49 129 4000 81960 Rome 83 150 5300 121972 Munich 121 195 7100 151984 LOS ANGELES 140 221 6800 23 9200 28000 5.7 2.5 2851988 Seoul 159 237 8500 26 11300 27000 3.3 --- 4001992 BARCELONA 169 257 9400 29 13100 34000 3.0 --- 8351996 Atlanta 197 271 10400 34 15100 47000 8.3 --- 9002000 SYDNEY 200 300 10600 38 16000 47000 6.7 3.7 13302004 Athens 202 301 10600 42 21500 45000 3.8 3.9 14952008 BEIJING 204 302 10950 43 24600 70000 6.5 4.5 17302012 London(10.) 204 302 10500 44? 21000 70000 7.9 4.5 --?—2016 RIO (Est.11,) 204 312? 10500 44? 21000 50000 8,0 4.5 --?---1984/2012 growth (%)* 45 35 55 90 130 150 40 80 --?--Legend 1. Number of NOC – nations /2. Number of competition events /3. Number of athletes (±50)4. Percentage of female athletes (%) /5. Number of accredited medias, press and broadcasters (±100)6. Number of volunteers (±1000) /7. Number of spectator tickets sold (±0,1million)8. Number of world TV viewers (±0,1billion) /9. Total TV rights (±5 mio US$) / 10. To be checked/11.Tentative estimates* 1984 to 2012, 8 Games or 28 year growth in percent (±5% or less) By / Feb 2013
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  20. 20. 4. Outstanding transport challengesFIVE main transport challenges:1.  Development and upgrade of Host City transport systems to handle mega-event extraordinary traffic loads2.  Managing traffic of three superimposed main client groups3.  Providing high security seamless operations both for Olympic traffic and general public traffic4.  Maintaining close to normal metropolitan transport and traffic conditions at Games time5.  Promoting environmental quality and more sustainable mobility legacy MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 20
  21. 21. Main client groups priorities1.  Athletes Highest security, punctuality and comfort2.  Media/Press 24 hours per day service--medias of >200 countries3.  Olympic Family Mostly on-demand transport /high security—travel reliability4.  Sponsors Chartered bus systems5.  Spectators Mass public transport with workforce and volunteers – Crowd management6.  General public Transport almost as usual MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 21
  22. 22. Paralympic mobility enhancementParalympic Games (athletes with disabilities)•  Take place 2 weeks after the Olympics, mostly in the same competition and training venues•  Barrier free competition venues, fields of play and Paralympic Village•  General upgrade of Host City facilities for people with reduced mobility in particular rail and new road public transport system and stations, City sidewalks and urban public spaces•  Important demonstration effect with strong legacy MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 22
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  24. 24. Superimposed transport systemsGames transport is the superposition of 3 systems:ONE “PERMANENT” upgraded Host City transport systemhandling all City background trafficTWO “TEMPORARY” mega-event transport and trafficoperations composed of: •  dedicated transport system with priorities for Olympic Family and all accredited traffic •  massively re-enforced public transport system to cope with extraordinary added travel demands of mega-event spectators and workforce, non-ticketed visitors MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 24
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  26. 26. 17 consecutive daily transport plans•  Complexity of Summer Games is like having 28 almost simultaneous WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS with different competition schedules over 17 days•  OG are 17 consecutive different transport plans with multiple AM, early PM and late PM competition sessions•  Winter Olympics have only 7 sports // Summer Games have 4-5 times more events in the same 17 day period•  Event postponements due to weather or other emergencies call for considerable transport management flexibility (particularly sensitive during Winter Games) MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 26
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  28. 28. Transport budgetsOlympic Summer Games OCOG operating transportbudget: •  125 to 200 million US$ transport operations or about 5% of total Games operating budgetGeneral NON-OCOG transport budget (outsideOrganizers operations): •  2 to 20 billion US$ metropolitan transport accelerated infrastructure developments, justified for long term transport build-up •  Games are catalysts for transport infrastructure developments and rehabilitation and for centralized traffic management MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 28
  29. 29. 5. Transport progresses since SydneyAfter Atlanta 1996 transport logistical difficulties, Sydney 2000marked a new era for Olympic transport: • Sydney 2000 innovative policy of 100% spectator by public transport, free public transport for ticketed and accredited • Athens 2004 Olympic lane invention for reliable OG travel • Beijing 2008 40 % general traffic reduction during 60 days • London 2012 superb convivial fully integrated public transport and flexible mobility management • Rio 2016 to massively improve public transport in RIO MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 29
  30. 30. Sydney 2000 MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 30
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  32. 32. Sydney advanced transport policies100% spectators, workforce and volunteers travel on re-enforced public transport“Zero” parking within 1km of Olympic venues24 hour free public transport for ticketed spectators + all Olympicofficials, staff, workforce, volunteersSydney Olympic Park = access 77 % by rail, 15% by express bus,3% by walking/biking and only 5% by carSydney Games were the most pre-tested Games to avoid Atlanta’sproblems // outstanding “down-under” conviviality // “without car”mega-event new travel behaviour MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 32
  33. 33. Sydney special characteristicsMost famous Agricultural Fair of Australia moved fromSydney downtown to a new Olympic Park -- HomebushBay-- a reclamation site 20km West of downtownNew Olympic Park served by rehabilitated high capacity railand new Olympic Park stationStrongly re-enforced domestic and international Airportterminals with airport rail link to Sydney downtownOther than the OP rail loop very little transportinfrastructure developments for the Sydney 2000 Games MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 33
  34. 34. Athens 2004…Marathon arrival in this Stadium on August 29th2004, 108 years+ after the first modern Olympics MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 34
  35. 35. Athens transport developmentsAn often delayed, 25 year Athens regional Transport Planimplemented in 5-6 years : •  Urban motorway system completion (+40 km) •  Metropolitan arterial upgrade (about 80 km) •  Full modernization of 30 km of metro line N°1 and extensions of metro lines N° 2+3 •  New suburban rail network connected to new Athens International airport and national rail •  New 23 km light rail /Athens centre to Sea Coast MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 35
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  37. 37. Olympic lane: a“greek” inventionAthens 2004, first Olympic Games ever to have an Olympictraffic dedicated lane network: •  160km network of Olympic priority lanes for all Olympic accredited vehicles + express bus lines •  Average Games bus speeds increased from an usual 12 - 20 km/h to a reliable average of 50-55 km/h….. at everybody surprise !...mostly the very critical foreign media! •  Road congestion--one of the biggest worry in Athens-- was replaced by the “fastest Games travel journeys” MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 37
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  39. 39. Beijing 2008 MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 39
  40. 40. Beijing fast growth challengesChina and particularly Beijing huge economic growth at double digitrates—many consecutive years above 10%One of the world fastest motorization growth rate, about half millionnew cars in Beijing Capital every year since OG bid success in 2001Almost full “disappearance” of bicycles due to better publictransport and new car motorization but also large previous bicyclepath eliminationAir pollution considerable growth due to fast motorized vehiclegrowth, poor vehicle and truck environmental standards and hugeamount of construction and generated dust MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 40
  41. 41. Beijing 2008 major transport developments Beijing 2008 invested > 20 billion US$ to cleanup the metropolitan environment + major vehicle fleet environmental upgrade (efforts without sufficient results) Tripling Beijing Capital airport capacity with new terminal 3 (largest in the world--1 million sqm) Tripling public transport system capacity in seven years of Games preparation, mostly the subway + Airport rail link Considerable motorway and expressway extensions, Fifth Ring (108km) and part of Sixth ring (208km) and new expressways to airport + around Olympic Green MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 41
  42. 42. Beijing chaotic traffic conditions 1 year before the 2008 Olympic Games MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 42
  43. 43. Beijing metro expansion from 3 lines in 2001 to 8 lines for the Olympics MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 43
  44. 44. Beijing: largest“Olympic-lane”systemAdapting Athens experience, Beijing implemented the largestOlympic lane (O-lane) system ever on all Olympic inter-venueconnections + Centre City + Airport •  More than 85% of the 300km Olympic-lane system was located in the median of more than 6-10 lane urban boulevards and motorways •  O-lanes marked with specific Olympic logo •  O-lane operations 10km test one-year prior to Games •  O-lanes very well operated, enforced and respected MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 44
  45. 45. Beijing 2008 competition venues all interconnected to a 300 km network of dedicated Olympic lanes MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 45
  46. 46. Beijing manually enforced Olympic priority lanes – Here on Tian’anmen Square MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 46
  47. 47. Beijing centrally controlled motorway median Olympic priority lanes MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 47
  48. 48. Beijing 2008 very fast traffic growth and massive Games car traffic reduction•  Beijing had witnessed growth of 1000 cars per day during 7 years // tremendous congestion in 2007•  Very severe August air pollution (hot and very humid month) cumulated with construction dust and vehicular traffic growth•  4 day test in August 2007 of 40% car traffic reduction•  Olympic-lane system ineffective without massive vehicular traffic reduction (impossibility to reach median lanes in large motorways)•  For the 2008 Games, reduction of 35-40% of all registered motor vehicles allowed every day / odd-even license plates during 60 days•  1,8 million cars “out of use” every day from 3.5 million total MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 48
  49. 49. Beijing most comprehensive City wide traffic control and command centre MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 49
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  51. 51. London 2012 MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 51
  52. 52. London 2012 Games conceptLondon 2012 Olympic Games concept:•  A tremendous catalyst for the largest urban industrial waste land rehabilitation program in Europe to create the heart of the Games-- the Olympic Park in East London•  Fully aligned on a massive “once in a century” rail transport improvement program mostly centered on East London to substantially upgrade public transport services•  Also based on London Olympic venues optimally located to be accessed by more than one Tube/rail station•  The most “public transport oriented Games concept” ever! MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 52
  53. 53. Source: Olympic Delivery Authority. 2012 photograph looks South from Eton Manor. 2008 photographlooks South West across the northern part of the Olympic Park. MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 53
  54. 54. “East London” rail developmentsEast London and Olympic Park served by higher capacity railsystems: •  Two new and fully refurbished Stratford International and Stratford National stations at the edge of Olympic Park– future Queen Elisabeth Park—largest of East London •  High Speed Javelin line serving Stratford-Olympic station during Games •  Much improved and extended main East London special metro -- the DLR Dockland Railroad—also serving London City Airport and twice crossing the Thames •  Capacity improvement of Jubilee Line—current strongest London tube carrier (before Crossrail opening in 2017) MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 54
  55. 55. London 2012: a public transport GamesStrategy – No parking for spectators – Maximised use ofenhanced public transport for spectators, workforce, volunteers,visitors and as many Olympic Family as possible to relieve pressureon the road systemVision – An integrated approach between Games generaltransport, public transport and City developmentSustainability – Legacy use and longer term accessibilityneeds integrated into Games planning MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 55
  56. 56. Venue accessibility from Tube/rail stations RIO 2016 N°1 transport option is the build-up of a full high performance public transport ring interconnecting all sides of Tijuca National Forest •  This concept is materialized by a mixed program of public transport projects composed of suburban rail system rehabilitation, metro capacity upgrade+ extension and 75km of high capacity BRT-Bus Rapid corridors •  This integrated system shall be delivered in six years time •  The High Performance PT Ring will help connect areas of very diverse socio-economic and urban characteristics MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 56
  57. 57. Fully integrated transport coordinationMultiple planning, infrastructure, system and transport servicedelivery by two special temporary Olympic entities and TfL-Transport for London, the main transport organization :ODA– Olympic Delivery Authority // delivering all new Olympicinfrastructure and coordinating othersLOCOG-Transport // delivering all Olympic Family transportservices, bus and fleet, venue transport, most of Last mile trafficmanagementTfL – Transport for London—Fully in charge of transport+ trafficplanning / operations / traffic global management-TDM / Gamestransport and traffic command + control( “LOCOG-Transport” means London Organizing Committee Transport Department or Branch) MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 57
  58. 58. Efficient and flexible ORNSince Singapore 2005 bid victory , London 2012 organizerswere under constant British media criticism : transport andtraffic would never work properly for the Games. Criticismincreased after successful BEIJING 2008 Games transport.The bid promised 250km ORN—Olympic Route Network– washighly unpopular (undue advantage for VIP type users)After detailed studies and multiple consultations, ORN wasfinally implemented with: Games OL permanent core part //flexible sections activated dependent on traffic // sections withoutOlympic lanes but with Olympic route signage and appropriatepriorities MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 58
  59. 59. Olympic Route Network & Olympic lanes RIO 2016 N°1 transport option is the build-up of a full high performance public transport ring interconnecting all sides of Tijuca National Forest •  This concept is materialized by a mixed program of public transport projects composed of suburban rail system rehabilitation, metro capacity upgrade+ extension and 75km of high capacity BRT-Bus Rapid corridors •  This integrated system shall be delivered in six years time •  The High Performance PT Ring will help connect areas of very diverse socio-economic and urban characteristics MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 59
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  63. 63. London 2012 successful TDM TDM = Traffic Demand Management was first introduced for theSydney 2000 Games. London 2012 promised a 25-30% trafficreductionLondon TDM was planned and successfully used reduce trafficvery significantly during the Games.Large array of traffic measures to hinder/reduce car use, shift fromcar to PT--public transport, increase work at home, increase out-of-Londonholidays, shift peak moving hours, shift freight traffic patterns, communicate onhotspots to be avoided, Public transport info massively improved for non-London and foreign visitors, more than 300’000 Oyster card distributionTDM achieved “surprisingly” a 35% reduction in backgroundtraffic volumes in London critical “hotspots” MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 63
  64. 64. Last mile to venue integrated planningThe “last mile” before getting into any competition venue (ornon-competition) is critical in urban areasLondon 2012 had a task force for each competition venue toproduce, negociate and implement an integrated traffic/parking/load+ unload zone plan dealing with all concernedstakeholders and client groups:•  Spectator and visitor access (from public transport stations)•  Olympic family access (from ORN– Olympic lane network)•  Logistical global accessibility requirements•  24h/24h compatibility with local resident + business + other commercial and leisure activities MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 64
  65. 65. Last mile to venue integration planOne Plan – Overall Hotels Mayor’s Local Parallel Live Site Event Olympic Route Network LOCOG Local businesses & Transport for London Mayor’s residents Local government Ambassadors Venue Local government Mayor (London) services Other organisation Security Last Mile Public Transport Advertising & street trading Emergency Services Look & Feel Police Ambulance Fire Local Area Traffic Management Training NOC House MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 65 venues
  66. 66. Most successful public transport GamesLondon 2012 transport was much more successful thanpredicted by British media—plenty of capacity—flexible convivialmanagement—generally excellent signage—transport helpfulvolunteersUnderground operated at capacities of up 30% more than themaximum ever recorded ( East London DLR was up 100%)TDM achieved reduction of traffic demands of about 35% inhotspots allowing ORN system to work much better thanexpectedSignificant shift of users from dedicated Olympic transport tomore efficient and faster rail public transport MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 66
  67. 67. Towards Rio 2016 MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 67
  68. 68. RIO 2016 crucial transport problemsTo overcome RIO extremely chaotic road traffic andpublic transport situation, RIO 2016 bid promised todeliver a substantially extended and rehabilitatedmetropolitan transport systemOlympic Games absolutely NOT possible without arobust new and well managed transport system11 billion US$ (twice the bid amount) is currently beinginvested to develop a high performance public transportring interconnecting all four Olympic zones surroundingRio Tijuca National Forest MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 68
  69. 69. Rio four Games main Olympic zones and metropolitan transport concept MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 69
  70. 70. Games and Rio ambitious development plansThe four Olympic zones of Maracana – Copacabana –Barra – Deodoro to be strongly interconnected by acontinuous high performance public transport systemA 11 billion US$ construction or rehabilitation program:•  New metro line 4 and metro lines 1+2 upgrades•  Suburban rail lines massive capacity upgrades•  New 150km four BRT lines-- high performance bus system (one of the world largest such new system)•  Airport and Port upgrades and connections to public transport•  A 20 Km, 4 line City Centre LRT (tramway) system MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 70
  71. 71. Rio renovated suburban rail + extended metro + 4 new BRT transport system MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 71
  72. 72. 20 new interchange hubs to make ONE Rio high performance public transport system MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 72
  73. 73. BRT-Bus Rapid Transit – Articulated very high capacity bus systems –new bustechnology invented 39 years ago in Curitiba/ Brazil MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 73
  74. 74. Rio Center of operations for transport, traffic, emergencies and logistics MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 74
  75. 75. Maracana Stadium in full renovation for Copa 2014 & Olympics 2016 In WCup 1950, 199’850 ticketed spect. / now 78’000! 500 million US$ Stadium upgrade MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 75
  76. 76. Optimize urban sport, multi-transport and security legaciesRio efforts to deliver the 2016 Games are enormous interms of urban sport facilities and transport systemmassive rehabilitationIf all planned and under-construction projects aredelivered the Games legacy will be trulyphenomenal—a quarter century projects in 7 years!The most critical efforts are on system integrationto optimize the global output and deliver most“happy and glorious Olympic Games” carioca style! MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 76
  77. 77. 6. Systematic transfer-of-knowledgeSummer Olympic Games = most complex and largesttemporary mega-event organization in the world•  To improve Games quality, legacy and sustainability and to minimize risks , IOC invests in multiple TOK-Transfer of Knowledge or “Debriefing” programs from Cities pre-bidding phase to after-Games debriefing•  “Olympic Games organization seminars” attendance at phases I + II essential to support bidding process and capture Games comprehensive vision, concept evolution and new mega-event management tools MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 77
  78. 78. Learning by observing•  Host Cities shall learn live by observing preceding Games. Games progress made in most functions can be identified / transferred and adapted if feasible•  For example RIO 2016 could watch Beijing 2008 as candidate and also observe the three next Games 2010/2012/2014 as 2016 OG organizer•  For RIO 2016, the most important observation reference was 2012 London Summer session•  After any Games, IOC organizes a very comprehensive DEBRIEF or 4 day transfer-of-knowledge seminar MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 78
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  80. 80. 7. Host City and Games vision, legacy and sustainabilityInvestment of 2 - 3 billion US$ in Summer Olympic Gamesoperational costs (generally fully covered by revenues) and10 - 25 billion US$ in sport, transport and urbaninfrastructure developments cannot be only justified by thepolitical glory of having hosted the Olympic Games.Since Barcelona 1992 and mostly Sydney 2000, aparticularly strong awareness of Olympic legacy isprevalentThe Olympic Games concept shall be integrated in theCity or metropolitan development vision. It shall be a“component of…” but not the main ”driver” of Host Citydevelopment master planning MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 80
  81. 81. Not only legacy but sustainabilityThe 2009 Copenhagen Olympic Congress item N° 19The Olympic Movement fully embraces the importance ofembedding the key values of environmental protection,development and sustainability within the Olympicideals As part of this commitment…. the IOC should acceleratethe integration of sustainability principles in thehosting of the Olympic Games…. to safeguard their statusas a premier event MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 81
  82. 82. Avoiding “White elephant” planning“White elephants” are large permanent facilities andinfrastructures purposely build for a short duration mega-eventbut NOT or very little USED afterwardsIn Olympics, it might happen for little practiced sports in the Hostcountry. In that case “temporary structures” must be used.In transport, risks of “white elephants” are rather small as mega-event Host City transport needs are most often considerable.During the last two decades, Olympic transport schemeshave played an increasingly central role in City legacyand sustainability development MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 82
  83. 83. City vision – Games concept -- TransportLondon 2012 remarkable success was mainly due to thecoherence and alignment of:•  A City development vision—particularly East London•  A London-made 2012 global and most attractive Games sport concept and organization•  A City public transport optimal deployment combined with Games convivial and efficient traffic management MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 83
  84. 84. Olympic and mega-event transport 1997-2013 bibliographyand mega-event transport papers can be downloaded from: MSA – Mastering Sports February 2013 84