How to make a movie (The Basics)


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How to make a movie (The Basics)

  1. 1. How To Make A Movie The Basics
  2. 2. The Stages of Production  Scripting  Pre-Production  Production  Post-Production
  3. 3. Scripting Documents are created in order to communicate what will happen in the production. The documents explain the five W's and H of the video: •What is being created? •Who is creating it? •When is it being created? •Where is it being created? •Why is it being created? •How is it being created?
  4. 4. Scripting The documents include: •An Outline of the Idea and the Story •The Script •A Storyboard
  5. 5. The Outline of the Idea & the Story This is the process of writing down on paper what the video is about. Is your piece a comedy? A Drama? Are you interviewing someone? Are you documenting an event? The outline should identify the main purpose/idea of your video. It can be as brief as a single sentence or even a few pages long; depending on the length of your film.
  6. 6. The Script The script is a blueprint for producing a motion picture. The major components of a script are action and dialogue, with the "action" being "what we see happening" and "dialogue" being "what the characters say". The characters, when first introduced in the script, may also be described visually. As well the script identifies and explains the location and setting of each shot in the film.
  7. 7. Script Format
  8. 8. Scripting Activity  5-10 minutes  Script a short scene or part of a scene. Make sure to include:  Scene Heading  Actions  Characters  Dialog  Ideas: Playing a game(video/sports), cooking something, Scene at a party etc.
  9. 9. The Storyboard Storyboarding is the process of producing sketches of the shots from your script. The end result looks like comic book of your film (without the speech bubbles).
  10. 10. The Storyboard Why do it? It helps you think about how your film is going to look. You can work faster on set, and as pictures communicate better than words it will allow your camera crew to move their camera and lights, the producers to foresee problems, the art department to know which parts of the location are going to be in shot, and so on. Even the actors will get a feel of what they are going to be shooting!
  11. 11. The Storyboard The following are some things you should always include in your storyboards: • Graphic description of what takes place in the shot • The direction which the camera should pan or zoom (use arrows) • A list (below the sketch) describing what props will be needed
  12. 12. Blank Storyboard Activity
  13. 13.  5-10 minutes to draw a basic storyboard of an event being filmed.  Included on the storyboard can only be the drawing, the directional arrows for panning and zooming and a brief list of he props for that scene.
  14. 14. Documentation The amount of documents you create will depend on the production. In news, simple outlines and scripts are used because the production needs to get done before the 6 o'clock broadcast. Movies use all of the documents in order to have the production go a smooth as possible.
  15. 15. Preproduction Once the script is written, it is used to prepare for the production of the video. This process is called Preproduction. The producer uses the script to set up all the elements involved in shooting the video. These elements may include the Budget and the Timeline. Also, the producer conducts a Site Survey and lines up the players, calls the interviewees, reservers the location and makes sure all the Equipment is ready.
  16. 16. Production/Filming Lights, Camera, Action. The Production stage is where the filming takes place.
  17. 17. Before You Start Shooting Prior to taking your first shot you must address the following issues in The Production stage: •The Camera •The Shot •Camera Moves •Lighting •Audio
  18. 18. The Camera Get to know your camera. Read the manual! Also, the best way to set up for the shot is to get into a routine. Try to set up the camera the same way every time. Most home cameras have automatic settings so you can start to shoot as soon as possible. Most operators like to have complete control over the shot and so they turn off the automatic settings. You need to make a choice on what you want to control and what you want to leave to the automatic setting.
  19. 19. The Camera Before you start filming you should make sure all of the below issues are addressed: Lens: Is the lens cap off? Focus: Are you on manual, auto or infinity? Iris: Exposure; is there enough light? Tape: Do you have tape in? ON/OFF Switch: Is the camera on?
  20. 20. The Camera White Balance: This sets the camera to record either indoor lighting (tungsten light) or outdoor lighting (sunlight). Gain or AE: These will boost the image in the camera to help with shooting in low light. Tip: Automatic Setting: Most cameras have a switch that turns all or most of the controls over to the camera. Most videographers turn this switch to manual so they have complete control over the camera. However, you may want to use it when you first start shooting. Before going out, remember to ask yourself "Do I have batteries and tape?"
  21. 21. The Shot Below are a few common steps for video taping a scene. Survey the room: Before you begin unpacking, look around the room. Decide on the location of the camera and subject. Find a power source for the camera - or are you using batteries? Where are the natural lights or are you using your own lights? Is there an echo in this location? Are there any other noises such as refrigerators or fans? Are the phones unplugged? Set Up: Place camera and subject. Place the lights and prepare the mics. Turn the lights on and have the mics in place. At the camera, make sure you turn it on and consider the following: Is there tape? Have I White balanced? Is my Exposure correct? Have I set the correct focus? Test the mics and check the lights.
  22. 22. The Shot Begin Shooting: Usually the master scene or interview is shot first. Then the close ups and cutaways are recorded. Sometimes the close ups and cutaways are called "pickups" because these are shots that are picked up as you are leaving. After the shoot: Make sure all the equipment is put away and stored back in its place. If objects were rearranged to make room for the camera and equipment, make sure they are put back in their proper place. And if doing an interview, thank the subject for helping out in the production. The Producers Survey: At the end, do another survey of the location to make sure nothing was left behind or forgotten.
  23. 23. The Shot Composition: This term refers to the way the shot looks. What images are placed in front of the camera? Where are the images placed? What lights and colors are used? These questions all go into making up the composition. The Director of Photography called the DP, decides what images will be within the frame.
  24. 24. Camera Moves The difference between a still camera and a video camera is movement. As you shoot footage, you are able to move the camera. Below are definitions and examples of the different ways you can move the camera. Zoom In - The lens of the camera moves in such a way as to bring the image closer to the camera. Zoom Out - The lens of the camera moves in such a way as to move the image away from the camera.
  25. 25. Camera Moves Pan Right - The camera swivels to the right, causing the image to move from right to left across the screen. Pan Left - The camera swivels to the left, causing the image to move from left to right across the screen. Action within the frame - The subject moves within the frame and the camera DOES NOT move. Follow the Action - The subject is moving yet stays within the frame because the camera is MOVING with the subject.
  26. 26. Lighting Where is it coming from? Train yourself to look for the light. When you enter the area of taping, look around to see your light sources. Also, look at your subject(s) to see if there are any contrasts (bright and dark colors). Remember that the camera has a hard time with contrasts.        
  27. 27. Lighting Source The light source should be behind the camera. The two images on the right are of the same room but shot at opposite angles. The top one was shot into the light and bottom one is shot with the light behind the camera.
  28. 28. Lighting Subject What are they wearing? In a family gathering, there is not much you can do. But if this was a shoot, we would try to have the clothes be less contrasting. We would replace the stark white clothes with more pastels. This will create a softer, less contrasting, effect.
  29. 29. Audio Before the production, questions are asked and answered in regards to the audio equipment. What sound do we need - Interview, background, ambiance? What mic do we need to bring? There are mics for each of these.  Lav mic Lav is short for a lavalier microphone. This is a tiny mic that hooks to the persons shirt or collar. The mic is very directional and is used for interviews. Handheld mics Handhelds are mostly used for news. They are held in the hand and can be used during interviews or for stand up comments by the newsperson.
  30. 30. Audio Boom or shotgun mics These are very directional microphones used to pick up voices or noises. They sit on top of the camera or are held by the audio person. Some people do not like the look of the lav mic and so they will use a boom mic to record interviews or sound bites. Wireless or Hardwire Each of the mics above can be Wireless or Hardwired. The wireless mics use a VH or UVH signal to transmit the audio back to the camera. Hardwires use an audio cable to send the signal back to the camera. Wireless allows for freedom of movement but may have crackles and the batteries may run down. The hardwire ties the subject to the camera but is the safest and cleanest sound.
  31. 31. Audio Below is a general list of items to consider for audio: The Mic - What microphone to use? Mic placement - Where to put or hold the mic? Cable or wireless - Does the person on camera need to be mobile? If so, we use a wireless set up. if not, we use a cable to go from camera to mic. Lav or shotgun - Do we use a lav or a shotgun mic? Purpose - What is the sound going to be used for? How is it going to help tell the story?
  32. 32. Post-Production
  33. 33. Distribution The editing is done and now it is time to show your movie. There are several ways to show your movie. You can record it to a video, a DVD, CD-Rom or put it on the web. But since you are using a computer to edit the piece, you must decide on the digital size of your file and that means compression. Compression: If you are outputting to tape, then you will have very little compression. If you are putting it on the web you will need to compress the data. Format: Which medium do you want to use to show your video?