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The Energy Code Workshop
Professionals: Architects, Engineers, Designers
Commercial Provisions of the 2009 IECC
International Energy
Conservation Code
ASHRAE Standard 90.1
State and Locally
Adopted Codes
Building Energy Codes
Energy Codes & Standards
History of U.S. Commercial Energy Code
Baseline: IECC and ASHRAE 90.1
Both IECC and ASHRAE
90.1 apply, ASHRAE 90.1
likely used
Both IECC and ASHRAE
90.1 apply, e...
Codes and Architecture
Increased insulation levels and efficient windows coupled with an efficient
lighting system will re...
Building Envelope
The energy code specifies the
insulation levels in the floor,
ceiling, and walls and
requirements intend...
Heating, ventilating, and cooling
Energy codes provide
criteria for the size and
efficiency of HVAC systems
and equipment.
Lighting and Electrical
The energy codes provide
minimum criteria to support
efficient, effective lighting—
and in commerc...
Water Heating
Energy codes provide
minimum criteria to
effectively heat and
deliver hot water.
Compliance…
Energy Code Enforcement and Compliance
Enforcement, or
making sure that a
building is in
compliance
with an energy
code, i...
Structure of IECC
Chapter 1 Administrative
Chapter 2 Definitions
Chapter 3 Climate Zones
Chapter 4 Residential Energy Effi...
Scope:
 IECC covers one- and two-family
residences ≤ 3 stories
 All buildings that are not
“residential” by definition a...
 Existing buildings (Section 101.4.1)
– Electrical power, lighting, and mechanical systems still apply
 Buildings design...
 Very low energy use buildings (<3.4 Btu/h-ft2 or 1 watt/ft2)
(Section 101.5.2)
 Buildings (or portions of) that are nei...
Code applies to any new
construction
Unaltered portion(s) do not
need to comply
Additions can comply alone or
in combinati...
 Treat as a stand-alone “building”
 Additions must meet the prescriptive requirements
Administrative
Additions
101.4.3
C...
Exceptions
 Storm windows over existing fenestration
 Glass-only replacements
 Exposed, existing ceiling, wall or floor...
Any non-conditioned space that is
altered to become conditioned
space shall be required to be
brought into full compliance...
Administrative
Mixed Use Buildings
101.4.6
Are These Projects Considered
Residential or Commercial?
 Treat the residential occupancy under the applicable
residential code
 Treat the commercial occupancy under the commerc...
Structure of IECC
Chapter 1 Administrative
Chapter 2 Definitions
Chapter 3 Climate Zones
Chapter 4 Residential Energy Effi...
Definitions
Examples
• Air barrier – Materials “assembled and joined together”, a single
material or combination of materi...
Definitions
Examples
• High-efficacy lamps – minimum lumens/watt requirement
• Labeled and Listed – borrowed from the IBC
...
Structure of IECC
Chapter 1 Administrative
Chapter 2 Definitions
Chapter 3 Climate Zones
Chapter 4 Residential Energy Effi...
General Requirements
Climate Zones
Figure 301.1
CDD50°F – Interior base temperature = 50°F for CDD
HDD65°F – Interior base temperature = 65°F for HDD
General Requirements...
General Requirements
Arizona Climate Zones
 Fenestration product rating
in accordance to NFRC 100
 Labeled and certified by the
manufacturer
 Non-NFRC 100 rated
f...
TABLE 303.1.3(1)
DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION U-FACTOR
TABLE 303.1.3(2)
DEFAULT DOOR U-FACTORS
Additional Provisions:
Defau...
Commercial
Structure of IECC
Chapter 1 Administrative
Chapter 2 Definitions
Chapter 3 Climate Zones
Chapter 4 Residential ...
Definitions
• Building Thermal Envelope – The basement walls, exterior walls,
floor, roof, and any other building element ...
Commercial
Code Comparison: IECC 2003, 2006, 2009, & ASHRAE 90.1
2007
Mesa, AZ: Climate Zone
2B
Commercial
Code Comparison: IECC 2003, 2006, 2009, & ASHRAE 90.1
2007
Mesa, AZ: Climate Zone
2B
Commercial
Code Comparison: IECC 2003, 2006, 2009, & ASHRAE 90.1
2007
Mesa, AZ: Climate Zone
2B
Commercial
Code Comparison: IECC 2003, 2006, 2009, & ASHRAE 90.1
2007
Mesa, AZ: Climate Zone
2B
Commercial
Code Comparison: IECC 2003, 2006, 2009, & ASHRAE 90.1
2007
Mesa, AZ: Climate Zone
2B
Commercial
Compliance Process
Section 501.2 Application requires 90.1 to be used in its entirety (Envelope, Lighting, Mech...
Commercial
Compliance Process: Envelope Requirements
Section 501.2 Application requires 90.1 to be used in its entirety (E...
Commercial
Compliance
What are my Options for
Complying with the IECC?
Chapter 5 of the IECC
General Prescriptive Approach...
Commercial
Thermal Envelope
 Roof/Ceiling Assembly
 Wall Assembly
 Vertical Fenestration
and Skylights
 Floor Assembly...
Commercial
Thermal Envelope
Tables separated by occupancy type
 Group R occupancies use “Group R” high rise column
 Non-...
 Window and door assemblies
 Curtain wall, storefront glazing & commercial entrance
doors
 Sealing of the building enve...
Commercial Thermal Envelope
Mandatory: Building Envelope Sealing
All penetrations, openings, joints and
seams in the build...
Commercial Thermal Envelope
Mandatory: Outdoor Air Intakes & Exhaust Openings
Buildings ≥ 3 stories in height
above grade
...
Commercial Thermal Envelope
Mandatory: Weatherseals
Equip cargo doors and loading
dock doors with weatherseals
Goal is t...
Commercial Thermal Envelope
Mandatory: Vestibules
 Required to reduce infiltration into
spaces
 Required on entrance doo...
Commercial Thermal Envelope
Mandatory: Recessed Lighting
All recessed luminaires installed
in the building envelope
 Type...
Commercial Thermal Envelope
Prescriptive
Table 502.1.2
Commercial Thermal Envelope
Prescriptive
Table 502.2(1)
Commercial Thermal Envelope
Roof R-Value & U-Factor
Roof R-values and U-factor requirements are based on assembly type /
i...
Insulation considered
continuous (CI)
Insulation thickness can vary
≤ 1” and area weighted
U-factor meets the
requiremen...
Climate
Zone 1 2 3
4
Except
Marine
5
And Marine
4
6 7 8
Insulation
entirely
above deck
R-
15ci
R-
20ci
R-
20ci
R-
20ci
R-
...
Thermal Blocks
Insulation
Draped Over
Purlin
Insulation
Parallel to Purlin
Picture from NAIMA
Thermal Blocks
Insulation
Dr...
 Install insulation between framing
 R-38 in most Climate Zones
 R-30 in Climate Zones 1 and R-49 in Climate Zone 8
Com...
Climate
Zone
1 2 3 4
Except Marine
5
And Marine 4
6 7 8
Mass NR
R-
5.7ci
R-
5.7ci
R-
7.6ci
R-
7.6ci
R-
9.5ci
R-
9.5ci
R-
1...
Walls weighing at least 35
lbs/ft2 of wall surface area
OR
25 lbs/ft2 of wall surface
area if material weight is
≤ 120 lb/...
Climate Zones 1 (Group R) and 2 (all other) – Can use
integral insulation instead of R-5.7 ci
 Concrete block walls must ...
Climate Zone R-Value
1-2 R-16
3-4 except
Marine
R-19
Marine 4-6 R-13+R-5.6ci
7-8 R-19+R-5.6ci
Commercial Thermal Envelope
...
 Cavity insulation or
cavity plus continuous
(ci)
 Continuous insulation
not broken up by
framing members e.g.
rigid boa...
What is a below grade wall?
 Basement or first-story
walls ≥ 85% below grade
Insulation must extend down 10 ft
from the o...
Climate
Zone
1 2 3
4
Except
Marine
5
And
Marine 4
6 7 8
Below
grade
wall
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
R-
7.5ci
R-
7.5ci
R-
...
Joist/Framing
(Steel/Wood)
 Insulation installed
between framing
Mass Floors
 Materials weighing (of
floor surface area)...
Climate
Zone
1 2 3 4
Except Marine
5
And Marine 4
6 7 8
Mass NR NR
R-
6.3ci
R-
8.3ci
R-
6.3ci
R-
8.3ci
R-
10ci
R-
10.4ci
R...
Climate
Zone
1 2 3 4
Except Marine
5
And Marine 4
6 7 8
Unheated
Slabs
NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
R-10
for
24 in.
below
NR
R-10
...
Unheated slab – insulation
required:
 “All Other” in Climate
Zones 6-8
 “Group R” in Climate
Zones 4-8
Heated slabs – in...
Climate
Zone
1 2 3
4
Except
Marine
5
And Marine 4
6 7 8
Swinging
U-
0.70
U-
0.70
U-
0.70
U-
0.70
U-
0.70
U-
0.70
U-
0.70
U...
Doors having < 50% glass area
Swinging doors
 Meet U-factor requirement
Roll-up or sliding doors
 Climate zones 1 - 3: U...
Commercial Thermal Envelope
Mandatory: Fenestration
Table 502.3, 502.3
Percentage of Vertical
Fenestration Area to Gross
Wall Area
 Allowed up to 40% maximum
of above grade wall
Commercial The...
Based on above-grade wall area (gross)
 Includes walls between conditioned space and
unconditioned space or the great out...
 Limited to ≤ 3% of Roof Area
 U-factor and SHGC Based
 NFRC 100 Rating for U-factor or Default Table
 No SHGC require...
Framing Materials Other Than Metal w/ or w/o metal
reinforcement or cladding
 Includes vinyl and wood frame products or o...
By definition:
Fenestration products
used to create an external
nonload-bearing wall that
is designed to separate
the exte...
Storefront Entrance Door
Commercial Thermal Envelope
Fenestration U-Factor: Storefront
502.4.2
Includes operable windows, fixed windows and
non-entrance doors
Photo courtesy of Ken Baker, K energy
Commercial Thermal E...
Two Options for Meeting the SHGC Requirements
 Fenestration product rated and labeled to NFRC 200, or
 Select default fr...
The Effect of Overhangs on Fenestration SHGC
 Overhangs allow a higher SHGC
product to be installed
 Projection factor m...
What is Solar Heat Gain Coefficient?
 “The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the
fenestration assem...
Dropped CeilingDropped Ceiling
Insulation placed on Suspended
Ceiling with Removable Ceiling
Tiles
 Will not count for co...
Commercial
Compliance Process: Mechanical /
SWH
Must the Project
Comply with the
IECC?
Comply with the
Envelope
Requiremen...
Only Four Sections:
 What Provisions of the Code Apply
(503.1)
 Mandatory Provisions (503.2)
PLUS
 Simple HVAC Systems ...
Simple systems
 Unitary or
packaged HVAC
equipment
 Serves one zone
and controlled by
a single
thermostat
Buildings serv...
Commercial Building
Mechanical Systems: Simple System
Simple Systems
Complex systems
 All equipment not covered under Section
503.3 Simple Systems
Section 503.4
Complex
Systems
All buildings...
Complex Systems
Commercial Building
Mechanical Systems: Complex Systems
This section applies to all HVAC equipment and systems not
included in Section 503.3
Complex Systems
 Packaged VAV reheat...
Provisions Applicable to ALL Mechanical Systems
 Duct and Plenum Insulation
and Sealing
 Piping Insulation
 HVAC System...
Applies to all equipment used in heating and cooling of
buildings
 Where components from different manufacturers are used...
Commercial Building
Mechanical Systems: Mandatory
Table 503.2.3(2)
Commercial Building
Mechanical Systems: Mandatory
Table 503.2.3(2)
Heating and cooling load sizing calculations required
 ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 183
 Other approved computation procedures –...
Output capacity SHALL NOT exceed sizing
 Select the system which serves the greater load,
heating or cooling
– Exceptions...
Control required for each system
 if zoned for each zone
Commercial Building
System Controls
503.2.4 Mandatory
Thermostat...
Commercial Building
System Controls
Automatic time clock or programmable system
 Exceptions
• Zones operated continually
• Zones with full HVAC load demand <...
Motorized dampers that will automatically shut
when the system or spaces are not in use.
 Exceptions
• Gravity dampers pe...
Heat pump systems
 Heat pump thermostat
required when supplying
electric resistance heating
 Control must prevent
supple...
Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy
service to the building, shall include
 automatic controls capable...
DCV must be provided for each zone with spaces > 500 ft²
and the average occupant load > 40 people/1000 ft² of floor
area ...
Exceptions:
 Systems with energy recovery per 503.2.6
 Multiple zone systems without direct digital control of
single zo...
Applies to individual fan systems with
 Design supply air capacity ≥ 5,000 cfm
 Minimum outside air supply of ≥ 70% of d...
Exceptions:
 Where energy recovery ventilation systems prohibited by the
IMC
 Lab fume hood system with at least one of ...
Insulation required for supply
and return ducts and plenums
 Located in unconditioned
space – minimum R5
 Located outsid...
FLUID
NOMINAL PIPE DIAMETER
≤ 1.5” ≥ 1.5”
Steam 1 ½ 3
Hot water 1 ½ 2
Chilled water, brine or
refrigerant
1 ½ 1 ½
All pipi...
Exceptions:
 Piping internal to HVAC equipment (including fan coil
units) factory installed and tested
 Piping for fluid...
Ducts designed to operate at static pressures ≤ 2 in.
wg
Securely fastened and sealed
 Exceptions
• When located within e...
Ducts designed to operate at static pressures > 3 in. wg to
be leak tested in accordance with SMACNA HVAC Air Duct
Leakage...
 Air System Balancing
 Hydronic System Balancing
 Manuals
– Equipment Capacity and Required Maintenance
– Equipment O &...
• 503.2.11 – Systems installed outside buildings
shall be radiant systems, with occupancy
systems or timers.
Commercial Bu...
Unitary or packaged, single zone controlled by a single
thermostat in the zone served.
Simple Systems
 Unitary packaged h...
 Must include economizers dependent on climate zone
 Capable of providing 100-percent outdoor air even if
additional mec...
• Economizer, Air – A duct and damper arrangement and
automatic control system that allows a cooling system to
supply outs...
CLIMATE ZONES ECONOMIZER
REQUIREMENT
1A, 1B, 2A, 7, 8 No requirement
2B, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4A,
4B, 4C, 5A, 5B, 5C,
6A, 6B
Econom...
CLIMATE ZONES COOLING EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE
IMPROVEMENT (EER OR IPLV)
2B 10% Efficiency Improvement
3B 15% Efficiency Impr...
Individual dual duct or mixing reheating and cooling
systems with a single fan and with total capacities >
90,000 Btu/h (7...
 Maximum fan power requirements
 Applies to HVAC systems with total fan system power > 5 hp
 Each HVAC system at design...
• Fan System BHP – The sum of the fan brake
horsepower of all fans that are required to operate a fan
system design condit...
BHP option includes
adjustment “adders”
certain devices
 Table 503.2.10.1(2)
DEVICE ADJUSTMENT
Credits
Fully ducted retur...
Exceptions
Hospital and laboratory systems using flow
control devices on exhaust and/or return for
health and safety or e...
Selected fan motor to be no larger than first available
motor size greater than bhp
Fan bhp on design documents
Exceptions...
• Energy Recovery Ventilation System – Systems that
employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy form
exhaust air f...
Have to be radiant systems
Controlled by an occupancy sensing device or
timer switch
 System is automatically de-energize...
System ≥ 300,000 Btu/h must include
 Temperature reset or variable flow
• Automatic resets for supply water temperature b...
Cooling systems can’t use unless system designed with
 multiple steps of unloading OR
 Continuous capacity modulation
Ca...
Table 504.2 Minimum Performance of
Water-Heating Equipment
 Water Heater Types Covered
• Electric Storage
• Gas and Oil S...
Non-circulating system insulation requirements
 First eight feet of outlet piping on systems with no integral
heat traps
...
Ability to turn off circulating hot water pumps and heat trace
tape when the system is not in operation
 Automatically or...
Pool heaters (504.7.1)
 Readily accessible on-off switch
 Natural gas or LPG fired pool heaters will not have continuous...
Heated pools required to have a pool cover
 Pool cover must be vapor retardant
Pools heated to over 90oF
 Minimum R-12 i...
Must the Project
Comply with the
IECC?
Comply with the
Envelope
Requirements
Comply with the
Mechanical/SWH
Requirements
C...
Commercial Lighting Requirements
When do the Requirements Apply?
 Original Installed Lighting System in a New Building, A...
Mandatory Interior Lighting requirements
 Required Controls
 Wattage/Efficiency Limits
Interior Lighting Power Allowance...
Lamp Wattage Efficacy
> 40 watts 60 lumens/watt
15-40 watts 50 lumens/watt
< 15 watts 40 lumens/watt
Defined in the 2009 I...
Independent Lighting Control
required for each space surrounded
by floor-to-ceiling partitions
 Must be located in the sp...
Light Reduction Controls
must allow the occupant to
reduce connected lighting
 By at least 50%
 In a reasonably uniform
...
 Controlling all lamps or luminaires
 Dual switching of alternate rows of luminaires, alternate
luminaires or lamps
 Sw...
Commercial Interior Lighting Control
Potential Savings
Light Reduction Control
Not required for the
following:
Areas with only one
luminaire
Areas controlled by
occupancy sens...
Automatic lighting shutoff control device required in all
buildings larger than 5,000 ft2
Building Defined:
 “Any structu...
1. Control lights on a scheduled
basis (automatic time switch)
• Time-of-day controller
• Controls ≤ 25,000 ft2 and not
mo...
 Readily accessible
 Within view of the lights or area controlled
 Manually operated
 ≤ 2 hour override
– The override...
Feature that turns off all loads for 24 hours then
resumes the normally scheduled operation
Exceptions
 Retail stores and...
Daylight Zones
 Must have individual control of the lights independent of general area
lighting
Contiguous daylight zones...
The daylight zone depth is assumed to
be 15 feet into the space or to the
nearest ceiling height opaque partition,
whichev...
The area under skylights whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the
skylight dimension plus the smalle...
Standard Room Suite
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
 Applies to hotels, motels, boarding houses, or similar
 Master switch...
 For dusk-to-dawn lighting: astronomical time switch or
photosensor
 For all other: astronomical time switch OR
photosen...
Tandem Wiring for all Odd
Numbered Lamp Configurations
Exceptions
 Where electronic high
frequency ballasts are used
 Lu...
Exit Signs
 Internally illuminated exit signs shall not
exceed 5 watts per side
Commercial Interior Lighting Control
Exit...
Sum the wattage of all proposed connected lighting
power
This must include all lighting that is part of the design for
the...
Connected Interior Lighting
Power must not exceed Interior
Lighting Power Allowance
1. Calculate Interior Lighting
Power A...
Connected power for following not included in calculations:
 Professional sports arena playing field
 Sleeping unit ligh...
 Theatrical, stage, film, and video production
 Used for photographic processes
 Integral to equipment or instrumentati...
Building Area Type
 Note: Alternate standard
ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2007
provides whole building and
space-by-space options
Ta...
First, choose an appropriate “Building Area Type” from the
allowance table (505.5.2)
 “Building Area” includes all spaces...
Office: 200,000 ft2
1.0 W/ft2 = 200,000 W
Table 505.5.2
Commercial Interior Lighting
Example: Office
Table 505.5.2
A 200,0...
How is an allowance determined if the building has more than
one Building Area Type?
 Example – A building contains the f...
Cafeteria:10,000 ft2
at 1.4 W/ft2 = 14,000 W
Museum: 40,000 ft2
at 1.1 W/ft2 = 44,000 W
Retail: 5,000 ft2
at 1.5 W/ft2 = 7...
Lighting wattage must be calculated in accordance with Section
505.5.1
 Screw lamp holders: maximum labeled wattage of th...
Additional Interior Lighting Power Allowance =
1000 watts +
(Retail Area 1 x 0.6 W/ft2) +
(Retail Area 2 x 0.6 W/ft2) +
(R...
Exception:
Other merchandise categories may
be included in Retail Areas 2
through 4 above, provided that
justification doc...
Building grounds lighting luminaires over 100 watts must
have source efficacy of at least 60 lumens per watt
Exceptions
 ...
Connected Exterior Lighting Power must not
exceed Exterior Lighting Power Allowance
1. Calculate exterior lighting power a...
The following lighting does not need to be included in the
proposed lighting calculation:
• Specialized signal, directiona...
What areas are covered under
exterior lighting allowances?
 Tradable surfaces
Common exterior lighted needs
that can be t...
 Uncovered parking lots and areas
 Walkways (under and over 10 feet wide)
 Stairways
 Pedestrian tunnels
 Main buildi...
 Building facades
 Automated teller machines and night depositories
 Entrances and gatehouse inspection stations at gua...
Lighting
Zone
Description
1 Developed areas of national parks, state
parks, forest land, and rural areas
2 Areas predomina...
Applications Lighting Power
Densities
Tradable Surfaces
(Lighting Power Densities for open parking areas, building grounds...
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
Tradable Surfaces Building Entrances and Exits
Main entries
20 W/linear
foot of
door
width
20 ...
Separate metering required for each dwelling unit
Commercial Electric Energy
Consumption Requirements
505.7 Mandatory
Exterior Lighting Power Density &
Application Examples
Bank
ATM
Walkway
5 ft wide
Canopy
Parking Lot
Parking: 10,000 ft2
C...
Commercial
Performance Compliance
For Performance-Based Compliance
Need to model a standard reference design to the mandatory and
prescriptive requirements....
506.1
Compliance based on total
building performance requires
that a proposed building
(proposed design) be shown to
have ...
There are a number of Energy Simulations Tools
Case Study
Commercial Existing Building
A 10,640 square foot tenant improvement program at Scottsdale
Waterfront.
The office space goes beyond code compliance to ...
FLOOR LAYOUT
The building was built in 2006 and is two stories with
retail/restaurant on the first floor and office on the...
A tenant improvement
program, if complies to
the scope and
requirements of
additions and alterations
to existing buildings...
BUILDING ENVELOPE
Commercial Case Study
Tenant Improvement
• Ceiling insulation has been added to improve
the efficiency o...
INTERNAL LOADS
LIGHTING CONTROLS
• 62% energy savings over baseline building
in lighting end use
Daylight Controls for Day...
Commercial Case Study
Tenant Improvement
Old Systems :
• 11- 3 Ton Heat Pump units. SEER 12 and R22
Refrigerant.
• Removed...
HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC SYSTEMS
CLASSROOMS AND CONFERENCE ROOMS
• Ultra high efficiency 5-ton single zone VAV unit
that has a...
INTERNAL LOADS
SKYLIGHTS
• Reduced number of RTUs from 11 to 7.
• Designed unique skylight/building relief system over the...
ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Performance Rating Report
DESCRIPTION BASELINE
ENERGY
PROPOSED
ENERGY
PROPOSED OVER
BASELINE
106...
UTILITY REBATES
POWER USE REDUCTION :
 40% Reduced HVAC Loads
 37% Reduced Lighting
Loads
 47% Reduced Plumbing
Require...
UTILITY REBATES
Prescriptive Mechanical Measures :
• Highest Available SEER Heat Pumps:
$2,484.38
Custom Mechanical Measur...
Software Tools for Compliance
COMcheck™
www.energycodes.gov
No-cost, easy-to-use software
that will demonstrate compliance.
www.energycodes.gov/software.stm
Overview of Tool
–Various Screen and Options
–Compliance Methods
–AreaCalc Spreadsheet
–Reports
COMcheck™
COMcheck™
DOE’s commercial compliance software
(Windows or Mac version)
Desktop Software Tools Web-Based Tools
• For commercial buildings-
can show compliance through
the prescriptive approach,
trade-off approach or the
performance a...
• Trade-off approach allows you to trade enhanced energy efficiency in one
component against decreased energy efficiency i...
1. Select the appropriate code from the Code Menu.
2. Project Screen: location, project type, building use, and project de...
COMcheck Compliance
Verification
COMcheck Compliance
Verification
COMcheck Compliance
Verification
COMcheck Compliance
Verification
COMcheck Compliance
Verification
COMcheck Compliance
Verification
COMcheck Compliance
Verification
COMcheck Compliance
Verification
COMcheck™
DEMONSTRATION
Resources
Adopt, Implement, Enforce
Resources
Resources
• http://www.iccsafe.org
• http://www.energycodes.gov
• http://bcap-energy.org
• http://www.naseo.org
• http://w...
Welcome
www.tecworkshop.com
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2009 IECC: Commercial

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An overview of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code.
ASHRAE

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2009 IECC: Commercial

  1. 1. The Energy Code Workshop Professionals: Architects, Engineers, Designers Commercial Provisions of the 2009 IECC
  2. 2. International Energy Conservation Code ASHRAE Standard 90.1 State and Locally Adopted Codes Building Energy Codes
  3. 3. Energy Codes & Standards History of U.S. Commercial Energy Code
  4. 4. Baseline: IECC and ASHRAE 90.1 Both IECC and ASHRAE 90.1 apply, ASHRAE 90.1 likely used Both IECC and ASHRAE 90.1 apply, either used to comply IECC applies
  5. 5. Codes and Architecture Increased insulation levels and efficient windows coupled with an efficient lighting system will reduce the heat loss from the building and heat gain from the lighting system.
  6. 6. Building Envelope The energy code specifies the insulation levels in the floor, ceiling, and walls and requirements intended to seal the building against air leakage and moisture migration.
  7. 7. Heating, ventilating, and cooling Energy codes provide criteria for the size and efficiency of HVAC systems and equipment.
  8. 8. Lighting and Electrical The energy codes provide minimum criteria to support efficient, effective lighting— and in commercial spaces— lighting controls.
  9. 9. Water Heating Energy codes provide minimum criteria to effectively heat and deliver hot water.
  10. 10. Compliance…
  11. 11. Energy Code Enforcement and Compliance Enforcement, or making sure that a building is in compliance with an energy code, is the last step in the building process.
  12. 12. Structure of IECC Chapter 1 Administrative Chapter 2 Definitions Chapter 3 Climate Zones Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency Chapter 6 Referenced Standards
  13. 13. Scope:  IECC covers one- and two-family residences ≤ 3 stories  All buildings that are not “residential” by definition are “commercial”  Includes additions, alterations, renovations and repairs 101.4 Administrative Scope
  14. 14.  Existing buildings (Section 101.4.1) – Electrical power, lighting, and mechanical systems still apply  Buildings designated as historic (Section 101.4.2) Administrative Exempted Buildings 101.4.1, 101.4.2, 101.5.2
  15. 15.  Very low energy use buildings (<3.4 Btu/h-ft2 or 1 watt/ft2) (Section 101.5.2)  Buildings (or portions of) that are neither heated nor cooled (Section 101.5.2) Administrative Exempted Buildings 101.4.1, 101.4.2, 101.5.2
  16. 16. Code applies to any new construction Unaltered portion(s) do not need to comply Additions can comply alone or in combination with existing building Administrative Additions, Alterations, Renovations, Repairs 101.4
  17. 17.  Treat as a stand-alone “building”  Additions must meet the prescriptive requirements Administrative Additions 101.4.3 Conditioned Addition Existing Building Treat Addition As Stand Alone Building Conditioned Addition Existing Building Treat Addition As Stand Alone Building Conditioned Addition Existing Building Demonstrate Compliance for Entire Building Conditioned Addition Existing Building Demonstrate Compliance for Entire Building
  18. 18. Exceptions  Storm windows over existing fenestration  Glass-only replacements  Exposed, existing ceiling, wall or floor cavities if already filled with insulation  Where existing roof, wall or floor cavity isn’t exposed  Reroofing for roofs where neither sheathing nor insulation exposed – Insulate above or below the sheathing • Roofs without insulation in the cavity • Sheathing or insulation is exposed  Lighting alterations if: – <50% of luminaries in a space are replaced – Only bulbs and ballasts within existing luminaries are replaced (provided installed interior lighting power isn’t increased) Any non-conditioned space that is altered to become conditioned space is required to be brought into full compliance with code. Administrative Additions, Alterations, Renovations, Repairs 101.4.3
  19. 19. Any non-conditioned space that is altered to become conditioned space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this code Administrative Space Conditioning 101.4.5
  20. 20. Administrative Mixed Use Buildings 101.4.6 Are These Projects Considered Residential or Commercial?
  21. 21.  Treat the residential occupancy under the applicable residential code  Treat the commercial occupancy under the commercial code Administrative Mixed Use Buildings 101.4.6
  22. 22. Structure of IECC Chapter 1 Administrative Chapter 2 Definitions Chapter 3 Climate Zones Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency Chapter 6 Referenced Standards
  23. 23. Definitions Examples • Air barrier – Materials “assembled and joined together”, a single material or combination of materials, i.e. sealants, acting as a system. • Basement wall – “…enclosing conditioned space.” If unconditioned, is classified as a crawl space. • Fenestration – includes skylights & doors. • U-value/R-value – Reciprocal values between transmittance and resistance. Note that U-value includes air films. U-value is calculated through a “component or assembly”, and R-value through a “body”. 402.1.2 (components) and 402.1.3 (assembly) make the difference more clear. C-factor is very similar to U-value (surface to surface instead of air to air) and is used in SHGC calculations. • F-factor – The perimeter heat loss factor for slab on grade floors (BTU/hft°F). Residential (building) –
  24. 24. Definitions Examples • High-efficacy lamps – minimum lumens/watt requirement • Labeled and Listed – borrowed from the IBC • IECC – For this code, includes R-3 buildings, as well as R-2 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade • Labeled and Listed – borrowed from the IBC • ASHRAE 90.1 – Spaces in buildings used primarily for living and sleeping. Residential spaces include, but are not limited to, dwelling units, hotel/motel guest rooms, dormitories, nursing homes, patient rooms in hospitals, lodging houses, fraternity/sorority houses, hostels, prisons, and fire stations
  25. 25. Structure of IECC Chapter 1 Administrative Chapter 2 Definitions Chapter 3 Climate Zones Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency Chapter 6 Referenced Standards
  26. 26. General Requirements Climate Zones Figure 301.1
  27. 27. CDD50°F – Interior base temperature = 50°F for CDD HDD65°F – Interior base temperature = 65°F for HDD General Requirements Climate Zones Table 301.3(2)
  28. 28. General Requirements Arizona Climate Zones
  29. 29.  Fenestration product rating in accordance to NFRC 100  Labeled and certified by the manufacturer  Non-NFRC 100 rated fenestration  Use Default Glazed Fenestration U-factor Table How Do You Meet the Requirement? Additional Provisions: Fenestration U-Factor 303.1.3, Tables 303.1.3(1) and (2)
  30. 30. TABLE 303.1.3(1) DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION U-FACTOR TABLE 303.1.3(2) DEFAULT DOOR U-FACTORS Additional Provisions: Default U-Factors Tables 303.1.3(1) and (2)
  31. 31. Commercial Structure of IECC Chapter 1 Administrative Chapter 2 Definitions Chapter 3 Climate Zones Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency Chapter 6 Referenced Standards
  32. 32. Definitions • Building Thermal Envelope – The basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof, and any other building element that enclose conditioned space. This boundary also includes the boundary between conditioned space and any exempt or unconditioned space. • Conditioned space – An area or room within a building being heated or cooled, containing uninsulated ducts, or with a fixed opening directly into an adjacent conditioned space. • Thermal isolation – Physical and space conditioning separation from conditioned space(s). The conditioned spaces shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooled or conditioned by separate equipment.
  33. 33. Commercial Code Comparison: IECC 2003, 2006, 2009, & ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Mesa, AZ: Climate Zone 2B
  34. 34. Commercial Code Comparison: IECC 2003, 2006, 2009, & ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Mesa, AZ: Climate Zone 2B
  35. 35. Commercial Code Comparison: IECC 2003, 2006, 2009, & ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Mesa, AZ: Climate Zone 2B
  36. 36. Commercial Code Comparison: IECC 2003, 2006, 2009, & ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Mesa, AZ: Climate Zone 2B
  37. 37. Commercial Code Comparison: IECC 2003, 2006, 2009, & ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Mesa, AZ: Climate Zone 2B
  38. 38. Commercial Compliance Process Section 501.2 Application requires 90.1 to be used in its entirety (Envelope, Lighting, Mechanical) if used as an alternate compliance path Must the Project Comply with the IECC? Comply with the Envelope Requirements Comply with the Mechanical/SWH Requirements Comply with the Lighting Requirements Section 502 90.1 Section 5 Sections 503 and 504 90.1 Section 6 Section 505 90.1 Section 9 Document Compliance with the IECC Plan Review Inspection
  39. 39. Commercial Compliance Process: Envelope Requirements Section 501.2 Application requires 90.1 to be used in its entirety (Envelope, Lighting, Mechanical) if used as an alternate compliance path Must the Project Comply with the IECC? Comply with the Envelope Requirements Comply with the Mechanical/SWH Requirements Comply with the Lighting Requirements Section 502 90.1 Section 5 Sections 503 and 504 90.1 Section 6 Section 505 90.1 Section 9 Document Compliance with the IECC Plan Review Inspection
  40. 40. Commercial Compliance What are my Options for Complying with the IECC? Chapter 5 of the IECC General Prescriptive Approach  Use for ≤ 40% of gross wall area in vertical fenestration  Use for ≤ 3% of gross roof area in skylights OR Section 506 Total Building Performance Approach 502 & 506
  41. 41. Commercial Thermal Envelope  Roof/Ceiling Assembly  Wall Assembly  Vertical Fenestration and Skylights  Floor Assembly  Slab Edge  Below Grade Wall Assembly
  42. 42. Commercial Thermal Envelope Tables separated by occupancy type  Group R occupancies use “Group R” high rise column  Non-Group R occupancies use “All other” column Tables 502.1. & 502.1.2(1)
  43. 43.  Window and door assemblies  Curtain wall, storefront glazing & commercial entrance doors  Sealing of the building envelope  Outdoor air intakes and exhaust openings  Loading dock weather-seals  Vestibules  Recessed lighting 502.4 Commercial Thermal Envelope Mandatory: Air Leakage
  44. 44. Commercial Thermal Envelope Mandatory: Building Envelope Sealing All penetrations, openings, joints and seams in the building envelope must be sealed. Materials that can be used include:  Caulking  Gasketing  Tapes  Moisture vapor-permeable wrapping material Sealing materials spanning joints between dissimilar materials must allow for expansion and contraction Photo courtesy of Ken Baker, K energy 502.4.3
  45. 45. Commercial Thermal Envelope Mandatory: Outdoor Air Intakes & Exhaust Openings Buildings ≥ 3 stories in height above grade  Class 1 motorized leakage- rated damper – Maximum leakage rate ≤ 4cfm /ft2 @ 1.0 inch w.g. Buildings < 3 stories in height  Gravity (non-motorized) allowed 502.4.5
  46. 46. Commercial Thermal Envelope Mandatory: Weatherseals Equip cargo doors and loading dock doors with weatherseals Goal is to restrict infiltration 502.4.6
  47. 47. Commercial Thermal Envelope Mandatory: Vestibules  Required to reduce infiltration into spaces  Required on entrance doors leading into spaces ≥ 3,000 ft2  Doors must have self-closing devices  Exceptions – Buildings in Climate Zones 1 and 2 – Doors from a guest room or dwelling unit – Revolving doors – Doors used primarily for vehicular movement, material handling and adjacent personnel doors Conditioned Space  3000 FT2 Vestibule Self Closing Doors Exterior Doors Conditioned Space  3000 FT2 Vestibule Self Closing Doors Exterior Doors 502.4.7
  48. 48. Commercial Thermal Envelope Mandatory: Recessed Lighting All recessed luminaires installed in the building envelope  Type IC rated and sealed with gasket or caulk between housing and interior wall or ceiling covering  Type IC rated and labeled in accordance with ASTM E 283 to allow ≤ 2.0 cfm of air movement from conditioned space to ceiling cavity 502.4.8
  49. 49. Commercial Thermal Envelope Prescriptive Table 502.1.2
  50. 50. Commercial Thermal Envelope Prescriptive Table 502.2(1)
  51. 51. Commercial Thermal Envelope Roof R-Value & U-Factor Roof R-values and U-factor requirements are based on assembly type / insulation placement  Insulation entirely above deck  Metal buildings  Attic and other 502.2.1 (R-Value); 502.1.2 (U-Factor)
  52. 52. Insulation considered continuous (CI) Insulation thickness can vary ≤ 1” and area weighted U-factor meets the requirements of Table 502.2(1) Commercial Thermal Envelope Roof R-Value: Insulation Completely Above Deck Table 502.2(1)
  53. 53. Climate Zone 1 2 3 4 Except Marine 5 And Marine 4 6 7 8 Insulation entirely above deck R- 15ci R- 20ci R- 20ci R- 20ci R- 20ci R- 20ci R- 20ci R- 20ci R- 20ci R- 20ci R- 20ci R- 20ci R- 25ci R- 25ci R- 25ci R- 25ci Metal buildings (with R-5 thermal blocks) R-19 R-19 R- 13+ R-13 R- 13+ R-13 R- 13+ R-13 R-19 R- 13+ R-13 R-19 R- 13+ R-13 R-19 R- 13+ R-19 R-19 R- 13+ R-19 R- 19+ R-19 R- 11+ R-19 R- 19+ R-10 Attic and other R-30 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-49 R-49 ROOFS Commercial Thermal Envelope Prescriptive Approach: Compliance Table 502.2(1)
  54. 54. Thermal Blocks Insulation Draped Over Purlin Insulation Parallel to Purlin Picture from NAIMA Thermal Blocks Insulation Draped Over Purlin Insulation Parallel to Purlin Picture from NAIMA R-5 thermal blocks required on all metal buildings or must use U-factor Compliance Method Climate Zones 2-8 require two layers of insulation for “all other”  CZ 2-5 and marine 4: R-13+R-13  CZ 6-7: R-13+R-19  CZ 8: R-11+R-19 Example (R-13+R-19): – R-13 draped perpendicularly to the purlins – R-19 running parallel to the purlins supported by the R-13 Commercial Thermal Envelope Roof R-Value: Metal Buildings Table 502.2(1)
  55. 55.  Install insulation between framing  R-38 in most Climate Zones  R-30 in Climate Zones 1 and R-49 in Climate Zone 8 Commercial Thermal Envelope Roof R-Value: Ceilings with Attic Spaces Table 502.2(1)
  56. 56. Climate Zone 1 2 3 4 Except Marine 5 And Marine 4 6 7 8 Mass NR R- 5.7ci R- 5.7ci R- 7.6ci R- 7.6ci R- 9.5ci R- 9.5ci R- 11.4ci R- 20ci R- 13.3ci R- 13.3ci R- 15.2ci R- 15.2ci R- 15.2ci R- 25ci R- 25ci Metal building R- 16 R-16 R-16 R-16 R-19 R-19 R-19 R-19 R- 13+ 5.6ci R-13+ 5.6ci R-13+ 5.6ci R-13+ 5.6CI R-19+ 5.6CI R-19+ 5.6CI R- 19+ 5.6CI R- 19+ 5.6CI Metal Framed R- 13 R-13 R-13+ 7.5ci R-13+ 7.5ci R-13+ 3.8ci R-13+ 7.5ci R-13+ 7.5ci R-13+ 7.5ci R- 13+ 7.5ci R-13+ 7.5ci R-13+ 7.5ci R-13+ 7.;5ci R-13+ 7.5cfi R-13+ 15.6ci R- 13+ 7.5ci R- 13+ 18.8c i Wood Framed & Other R- 13 R-13 R-13 R-13 R-13 R-13 R-13 R-13= 3.8ci R- 13+ 3.8ci R-13+ 3.8ci R-13+ 7.5ci R-13+ 7.5ci R-13+ 7.5ci R-13+ 7.5ci R- 13+ 15.6c i R- 13+ 15.6c i WALLS, ABOVE GRADE Commercial Thermal Envelope Prescriptive Approach: Compliance Table 502.2(1)
  57. 57. Walls weighing at least 35 lbs/ft2 of wall surface area OR 25 lbs/ft2 of wall surface area if material weight is ≤ 120 lb/ft3 Commercial Thermal Envelope Wall R-Value: Mass Walls 502.2.3, Table 502.2(1)
  58. 58. Climate Zones 1 (Group R) and 2 (all other) – Can use integral insulation instead of R-5.7 ci  Concrete block walls must comply with ASTM C 90, and  Ungrouted or partially grouted @ 32 inch. o.c. or less vertically or 48 inch. o.c. or less horizontally, and  Ungrouted cells must be filled with insulation material ≤ of 0.44 Btu-in./h-ft2 F Climate Zone 1 “all other”  No insulation required for mass walls Commercial Thermal Envelope Mass Walls: Concrete Masonry Units Table 502.2(1)
  59. 59. Climate Zone R-Value 1-2 R-16 3-4 except Marine R-19 Marine 4-6 R-13+R-5.6ci 7-8 R-19+R-5.6ci Commercial Thermal Envelope Metal Building Walls Table 502.2(2)
  60. 60.  Cavity insulation or cavity plus continuous (ci)  Continuous insulation not broken up by framing members e.g. rigid board insulation Commercial Thermal Envelope Wall R-Value: Wood, Metal Frame, & Other Table 502.2(1)
  61. 61. What is a below grade wall?  Basement or first-story walls ≥ 85% below grade Insulation must extend down 10 ft from the outside finished grade level or to the level of the floor, whichever is less Heated slabs installed below grade (Table 502.2(1) footnote d)  Below grade walls must meet exterior insulation requirements for perimeter insulation according to heated slab-on-grade construction Commercial Thermal Envelope Below Grade Walls 502.2.4, Table 502.2(1) footnote d Photo courtesy of Dow Building Solutions
  62. 62. Climate Zone 1 2 3 4 Except Marine 5 And Marine 4 6 7 8 Below grade wall N R N R N R N R N R N R N R R- 7.5ci R- 7.5ci R- 7.5ci R- 7.5ci R- 7.5ci R- 7.5ci R- 10ci R- 7.5ci R- 12.5ci Commercial Thermal Envelope Prescriptive Approach: Compliance Table 502.2(1), 502.2.4 WALLS, BELOW GRADE
  63. 63. Joist/Framing (Steel/Wood)  Insulation installed between framing Mass Floors  Materials weighing (of floor surface area) 35 lbs/ft2, or  25 lbs/ft2 if material weight is ≤ 12 lbs/ft3  Insulation installed continuously Steel Floor Joist Systems (footnoted to Table 502.2(1))  R-38 in Climate Zones 6-8 Commercial Thermal Envelope Floors over Outdoor Air or Unconditioned Space 502.2.5
  64. 64. Climate Zone 1 2 3 4 Except Marine 5 And Marine 4 6 7 8 Mass NR NR R- 6.3ci R- 8.3ci R- 6.3ci R- 8.3ci R- 10ci R- 10.4ci R- 10ci R- 12.5ci R- 12.5ci R- 14.6ci R- 15ci R- 16.7ci R- 15ci R- 16.7ci Joist/ Framing Steel/ (Wood) NR NR R-19 R-30 R-19 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 Commercial Thermal Envelope Prescriptive Approach: Compliance Table 502.2(1), 502.2.5 FLOORS
  65. 65. Climate Zone 1 2 3 4 Except Marine 5 And Marine 4 6 7 8 Unheated Slabs NR NR NR NR NR NR NR R-10 for 24 in. below NR R-10 for 24 in. below R-10 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24. in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-20 for 24 in. below Heated Slabs R-7.5 for 12 in. below R-7.5 for 12 in. below R-7.5 for 12 in. below R-7.5 for 12 in. below R-10 for 24 in below R-10 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-20 for 48 in. below R-20 for 24 in. below R-20 for 48 in. below R-20 for 48 in. below R-20 for 48 in. below SLAB-ON GRADE FLOORS Commercial Thermal Envelope Prescriptive Approach: Compliance Table 502.2(1), 502.2.6
  66. 66. Unheated slab – insulation required:  “All Other” in Climate Zones 6-8  “Group R” in Climate Zones 4-8 Heated slabs – insulation required in all Climate Zones Commercial Thermal Envelope Slab-on-Grade 502.2.6
  67. 67. Climate Zone 1 2 3 4 Except Marine 5 And Marine 4 6 7 8 Swinging U- 0.70 U- 0.70 U- 0.70 U- 0.70 U- 0.70 U- 0.70 U- 0.70 U- 0.70 U- 0.70 U- 0.70 U- 0.70 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 Roll-Up Or Sliding U- 1.45 U- 1.45 U- 1.45 U- 1.45 U- 1.45 U- 1.45 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 U- 0.50 Commercial Thermal Envelope Prescriptive Approach: Compliance Table 502.2(1), 502.2.7 OPAQUE DOORS
  68. 68. Doors having < 50% glass area Swinging doors  Meet U-factor requirement Roll-up or sliding doors  Climate zones 1 - 3: U-factor- 1.45  Climate zones 4 including Marine - 8: U-factor-0.50 Commercial Thermal Envelope Opaque Doors 502.2.7
  69. 69. Commercial Thermal Envelope Mandatory: Fenestration Table 502.3, 502.3
  70. 70. Percentage of Vertical Fenestration Area to Gross Wall Area  Allowed up to 40% maximum of above grade wall Commercial Thermal Envelope Vertical Fenestration Requirement 502.3.1 – Prescriptive (Max Area)
  71. 71. Based on above-grade wall area (gross)  Includes walls between conditioned space and unconditioned space or the great outdoors • Includes walls that are > 15% above grade Total fenestration area (includes frame and glazing)  Does not include opaque door area Commercial Thermal Envelope Vertical Fenestration Requirement 502.3.1
  72. 72.  Limited to ≤ 3% of Roof Area  U-factor and SHGC Based  NFRC 100 Rating for U-factor or Default Table  No SHGC requirements in Climate Zones 7-8 Commercial Thermal Envelope Skylight U-Factor / SHGC 502.3.1 Prescriptive (Max Area), 502.3.2, Table 502.3
  73. 73. Framing Materials Other Than Metal w/ or w/o metal reinforcement or cladding  Includes vinyl and wood frame products or other non-metal frames  Typically manufactured fenestration products Commercial Thermal Envelope Fenestration U-Factor 502.3.2
  74. 74. By definition: Fenestration products used to create an external nonload-bearing wall that is designed to separate the exterior and interior environments Commercial Thermal Envelope Fenestration U-Factor: Curtain Wall 502.4.2
  75. 75. Storefront Entrance Door Commercial Thermal Envelope Fenestration U-Factor: Storefront 502.4.2
  76. 76. Includes operable windows, fixed windows and non-entrance doors Photo courtesy of Ken Baker, K energy Commercial Thermal Envelope Fenestration U-Factor: All Other 502.4.1
  77. 77. Two Options for Meeting the SHGC Requirements  Fenestration product rated and labeled to NFRC 200, or  Select default from Table 303.1.3(3) TABLE 303.1.3(3) DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGC Commercial Thermal Envelope Fenestration SHGC Requirements Table 303.1.3(3)
  78. 78. The Effect of Overhangs on Fenestration SHGC  Overhangs allow a higher SHGC product to be installed  Projection factor must be calculated Commercial Thermal Envelope Fenestration SHGC Requirements 502.3.2
  79. 79. What is Solar Heat Gain Coefficient?  “The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation.” Commercial Thermal Envelope Glazed Fenestration SHGC 502.3.2, Table 502.3 Two Options for Meeting the SHGC Requirements  Fenestration product rated and labeled to NFRC 200, or  Select default from Table 303.1.3(3)
  80. 80. Dropped CeilingDropped Ceiling Insulation placed on Suspended Ceiling with Removable Ceiling Tiles  Will not count for code compliance  Will not comply with Section 502.4.3 – “Sealing of the building envelope” Commercial Thermal Envelope Roof R-Value 502.2.1
  81. 81. Commercial Compliance Process: Mechanical / SWH Must the Project Comply with the IECC? Comply with the Envelope Requirements Comply with the Mechanical/SWH Requirements Comply with the Lighting Requirements Section 502 90.1 Section 5 Sections 503 and 504 90.1 Section 6 Section 505 90.1 Section 9 Document Compliance with the IECC Plan Review Inspection Section 501.2 Application requires 90.1 to be used in its entirety (Envelope, Lighting, Mechanical) if used as an alternate compliance path
  82. 82. Only Four Sections:  What Provisions of the Code Apply (503.1)  Mandatory Provisions (503.2) PLUS  Simple HVAC Systems and Equipment (503.3) OR  Complex HVAC Systems and Equipment (503.4) Commercial Building Mechanical Systems Section 503
  83. 83. Simple systems  Unitary or packaged HVAC equipment  Serves one zone and controlled by a single thermostat Buildings served by unitary or packaged HVAC each serving 1 zone controlled by 1 thermostat. Two-pipe heating systems serving multiple zones are included if no cooling system is installed [Tables 503.2.3(1) through 503.2.3(5)] Section 503.3 Simple Systems Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Simple vs. Complex Systems 503.3, Tables 503.2.3(1) through 502.2.3(5)
  84. 84. Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Simple System Simple Systems
  85. 85. Complex systems  All equipment not covered under Section 503.3 Simple Systems Section 503.4 Complex Systems All buildings served by HVAC systems not covered under 503.3 Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Simple vs. Complex Systems 503.4, 503.3
  86. 86. Complex Systems Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Complex Systems
  87. 87. This section applies to all HVAC equipment and systems not included in Section 503.3 Complex Systems  Packaged VAV reheat  Built-up VAV reheat  Built-up single-fan, dual-duct VAV  Built-up or packaged dual-fan, dual-duct VAV  Four-pipe fan coil system with central plant  Water Source heat pump with central plant  Any other multiple-zone system  Hydronic space heating and cooling system Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Complex HVAC Systems & Equip. 503.4 Prescriptive
  88. 88. Provisions Applicable to ALL Mechanical Systems  Duct and Plenum Insulation and Sealing  Piping Insulation  HVAC System Completion  Air System Design and Control  Motor Nameplate Horsepower  Heating Outside a Building  HVAC Load Calculations  Equipment and System Sizing  HVAC Equipment Performance Requirements  HVAC System Controls  Ventilation  Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Mandatory Provisions 503.2
  89. 89. Applies to all equipment used in heating and cooling of buildings  Where components from different manufacturers are used • calculations & supporting data demonstrating combined efficiency meets requirements Must comply with all listed efficiencies Exception  Water-cooled centrifugal water-chilling packages Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: HVAC Performance 503.2.3 Mandatory Minimum Efficiency Requirements
  90. 90. Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Mandatory Table 503.2.3(2)
  91. 91. Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Mandatory Table 503.2.3(2)
  92. 92. Heating and cooling load sizing calculations required  ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 183  Other approved computation procedures – defined in Chapter 3 • Exterior design conditions – Specified by ASHRAE • Interior design conditions – Specified by Section 302 of the IECC • ≤ 72oF for heating load • ≥ 75oF for cooling load Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: HVAC Load Calculations 503.2.1 Mandatory
  93. 93. Output capacity SHALL NOT exceed sizing  Select the system which serves the greater load, heating or cooling – Exceptions • Standby Equipment with Required Controls • Multiple Units with Combined Capacities Exceeding Loads – Sequencing Controls Required Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Equipment & Sizing Systems 503.2.2 Mandatory
  94. 94. Control required for each system  if zoned for each zone Commercial Building System Controls 503.2.4 Mandatory Thermostats must have at least a 5°F dead band  Exception • Thermostats requiring manual change over between heating and cooling
  95. 95. Commercial Building System Controls
  96. 96. Automatic time clock or programmable system  Exceptions • Zones operated continually • Zones with full HVAC load demand <6,800 Btu/h and has a readily accessible shut off switch Thermostatic setback capabilities  Capability to maintain zone temps down to 55ºF or up to 85ºF Automatic setback and shutdown Commercial System Controls Off Hour 503.2.4.3 Mandatory
  97. 97. Motorized dampers that will automatically shut when the system or spaces are not in use.  Exceptions • Gravity dampers permitted in buildings < 3 stories • Gravity dampers permitted for buildings of any height located in Climate Zones 1-3 • Gravity dampers permitted for outside air intake or exhaust airflows of 300 cfm (0.14m3/s) or less. Commercial System Controls Shut-Off Dampers 503.2.4.4 Mandatory
  98. 98. Heat pump systems  Heat pump thermostat required when supplying electric resistance heating  Control must prevent supplemental heat demand when heat pump can meet the heating load. • Except during defrost Commercial Building System Controls: Heat Pump Systems 503.2.4.1.1 Mandatory
  99. 99. Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy service to the building, shall include  automatic controls capable of shutting off the system when the pavement temperature is above 50°F (10°C) and no precipitation is falling  an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor temperature is above 40°F (4°C) so that the potential for snow or ice accumulation is negligible Photo courtesy of Ken Baker, K energy Commercial System Controls Snow Melt System 503.2.4.5 Mandatory
  100. 100. DCV must be provided for each zone with spaces > 500 ft² and the average occupant load > 40 people/1000 ft² of floor area where the HVAC system has:  An air-side economizer,  Automatic modulating control of the outdoor air damper, or  A design outdoor airflow > 3,000 cfm Demand control ventilation (DCV): a ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy. Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Demand Control Ventilation 503.2.5.1 Mandatory
  101. 101. Exceptions:  Systems with energy recovery per 503.2.6  Multiple zone systems without direct digital control of single zones communicating with central control panel  Systems with design outdoor airflow < 1,200 cfm  Spaces where supply airflow rate minus any makeup or outgoing transfer air requirement < 1,200 cfm Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Demand Control Ventilation 503.2.5.1 Mandatory
  102. 102. Applies to individual fan systems with  Design supply air capacity ≥ 5,000 cfm  Minimum outside air supply of ≥ 70% of design supply air quantity Exhaust air recovery efficiency must be ≥ 50% Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Energy Recovery Ventilation 503.2.6 Mandatory
  103. 103. Exceptions:  Where energy recovery ventilation systems prohibited by the IMC  Lab fume hood system with at least one of the following: – VAV hood exhaust and room supply systems capable of reducing exhaust and makeup air volume to ≤ 50% of design values – Direct makeup (auxiliary) air supply equal to at least 75% of exhaust rate, heated no warmer than 2ºF below room setpoint, cooled to no cooler than 3ºF above room setpoint, no humidification added, and no simultaneous heating and cooling use for dehumidification control  Systems serving uncooled spaces and heated to < 60ºF  Where > 60% of outdoor heating energy is from site- recovered or site solar energy  Heating systems in climates < 3,600 HDD  Cooling systems in climates with a 1% cooling design wet- bulb temperature < 64ºF  Systems requiring dehumidification that employ series-style energy recovery coils wrapped around the cooling coil Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Energy Recovery Ventilation 503.2.6 Mandatory
  104. 104. Insulation required for supply and return ducts and plenums  Located in unconditioned space – minimum R5  Located outside the building - minimum R8 Exceptions  When located within equipment  When design temperature difference between interior and exterior of the duct or plenum doesn’t exceed 15ºF Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Duct & Plenum Insulation & Sealing 503.2.7 Mandatory
  105. 105. FLUID NOMINAL PIPE DIAMETER ≤ 1.5” ≥ 1.5” Steam 1 ½ 3 Hot water 1 ½ 2 Chilled water, brine or refrigerant 1 ½ 1 ½ All piping serving heating or cooling system must be insulated in accordance with Table 503.2.8 Minimum Pipe Insulation (thickness in inches) Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Piping Insulation 503.2.8 Mandatory, Table 503.2.8
  106. 106. Exceptions:  Piping internal to HVAC equipment (including fan coil units) factory installed and tested  Piping for fluid in temperature range – 55 < temp < 105°F  Piping for fluid not heated or cooled by electricity or fossil fuels  Runout piping ≤ 4’ in length and 1” in diameter between the control valve and HVAC coil Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Piping Insulation 503.2.8 Mandatory
  107. 107. Ducts designed to operate at static pressures ≤ 2 in. wg Securely fastened and sealed  Exceptions • When located within equipment • Design temperature difference between interior and exterior of duct or plenum <15°F Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Low & Med. Pressure Duct Systems 503.2.7.1 & 503.2.7.2 Mandatory
  108. 108. Ducts designed to operate at static pressures > 3 in. wg to be leak tested in accordance with SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual  Air leakage rate ≤ 6.0  CL = F x P0.65 • Where – F = leakage rate per 100 sf of duct surface area – P = test condition static pressure Must test ≥ 25% of the duct area and meet the requirements Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: High Pressure Duct Systems 503.2.7.1.3 Mandatory
  109. 109.  Air System Balancing  Hydronic System Balancing  Manuals – Equipment Capacity and Required Maintenance – Equipment O & M Manuals – HVAC System Control Maintenance and Calibration Information – Written Narrative of Each System Operation Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: HVAC System Completion 503.2.9 Mandatory
  110. 110. • 503.2.11 – Systems installed outside buildings shall be radiant systems, with occupancy systems or timers. Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Outside Buildings
  111. 111. Unitary or packaged, single zone controlled by a single thermostat in the zone served. Simple Systems  Unitary packaged heating and cooling systems  Split system heating and cooling systems  Packaged terminal A/C and HPs  Fuel-fired furnace  Electrical resistance heating  Two-pipe heating systems w/o cooling Commercial Building Mech. Systems: Simple HVAC Systems & Equipment 503.3
  112. 112.  Must include economizers dependent on climate zone  Capable of providing 100-percent outdoor air even if additional mechanical cooling is required (integrated economizer)  Must provide a means to relieve excess outdoor air Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Simple HVAC Systems & Equipment 503.3
  113. 113. • Economizer, Air – A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather. • Economizer, Water – A system where the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water what is itself cooled by heat of mass transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling. Commercial Definitions
  114. 114. CLIMATE ZONES ECONOMIZER REQUIREMENT 1A, 1B, 2A, 7, 8 No requirement 2B, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4A, 4B, 4C, 5A, 5B, 5C, 6A, 6B Economizers on cooling systems ≥ 54,000 Btu/ha a The total capacity of all systems without economizers shall not exceed 480,000 Btu/h per building, or 20 percent of its air economizer capacity, whichever is greater Table 503.3.1(1) Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Economizers 503.3.1, Table 503.3.1(1)
  115. 115. CLIMATE ZONES COOLING EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT (EER OR IPLV) 2B 10% Efficiency Improvement 3B 15% Efficiency Improvement 4B 20% Efficiency Improvement Trade-off high cooling efficiency for economizer Table 503.3.1(2) Two Exceptions Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Economizers 503.3.1, Table 503.3.1(2)
  116. 116. Individual dual duct or mixing reheating and cooling systems with a single fan and with total capacities > 90,000 Btu/h (7.5 tons) should not have economizers Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Single Fan Dual Duct & Mixing VAV Systems, Economizers 503.4.5.3
  117. 117.  Maximum fan power requirements  Applies to HVAC systems with total fan system power > 5 hp  Each HVAC system at design conditions can not exceed allowable fan system motor nameplate hp (Option 1) or fan system bhp (Options 2) in Table 503.2.10.1(1) TABLE 503.2.10.1.1(1) FAN POWER LIMITATION bhp = brake horsepower Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Air System Design & Control 503.2.10 Mandatory, Table 503.2.10.1(1)
  118. 118. • Fan System BHP – The sum of the fan brake horsepower of all fans that are required to operate a fan system design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned space and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors. Commercial Definitions
  119. 119. BHP option includes adjustment “adders” certain devices  Table 503.2.10.1(2) DEVICE ADJUSTMENT Credits Fully ducted return and/or exhaust air systems 0.5 in w.c. Return and/or exhaust air flow control devices 0.5 in w.c Exhaust filters, scrubbers, or other exhaust treatment. The pressure drop of device calculated at fan system design condition. Particulate Filtration Credit: MERV 9 thru 12 0.5 in w.c. Particulate Filtration Credit: MERV 13 thru 15 0.9 in w.c. Particulate Filtration Credit: MERV 16 and greater and electronically enhanced filters Pressure drop calculated at 2x clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition. Carbon and Other gas-phase air cleaners Clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition. Heat Recovery Device Pressure drop of device at fan system design condition. Evaporative Humidifier/Cooler in series with another cooling coil Pressure drop of device at fan system design conditions Sound Attenuation Section 0.15 in w.c. Deductions Fume hood exhaust exception -1.0 in w.c. Fan Power Limitation Drop Adjustment Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Allowable Fan Motor Horsepower 503.2.10 Mandatory
  120. 120. Exceptions Hospital and laboratory systems using flow control devices on exhaust and/or return for health and safety or environmental control permitted to use variable fan power limitation Individual exhaust fans ≤ 1 hp Fans exhausting air from fume hoods Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Allowable Fan Motor Horsepower 503.2.10.1 Mandatory
  121. 121. Selected fan motor to be no larger than first available motor size greater than bhp Fan bhp on design documents Exceptions  Fans < 6 bhp, where first available motor larger than bhp has nameplate rating within 50% of bhp, next larger nameplate motor size may be selected  Fans ≥ 6 bhp, where first available motor larger than bhp has nameplate rating within 30% of bhp, next larger nameplate motor size may be selected bhp = brake horsepower Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Motor Nameplate Horsepower 503.2.10.2 Mandatory
  122. 122. • Energy Recovery Ventilation System – Systems that employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy form exhaust air for the purposes of preheating, precooling, humidifying, or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system. • Variable Air Volume (VAV) – HVAC system that controls the dry-bulb temperature within a space by varying the volumetric flow of heated or cooled supply air to the space. (ASHRAE) Commercial Definitions
  123. 123. Have to be radiant systems Controlled by an occupancy sensing device or timer switch  System is automatically de-energized when no occupants are present. Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Heating Outside a Building 503.2.11 Mandatory
  124. 124. System ≥ 300,000 Btu/h must include  Temperature reset or variable flow • Automatic resets for supply water temperature by at least 25% of design supply-to-return temperature differences or • Reduce system pump flow by 50% of design flow using – Multiple Staged Pumps – Adjustable Speed Drives – Control Valves that modulate as a function of load 503.4.3.4 Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Hydronic Water Loop Heat Pump Systems
  125. 125. Cooling systems can’t use unless system designed with  multiple steps of unloading OR  Continuous capacity modulation Capacity limited per Table 502.4.4 Exception  Unitary packaged systems with cooling capacities < 90,000 Btu/h Rated Capacity Maximum Hot Gas Bypass Capacity (% of total capacity) ≤ 240,000 Btu/h 50% > 240,000 Btu/h 25% Commercial Building Mechanical Systems: Hot Gas Bypass 503.4.7 Mandatory, Table 503.4.7
  126. 126. Table 504.2 Minimum Performance of Water-Heating Equipment  Water Heater Types Covered • Electric Storage • Gas and Oil Storage • Instantaneous Water Heaters – Gas and Oil • Hot water boilers – gas and oil • Pool heaters • Unfired storage tanks Temperature Controls (504.3) Heat Traps (504.4) Commercial Building Service Water Heating 504 Mandatory, Table 504.2
  127. 127. Non-circulating system insulation requirements  First eight feet of outlet piping on systems with no integral heat traps  1/2 inch of insulation required Circulating systems  1 inch of insulation Commercial Building Service Water Heating: Pipe Insulation 504.5
  128. 128. Ability to turn off circulating hot water pumps and heat trace tape when the system is not in operation  Automatically or manually Commercial Building Service Water Heating: System Controls 504.6
  129. 129. Pool heaters (504.7.1)  Readily accessible on-off switch  Natural gas or LPG fired pool heaters will not have continuously burning pilot lights Time switches (504.7.2)  Automatic controls required to operate pool heaters and pumps on a preset schedule  Exceptions • Where public health standards require 24 hour operation • Where pumps are required to operate solar and waste heat recovery pool heating systems Commercial Building Pool Requirements 504.7
  130. 130. Heated pools required to have a pool cover  Pool cover must be vapor retardant Pools heated to over 90oF  Minimum R-12 insulation Exception  Pools deriving > 60% energy for heating from site-recovered energy or solar source Commercial Building Pool Requirements: Pool Covers 504.7.3
  131. 131. Must the Project Comply with the IECC? Comply with the Envelope Requirements Comply with the Mechanical/SWH Requirements Comply with the Lighting Requirements Section 502 90.1 Section 5 Sections 503 and 504 90.1 Section 6 Section 505 90.1 Section 9 Document Compliance with the IECC Plan Review Inspection Section 501.2 Application requires 90.1 to be used in its entirety (Envelope, Lighting, Mechanical) if used as an alternate compliance path IECC Section 506 Building Performance Method Commercial Building Introduction to the Energy Compliance Process
  132. 132. Commercial Lighting Requirements When do the Requirements Apply?  Original Installed Lighting System in a New Building, Addition, or Tenant Build-out  Existing Lighting System that is Altered  Change in Occupancy that Increases Energy  Change in Occupancy that requires less LPD as shown in table 505.3.2 Exceptions: – Historic buildings • State or National listing • Eligible to be listed – Alterations where less than 50% of the luminaires in a space are replaced and installed interior power lighting is not increased – Lighting within dwelling units • Where ≥ 50% of permanently installed fixtures include high-efficacy lamps 101
  133. 133. Mandatory Interior Lighting requirements  Required Controls  Wattage/Efficiency Limits Interior Lighting Power Allowances (watts/ft2) Exterior Lighting Controls  Required Controls  Lamp Efficiency Exterior Lighting Power Allowances (watts/ft2) Electric Metering Commercial Lighting Requirements What’s Covered? 505 Mandatory
  134. 134. Lamp Wattage Efficacy > 40 watts 60 lumens/watt 15-40 watts 50 lumens/watt < 15 watts 40 lumens/watt Defined in the 2009 IECC as:  Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy based on lamp wattage Commercial Interior Lighting Control High-Efficacy Lights 202
  135. 135. Independent Lighting Control required for each space surrounded by floor-to-ceiling partitions  Must be located in the space served, - OR -  Switched from a remote location • Must have indicator that identifies the lights served and their status (off or on)  Exemptions • Security or emergency areas that must be continuously lighted • Lighting in stairways or corridors that are elements of the means of egress Commercial Interior Lighting Control Basic Control 505.2
  136. 136. Light Reduction Controls must allow the occupant to reduce connected lighting  By at least 50%  In a reasonably uniform illumination pattern Commercial Interior Lighting Control Light Reduction 505.2.2.1
  137. 137.  Controlling all lamps or luminaires  Dual switching of alternate rows of luminaires, alternate luminaires or lamps  Switching middle lamp luminaires independently from the outer lamps  Each luminaire or each lamp SS Dimmer Switch D Alternating Luminaires Dimming SS Alternating Lamps Commercial Interior Lighting Control Light Reduction Control Options 505.2.2.1
  138. 138. Commercial Interior Lighting Control Potential Savings
  139. 139. Light Reduction Control Not required for the following: Areas with only one luminaire Areas controlled by occupancy sensor Corridors, storerooms, restrooms or public lobbies Sleeping units Spaces with <0.6 w/ft2 Commercial Interior Lighting Control Light Reduction Exemptions 505.2.2.1
  140. 140. Automatic lighting shutoff control device required in all buildings larger than 5,000 ft2 Building Defined:  “Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy”  Building area surrounded by exterior walls and fire walls Exempted spaces  Sleeping units  Lighting for patient care  When an automatic shutoff would endanger occupant safety or security Commercial Interior Lighting Control Automatic Shutoff 505.2.2.2
  141. 141. 1. Control lights on a scheduled basis (automatic time switch) • Time-of-day controller • Controls ≤ 25,000 ft2 and not more than one floor, or 2. Occupant sensor • Turn lights off within 30 minutes of occupant leaving the space 3. Signal from another control or alarm that indicates the area is unoccupied Office Occupancy Sensor Conference Room Restrooms Lobby Connect to Lighting in Lobby Open Bay Office Connect to Lighting in Open Bay Office Automatic Lighting Control 110’ 50’ Automatic Lighting Shutoff Compliance Options Courtesy Britt-Makela Group Commercial Interior Lighting Control Automatic Shutoff Options 505.2.2.2
  142. 142.  Readily accessible  Within view of the lights or area controlled  Manually operated  ≤ 2 hour override – The override allows lighting to remain on no more than 2 hours when override is initiated  Controls an area ≤ 5,000 ft2  Exemptions – Can be over 2 hour override in malls and arcades, auditoriums, single-tenant retail space, industrial facilities and arenas when using captive key override – Override in malls and arcades, auditoriums, single-tenant retail space, industrial facilities and arenas can cover up to 20,000 ft2 Commercial Interior Lighting Control Occupant Override 505.2.2.2.1
  143. 143. Feature that turns off all loads for 24 hours then resumes the normally scheduled operation Exceptions  Retail stores and associated malls  Restaurants  Grocery stores  Places of religious worship  Theaters Commercial Interior Lighting Control Holiday Scheduling 505.2.2.2.2
  144. 144. Daylight Zones  Must have individual control of the lights independent of general area lighting Contiguous daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestration  Can be controlled by a single controlling device if the zone doesn’t include areas facing more than two adjacent orientations (i.e., north, east, south, west) Daylight zones under skylights > 15 ft from the perimeter  Must be controlled separately from daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestration Exception  Daylight spaces 1) enclosed by walls or ceiling height partitions and 2) containing two or fewer light fixtures • not required to have a separate switch for general area lighting Note: required controls may be manual or automatic Commercial Building Daylight Zone Control Requirements 505.2.2.3
  145. 145. The daylight zone depth is assumed to be 15 feet into the space or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less The daylight zone width is assumed to be:  the width of the window plus 2 feet on each side, or  the window width plus distance to opaque partitions, or  the window width plus one-half the distance to adjacent skylight or vertical fenestration, whichever is least. Commercial Daylight Zone Definition Adjacent to Vertical Fenestration 505.2.2.3
  146. 146. The area under skylights whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the skylight dimension plus the smaller of:  The floor-to-ceiling height, or  The distance to a ceiling height opaque partition, or  One-half the distance to adjacent skylights or vertical fenestration (whichever is least) Commercial Daylight Zone Definition Under Skylights 505.2.2.3
  147. 147. Standard Room Suite $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$  Applies to hotels, motels, boarding houses, or similar  Master switch required at each room or main room entry  Must control all permanently wired luminaires or switched receptacles Exceptions: bathrooms Commercial Interior Lighting Control Sleeping Unit Lighting Control 505.2.3
  148. 148.  For dusk-to-dawn lighting: astronomical time switch or photosensor  For all other: astronomical time switch OR photosensor + time switch  All time switches must have at least 10 hour battery backup Commercial Exterior Lighting Control Requirements 505.2.4
  149. 149. Tandem Wiring for all Odd Numbered Lamp Configurations Exceptions  Where electronic high frequency ballasts are used  Luminaires on emergency circuits  Luminaires with no available pair in the same area Commercial Interior Lighting Control Tandem Wiring 505.3 Mandatory
  150. 150. Exit Signs  Internally illuminated exit signs shall not exceed 5 watts per side Commercial Interior Lighting Control Exit Lights 505.4
  151. 151. Sum the wattage of all proposed connected lighting power This must include all lighting that is part of the design for the space including:  Overhead lighting  Task lighting  Decorative lighting Commercial Lighting Requirements Connected Interior Lighting Power Calculation 505.5.1
  152. 152. Connected Interior Lighting Power must not exceed Interior Lighting Power Allowance 1. Calculate Interior Lighting Power Allowance • Building Area type allowance • Additional allowances 2. Calculate proposed connected lighting power • Wattage calculation “rules” • Exempted lighting 3. Compare values: proposed wattage must be less than or equal to allowed wattage Commercial Lighting Requirements Interior Lighting Power Limits 505.5
  153. 153. Connected power for following not included in calculations:  Professional sports arena playing field  Sleeping unit lighting  Emergency lighting automatically off during normal building operation  Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by occupants with special lighting needs including visual impairment and other medical and age related issues  Lighting in interior spaces specifically designated as a registered interior historic landmark  Casino gaming areas  Lighting equipment used for the following exempt if in addition to general lighting and controlled by an independent control device • Task lighting for medical and dental procedures • Display lighting for exhibits in galleries, museums and monuments Commercial Exterior Lighting Exemptions to Proposed Lighting Power Calculation 505.5.1
  154. 154.  Theatrical, stage, film, and video production  Used for photographic processes  Integral to equipment or instrumentation installed by manufacturer  Plant growth or maintenance  Advertising or directional signage  Food warming and food prep equipment (in restaurant bldgs & areas)  Lighting equipment that is for sale  Lighting demonstration equipment in lighting education facilities  Approved because of safety or emergency considerations, exclusive of exit lights  Integral to both open and glass-enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases  In retail display windows when the display is enclosed by ceiling- height partitions  Furniture-mounted supplemental task lighting controlled by automatic shutoff Commercial Exterior Lighting Exemptions to Proposed Lighting Power Calculation 505.5.1
  155. 155. Building Area Type  Note: Alternate standard ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2007 provides whole building and space-by-space options Table 505.5.2 Commercial Interior Lighting Power Allowance 505.5.2
  156. 156. First, choose an appropriate “Building Area Type” from the allowance table (505.5.2)  “Building Area” includes all spaces that are associated with that business or function type.  For example a space with: • Corridors, • Restrooms, • A lobby, and • Office space …would be considered an Office Building Area Type Then...multiply the lighting power density (W/ft2) by the total building square footage to get allowed watts for compliance Commercial Interior Lighting Power Allowance Calculation 505.5.2
  157. 157. Office: 200,000 ft2 1.0 W/ft2 = 200,000 W Table 505.5.2 Commercial Interior Lighting Example: Office Table 505.5.2 A 200,000 ft2 office building that contains corridor, restrooms, break rooms and a lobby is given 1.0 W/ft2 for the entire building
  158. 158. How is an allowance determined if the building has more than one Building Area Type?  Example – A building contains the following area types • Museum: 40,000 ft2 • Retail 5,000 ft2 • Cafeteria: 10,000 ft2 Use the more specific building area type where more than one area type exists in the building Sum the individual (lighting power density x area square footage) values for Total Power Allowance Commercial Interior Lighting Power Allowance for Multiple Occupancy Building 505.5.2
  159. 159. Cafeteria:10,000 ft2 at 1.4 W/ft2 = 14,000 W Museum: 40,000 ft2 at 1.1 W/ft2 = 44,000 W Retail: 5,000 ft2 at 1.5 W/ft2 = 7,500 W Total watts allowed = 65,500 W Table 505.5.2 Commercial Interior Lighting Example: Multiple Occupancy Building 505.5.2
  160. 160. Lighting wattage must be calculated in accordance with Section 505.5.1  Screw lamp holders: maximum labeled wattage of the luminaire  Low voltage lighting: transformer wattage  Line voltage track: 1. specified wattage with minimum of 30 W/linear ft OR 2. wattage limit of system’s circuit breaker OR 3. wattage limit of other permanent current limiting devices  Other: manufacturer’s rated wattage of lamp and associated ballast Commercial Exterior Lighting Connected Lighting Calculation 505.6 Mandatory
  161. 161. Additional Interior Lighting Power Allowance = 1000 watts + (Retail Area 1 x 0.6 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 2 x 0.6 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 3 x 1.4 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 4 x 2.5 W/ft2), Where:  Retail Area 1 = the floor area for all products not listed in Retail Area 2, 3 or 4.  Retail Area 2 = the floor area used for the sale of vehicles, sporting goods and small electronics.  Retail Area 3 = the floor area used for the sale of furniture, clothing, cosmetics and artwork.  Retail Area 4 = the floor area used for the sale of jewelry, crystal, and china. Commercial Interior Lighting Additional Retail Lighting Power Allowance Table 505.5.2 - Footnotes
  162. 162. Exception: Other merchandise categories may be included in Retail Areas 2 through 4 above, provided that justification documenting the need for additional lighting power based on visual inspection, contrast, or other critical display is approved by the authority having jurisdiction. Photo courtesy of Ken Baker, K energy Commercial Interior Lighting Additional Retail Lighting Power Allowance Table 505.5.2 - Footnotes
  163. 163. Building grounds lighting luminaires over 100 watts must have source efficacy of at least 60 lumens per watt Exceptions  Controlled by motion sensor  Any of the exterior lighting power allowance exceptions  As approved for a historical, safety, signage, or emergency consideration Light Source Typical System Efficacy Range in LPW (varies depending on wattage and lamp type) Incandescent 10-18 Halogen incandescent 15-20 Compact fluorescent (CFL) 35-60 Linear fluorescent 50-100 Metal halide 50-90 Commercial Exterior Lighting Building Grounds Lighting 505.6.1
  164. 164. Connected Exterior Lighting Power must not exceed Exterior Lighting Power Allowance 1. Calculate exterior lighting power allowance • Lighting power densities by exterior function and by applicable lighting zone 2. Calculate proposed connected lighting power • Wattage calculation “rules” • Exempted lighting 3. Compare values: proposed wattage must be less than or equal to allowed wattage Commercial Exterior Lighting Power Limits 505.6.2(2)
  165. 165. The following lighting does not need to be included in the proposed lighting calculation: • Specialized signal, directional, and marker lighting associated with transportation • Advertising signage or directional signage • Lighting integral to equipment or instrumentation and installed by its manufacturer • Lighting for theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production, and video production • Lighting for athletic playing areas • Temporary lighting • Lighting for industrial production, material handling, transportation sites, and associated storage areas • Theme elements in theme/amusement parks • Lighting used to highlight features of public monuments and registered historic landmark structures or buildings Commercial Exterior Lighting Exemption from Exterior Calculation 505.6.2(2)
  166. 166. What areas are covered under exterior lighting allowances?  Tradable surfaces Common exterior lighted needs that can be traded for other needs. • For example, wattage allowed for parking lot lighting can be “traded” and used for canopy lighting.  Nontradable surfaces Less common exterior lighted needs that cannot be traded for other needs. • These applications have more specific security or task illuminance needs. Commercial Exterior Lighting Power Limits 505.6.2(2)
  167. 167.  Uncovered parking lots and areas  Walkways (under and over 10 feet wide)  Stairways  Pedestrian tunnels  Main building entrances and exits  Other doors  Entry canopies  Free-standing and attached sales canopies  Open sales areas  Street frontage sales areas Commercial Exterior Lighting Tradable Surfaces Table 505.6.2(2)
  168. 168.  Building facades  Automated teller machines and night depositories  Entrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded facilities  Loading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance and other emergency vehicles  Drive-up windows/doors  Parking near 24-hour retail entrances Commercial Exterior Lighting Nontradable Surfaces Table 505.6.2(2)
  169. 169. Lighting Zone Description 1 Developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest land, and rural areas 2 Areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning, neighborhood business districts, light industrial with limited nighttime use and residential mixed use areas 3 All other areas 4 High-activity commercial districts in major metropolitan areas as designated by the local land use planning authority Commercial Exterior Lighting Exterior Lighting Zones Table 505.6.2(1)
  170. 170. Applications Lighting Power Densities Tradable Surfaces (Lighting Power Densities for open parking areas, building grounds, building entrances and exits, canopies and overhangs, and outdoor sales areas may be traded) Uncovered Parking Areas Parking lots and drives 0.15 W/ft2 Building Grounds Walkways less than 10 feet wide 1.0 W/linear foot Walkways 10 feet wide or greater, Plaza areas and Special feature areas 0.2 W/ft2 Stairways 1.0 W/ft2 Commercial Exterior Lighting Zones Lighting Power Densities
  171. 171. Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Tradable Surfaces Building Entrances and Exits Main entries 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 30 W/linear foot of door width 30 W/linear foot of door width Other doors 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width Entry Canopies 0.25 W/ft2 0.25 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2 Sales Canopies Free-standing and attached 0.6 W/ft2 0.6 W/ft2 0.8 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2 Outdoor Sales Open areas (including vehicle sales lots) 0.25 W/ft2 0.25 W/ft2 0.5 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2 Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition to “open area” allowance No allowance 10 W/linear foot 10 W/linear foot 30 W/linear foot Commercial Building Exterior Lighting Zones Table 505.6.2(2)
  172. 172. Separate metering required for each dwelling unit Commercial Electric Energy Consumption Requirements 505.7 Mandatory
  173. 173. Exterior Lighting Power Density & Application Examples Bank ATM Walkway 5 ft wide Canopy Parking Lot Parking: 10,000 ft2 Canopy: 100ft2 Walkway: 300 ft ATM– One location How many tradable watts are allowed for this project? How many nontradablewatts? Bank ATM Walkway 5 ft wide Canopy Parking Lot Bank ATM Walkway 5 ft wide Canopy Parking Lot Parking: 10,000 ft2 Canopy: 100 ATM– One location How many tradable watts are allowed for this project? How many nontradablewatts?
  174. 174. Commercial Performance Compliance
  175. 175. For Performance-Based Compliance Need to model a standard reference design to the mandatory and prescriptive requirements. Convert annual energy consumption to annual energy cost. Need to model your proposed design. Convert annual energy consumption to annual energy cost. Compliance is based on annual energy cost for proposed design < annual cost for standard reference design. For both cases unite energy cost has to be the same. For both cases, simulation rules may apply. 506.3 Commercial Performance-Based Compliance
  176. 176. 506.1 Compliance based on total building performance requires that a proposed building (proposed design) be shown to have an annual energy cost that is less than or equal to the annual energy cost of the standard reference design. Energy prices shall be taken from a source approved by the code official, such as the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration's State Energy Price and Expenditure Report. Commercial Total Building Performance
  177. 177. There are a number of Energy Simulations Tools
  178. 178. Case Study Commercial Existing Building
  179. 179. A 10,640 square foot tenant improvement program at Scottsdale Waterfront. The office space goes beyond code compliance to result in 27.8% energy savings of the proposed building over the baseline building. Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement
  180. 180. FLOOR LAYOUT The building was built in 2006 and is two stories with retail/restaurant on the first floor and office on the second. The design challenges will be to work with an existing building envelope and achieve high levels of energy efficiency. Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement
  181. 181. A tenant improvement program, if complies to the scope and requirements of additions and alterations to existing buildings. Main points of Focus : 1. Building Envelope : Ceiling and Skylights 2. Internal Loads 3. High efficiency HVAC Systems • Simulation Software Used: eQUEST V3.64 • Code Compliance to: ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement
  182. 182. BUILDING ENVELOPE Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement • Ceiling insulation has been added to improve the efficiency of the building envelope • External walls and Windows have not been altered • Internal Walls • Skylight U Value, SHGC Triple pane high performance glazing, for daylighting as well as building relief air. Before Retrofit After Retrofit Description IECC ESD Ceiling U Value (Btu/h sq.ft F) 0.048 0.028 Skylight U Value (0-2%) 0.75 0.29 Skylight SHGC 0.35 0.38 CEILING AND SKYLIGHTS: BEYOND CODE
  183. 183. INTERNAL LOADS LIGHTING CONTROLS • 62% energy savings over baseline building in lighting end use Daylight Controls for Daylit Areas: • The project has installed daylight responsive controls in all regularly occupied spaces within 15 feet of windows and under skylights. Daylight Controls for Lighting Load : • The project has installed daylight responsive controls for 50% of the connected lighting load in daylit areas. Occupancy Sensors: • The project has installed occupancy sensors for • 75% of the connected lighting load LIGHTING CONTROLS : BEYOND CODE Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement
  184. 184. Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement Old Systems : • 11- 3 Ton Heat Pump units. SEER 12 and R22 Refrigerant. • Removed and Donated to Phoenix Elementary Schools New Systems: • High efficiency Carrier HCQ 15 SEER heat pump units with R410a refrigerant. • Air side Economizer, capable of bringing in 100% outside air and demand control ventilation with CO2 monitoring. • MERV 13 filters. Old Systems Removed Donated to School Description IECC ESD Cooling System Efficiency SEER13 SEER15 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS: BEYOND CODE
  185. 185. HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC SYSTEMS CLASSROOMS AND CONFERENCE ROOMS • Ultra high efficiency 5-ton single zone VAV unit that has a VFD controlling the fan speed. • It is rated by ARI at 15 SEER, Carrier calculates the SEER of the unit to be closer to 20. • Displacement Ventilation: The classroom is served by 6 perforated displacement air panels mounted low on the wall. • Air discharge velocity- less than 50fpm. • Low Noise • Outside Air is provided for the first 6’-0” above finish floor (AFF) in the occupant breathing zone, as opposed to cooling the entire room volume. IECC 2009 Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement
  186. 186. INTERNAL LOADS SKYLIGHTS • Reduced number of RTUs from 11 to 7. • Designed unique skylight/building relief system over the existing roof curbs. • 4 skylights provide natural light to the occupants below; reduce the lighting levels within the space and also provide the building relief air. • Roof curb also houses motorized damper with a weather hood, which operates to maintain building pressurization. • Relief of OA provided during normal operation or economizer operation. Also removes the heat trapped in the skylights • Triple pane ultra high efficiency insulated glass, frosted- to provide diffuse light. Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement
  187. 187. ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION Performance Rating Report DESCRIPTION BASELINE ENERGY PROPOSED ENERGY PROPOSED OVER BASELINE 106 Btu/yr 106 Btu/yr % Energy Savings Lighting Energy 108.9 40.7 62% Space Cooling 187.929 172.172 8.3% Space Heating 0.272 2.009 -558.013% Fans-Indoor Ventilation 296.171 96.928 67.272% Office Equipment 1022.672 738.261 27.810% Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement
  188. 188. UTILITY REBATES POWER USE REDUCTION :  40% Reduced HVAC Loads  37% Reduced Lighting Loads  47% Reduced Plumbing Requirements SRP PROGRAMS USED TO ACHIEVE REBATES • Prescriptive Mechanical Measures • Custom Lighting Measures • Prescriptive Lighting Measures Total Rebate - $7,148.91 Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement
  189. 189. UTILITY REBATES Prescriptive Mechanical Measures : • Highest Available SEER Heat Pumps: $2,484.38 Custom Mechanical Measures • Integrated Economizer on Heat Pumps: $922.68 • Demand Control Ventilation : $453.75 • Daylighting : $1,108.80 • Heat Pump Water Heater : $$88.00 Prescriptive Lighting Measures • LED Exit Lights • Occupancy Sensors • Photo/Daylight Sensors • Energy Efficient Lighting • Total Lighting Rebate: $2091.30 Estimated Annual Energy Savings • 55,000 KWh saved in the First Year • $6,050 Saved Annually* * At $0.11/Kwh (SRP Design Rate for Custom Rebates) Commercial Case Study Tenant Improvement
  190. 190. Software Tools for Compliance COMcheck™
  191. 191. www.energycodes.gov No-cost, easy-to-use software that will demonstrate compliance. www.energycodes.gov/software.stm
  192. 192. Overview of Tool –Various Screen and Options –Compliance Methods –AreaCalc Spreadsheet –Reports COMcheck™
  193. 193. COMcheck™ DOE’s commercial compliance software (Windows or Mac version) Desktop Software Tools Web-Based Tools
  194. 194. • For commercial buildings- can show compliance through the prescriptive approach, trade-off approach or the performance approach. • COMcheck utilizes only the trade-off approach. COMcheck™ DOE’s commercial compliance software
  195. 195. • Trade-off approach allows you to trade enhanced energy efficiency in one component against decreased energy efficiency in another component. These trade-offs typically occur within major building systems-envelope, lighting, or mechanical. • Envelope Example- trade decreased wall efficiency (lower R-value) for increased window efficiency (lower U-factor), or increase the roof insulation and reduce or eliminate slab-edge insulation. • Lighting Systems- Trade-off between proposed lighting fixture wattages in various spaces within a building. • Trade-off in Mechanical Systems- Mentioned in Chapter 5. Example- trade off higher cooling equipment efficiency against a requirement for an economizer. COMcheck™ DOE’s commercial compliance software
  196. 196. 1. Select the appropriate code from the Code Menu. 2. Project Screen: location, project type, building use, and project details (optional). 3. If building envelope compliance : Envelope Screen 4. If lighting compliance is to be shown, enter all of the building's lighting fixtures on the Lighting Screen. 5. If mechanical compliance is to be shown, enter all of the HVAC system, plant, and water-heating equipment on the Mechanical Screen. Note: Mechanical compliance isn't shown as a numerical index like Envelope and Lighting compliance. Rather, COMcheck reports a list of applicable code requirements based upon the equipment details entered by the user. 6. Save- File → Save or Save As to save the data file 7. Print- Use File → View/Print Report to review and/or print the applicable compliance reports. 8. Submit either a printed and signed compliance report (or emailed report, File → Email Report) to the building department. COMcheck™ DOE’s commercial compliance software
  197. 197. COMcheck Compliance Verification
  198. 198. COMcheck Compliance Verification
  199. 199. COMcheck Compliance Verification
  200. 200. COMcheck Compliance Verification
  201. 201. COMcheck Compliance Verification
  202. 202. COMcheck Compliance Verification
  203. 203. COMcheck Compliance Verification
  204. 204. COMcheck Compliance Verification
  205. 205. COMcheck™ DEMONSTRATION
  206. 206. Resources
  207. 207. Adopt, Implement, Enforce Resources
  208. 208. Resources • http://www.iccsafe.org • http://www.energycodes.gov • http://bcap-energy.org • http://www.naseo.org • http://www.eere.energy.gov • https://energycode.pnl.gov/REScheckWeb/ • https://energycode.pnl.gov/COMcheckWeb/ • http://resourcecenter.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/Reso urceCenter
  209. 209. Welcome www.tecworkshop.com

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