Cardiac Exercise 1


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  • Improve cardiovascular system with this method Oxygen used as fuel
  • Not generally recommended for those with high BP
  • The human body is a machine…it needs fuel to run & like a machine it creates byproducts. Oxygen also considered a necessary fuel 40% to heat to keep our body temp around 98.6
  • Everything ingested for fuel utilization is broken down into Glucose (blood sugar). There are glucose stores in the muscle fibers as well as in the blood. When oxygen is brought in by the blood the energy pathways in the muscle fibers can create ATP. This is what allows you to continue to exercise. When your glucose stores become depleted or the oxygen supply does not meet the demand you will fatigue.
  • - @ beginning of exercise carbs are being burned to create ATP (warm-up) The longer you exercise (after about 5-10 minutes +) your oxygen intake increases and you are able to burn fats as well as carbs - Proteins are used as a last resort energy source. Their primary role is for muscle rebuilding.
  • Like a machine your body gives off by products. The first 3 are constant byproducts that will never change. 2) evaporation, or the conversion of a liquid (sweat) to a gas, becomes the body's only legitimate defense against overheating. Millions of sweat glands on the surface of the skin secrete large amounts of liquid, which when evaporated, help to cool the skin, which in turn cools the blood and ultimately the body.
  • The oxygen is not being efficiently used in the muscles…you can only take in a certain amount of oxygen and that can not be changed. Nitric oxide is released and allows vessels to dilate.
  • Normal EF – 55%, you need some left over in the ventricle so it does not close up Heart becomes more conditioned…can pump out just as much or more with less beats.
  • 220-age….doesn’t work with cardiac patients b/c of meds Skeletal muscles will dictate how hard the heart is working…as they demand more oxygen (from the blood) they signal the heart to work harder
  • Cardiac Exercise 1

    1. 1. Anatomy & Physiology of Exercise <ul><li>Types of Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Fueling the Human Body </li></ul><ul><li>Systems affected by Aerobic Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Responses to Exercise </li></ul>
    2. 2. What are the two types of exercise? <ul><li>1. Aerobic </li></ul>2. Anaerobic
    3. 3. <ul><li>Requiring Oxygen to produce energy </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic in nature, uses large muscle groups </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steady activity that raises HR to deliver oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration: minutes to hours </li></ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul>Aerobic <ul><li>Walking, biking, rowing </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Without Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Short quick controlled movements </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: 10-40 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strength training, sprinting </li></ul></ul></ul>Anaerobic
    5. 5. Fueling the Human Body <ul><li>What nutrients are used as fuel? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During fuel breakdown: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40% of calories converts to heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% of calories convert to ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul>
    6. 6. All About ATP <ul><li>Adenosine Tri phosphate </li></ul><ul><li> sugar 3 mineral </li></ul><ul><li>ATP used to fuel exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Without it you could not perform any activity </li></ul>“ Energy Currency of the Cell”
    7. 8. How & Where ATP is Produced Energy pathway Glucose + Oxygen = A TP O 2 O 2 O 2 O 2 O 2
    8. 9. What Fuels are Burned
    9. 10. <ul><li> </li></ul>
    10. 11. Byproducts <ul><li>1. Heat – 40% of calories generate heat to keep stable body temp </li></ul><ul><li>2. H 2 0 – released through sweating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#1 purpose is to cool the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. CO 2 – leaves the body each time we exhale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood drops off the oxygen to the muscles and picks up the carbon dioxide waste to rid of it. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Byproducts (cont’) <ul><li>4. Lactic Acid – this is created when there isn’t enough O 2 getting to the muscles </li></ul><ul><li> Symptoms: muscle fatigue, initial soreness </li></ul><ul><li>Training will lead to > increased muscular conditioning which will lead to > you feeling less tired and sore because there is not as much lactic acid accumulating in the muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Active Recovery – cool down can decrease lactic acid build up </li></ul>
    12. 13. Systems affected by Aerobic Exercise - Cardiac <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 pumping systems working together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atriums/Ventricles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ejection Fraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ejection part – blood is ejected (pumped) out to body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fraction part – the amount of blood pumped out </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Normal Cardiac Response to Exercise <ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in HR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase Cardiac Output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen myocardium (heart muscle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase blood supply to the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase rate to skeletal muscles during exercise, blood shunted from organs (ex. stomach) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Normal Cardiac Response to Exercise <ul><li>Blood Pressure – measurement of force applied on the artery walls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systolic – pressure when heart contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systolic should increase with increase in workload </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastolic – constant pressure between beats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diastolic will generally stay the same or decrease slightly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipids – Increases in HDL </li></ul>
    15. 16. Respiratory System <ul><li>Ventilation/Oxygen intake = with exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve gas exchange = more toxins eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents pooling of secretions in the bronchi = decrease breathing effort and risk of infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on respiration muscles (deep breathing) = enhances oxygenation (improving stamina) and circulation of lymph (improving immune function) </li></ul>
    16. 17. Gastrointestinal System <ul><li>Exercise improves the appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Increases GI tract tone = facilitating peristalsis </li></ul><ul><li>Help relieve constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Improve symptoms of IBS </li></ul>
    17. 18. Metabolic/Endocrine System <ul><li>Exercise can increase metabolic rate as much as 20 x the normal rate…this continues after exercise is through </li></ul><ul><li>Increases use of triglycerides and fatty acids = lower lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss helps stabilize glucose and make cells more responsive to insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Even a 5% decrease in body wt (ave 10 lbs) = reduction in risk of diabetes by 58% (Diabetes Prevention Program 3 year study) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(if over 60 y = reduction is 71%) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Urinary System <ul><li>Promotes blood flow and body can excrete wastes more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents stones from forming </li></ul>
    19. 20. Immune System <ul><li>Lymph fluid is more efficiently pumped from tissues into lymph capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise has been shown to potentially increase resistance to viral infections, and preventing formation of some malignant cells </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate exercise improves natural killer cell function, circulating T-cell function, and cytokine production </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate rest is necessary after vigorous training to allow the body to recover </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Psychoneurologic System <ul><li>Exercise elevates the mood and relieves stress/anxiety across the life span </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases norepinephrine and serotonin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Releases endogenous opioids = increase in endorphins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase oxygen to the brain and other body systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through muscular exertion the body releases stored stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Improves quality of sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation Response through prolonged exhalation phase </li></ul>
    21. 22. Cognitive Function <ul><li>Physical exertion induces cells in the brain to strengthen and build neuronal connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Older adult athletes have denser brains than those of their sedentary counterparts </li></ul>