Nanoscience and nanotechnology in Spain 2010-2011


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This second version of the report “Nanoscience & Nanotechnology in Spain” provides insights by identifying R&D directions and priorities in Spain. Moreover, it aims to be a valid source of guidance, not only for the scientific community but also for the industry.

This report covers a wide range of interdisciplinary areas of research and development, such as Graphene, Nanochemistry, Nanomedicine, Carbon
Nanotubes, Nanomaterials for Energy, Modelling, etc., and provides insights in these areas, currently very active worldwide and particularly in Spain. It
also provides an outlook of the entire Spanish nanotechnology system, including nearly 250 research institutions and over 50 companies.

Expected impact of initiative s suc h a s this document is to enhance visibility, ommunication and networking between specialists in several
fields, facilitate rapid information flow, look for
areas of common ground between different technologies and therefore shape and consolidate the Spanish and European research communities.

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Nanoscience and nanotechnology in Spain 2010-2011

  1. 1. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in SPAINFunded by In collaboration with Coordinated and edited by
  2. 2. Coordinator Antonio Correia (Phantoms Foundation)Design and Layout Carmen Chacón (Phantoms Foundation) Viviana Estêvão (Phantoms Foundation) Maite Fernández (Phantoms Foundation) Concepción Narros (Phantoms Foundation) José Luis Roldán (Phantoms Foundation)Experts Adrian Bachtold - Carbon nanotubes and Graphene Fundació Privada Institut Català de Nanotecnologia (ICN), Barcelona Antonio Correia - Introduction - Preface Phantoms Foundation and NanoSpain Network Coordinator, Madrid Viviana Estêvão - Introduction Phantoms Foundation, Madrid Ricardo García - Scanning Probe Microscopy Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CNM, CSIC), Madrid Francisco Guinea - Carbon nanotubes and Graphene Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM, CSIC), Madrid Wolfgang Maser - Carbon nanotubes and Graphene Instituto de Carboquímica (ICB, CSIC), Zaragoza Rodolfo Miranda - Nanomaterials IMDEA: Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies in Nanosciences (Imdea Nanociencia) Xavier Obradors - Nanomaterials for Energy Materials Science Institute of Barcelona, Barcelona Roberto Otero - Nanomaterials IMDEA: Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies in Nanosciences (Imdea Nanociencia) Francesc Pérez-Murano - Nanoelectronics and Molecular Electronics Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Barcelona Emilio Prieto - Nanometrology, nano-eco-toxicology and standardization Spanish Centre of Metrology (CEM), Madrid Stephan Roche - Carbon nanotubes and Graphene Centre d’ Investigació en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CIN2, ICN-CSIC), Barcelona Juan José Sáenz - Theory and Simulation Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid Josep Samitier - Nanomedicine Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia and Universitat of Barcelona, Barcelona Pedro A. Serena - Introduction Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Madrid Niek van Hulst - Nanooptics and Nanophotonics The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO), Barcelona Jaume Veciana - Nanochemistry Instituto de Ciencia Materiales de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), BarcelonaDisclaimer The Phantoms Foundation has exercised due diligence in the preparation and reporting of information contained in this book, obtaining information from reliable sources. The contents/opinions expressed in this book are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect views of the Phantoms Foundation.
  3. 3. C O N T E N T S05 Preface07 Introduction19 Nanoscience & Nanotecnology in Spain: Research Topics 19 27 37 45 59 67 81 89 95105113 Emerging N&N Centers in Spain113114116117119120123124126129130 Annex I: Spanish Nanotechnology Network (NanoSpain) / Statistics144 Annex II: R&D funding148 Annex III: Publications / Statistics152 Annex IV: Spain Nanotechnology Companies (Catalogue)156 Annex V: NanoSpain Conferences160 Annex VI: Maps for relevant Spanish Initiatives
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  5. 5. PREFACEConsidering the fast and continuous technologies and therefore shape andevolvements in the interdisciplinary field of consolidate the Spanish and European researchNanotechnology, Institutions such as the communities.Phantoms Foundation and national initiativessuch as the Spanish Nanotechnology Network I hope you will enjoy reading this document, a“NanoSpain”, should help identifying and collection of ten chapters written by researchersmonitoring the new emerging fields of research, who are at the forefront of their field in N&N,drivers of interest for this Community, in and look forward to the next edition beginningparticular in Spain. of 2013 which will explore some new strategic research areas.Therefore, this second version of the report“Nanoscience & Nanotechnology in Spain” I would also like to thank all the authors andprovides insights by identifying R&D directions reviewers for turning this project into reality.and priorities in Spain. Moreover, it aims to be avalid source of guidance, not only for thescientific community but also for the industry. The EditorThis report covers a wide range of interdisciplinary Dr. Antonio Correiaareas of research and development, such as Phantoms FoundationGraphene, Nanochemistry, Nanomedicine, Carbon (Madrid, Spain)Nanotubes, Nanomaterials for Energy, Modelling,etc., and provides insights in these areas, currentlyvery active worldwide and particularly in Spain. Italso provides an outlook of the entire Spanishnanotechnology system, including nearly 250research institutions and over 50 companies.Expected impact of initiatives such as thisdocument is to enhance visibility, communicationand networking between specialists in severalfields, facilitate rapid information flow, look forareas of common ground between different 5
  6. 6. > ANTONIO CORREIAPlace and date of birthParis (France), 1966EducationPhD in Materials Science, Universidad Paris 7, 1993ExperienceAntonio Correia has over 15 years’ experience with projects and initiatives related with Nanoscience and Nanotechnology networking. He isauthor or co-author of 60 scientific papers in international journals and guest Editor of several books. Antonio Correia is currently Presidentof the Phantoms Foundation (Spain) and Coordinator/Board member of several EU funded projects (nanoICT, AtMol, MULT-EU-SIM, nanoCODE,nanomagma, COST “BioInspired Nanotechnologies”) or initiatives (NanoSpain, M4nano, ICEX Spanish Nanotechnology plan, etc.). Chairmanof several conferences (TNT, Nanospain, Imaginenano or Graphene), he is also editor of the Enano newsletter published by the> VIVIANA ESTÊVÃOPlace and date of birthCaldas da Rainha (Portugal), 1982 Education • Degree in Public Relations & Advertising, INP, 2004. • Master Degree in Digital Marketing, EUDE. Experience Works at Phantoms Foundation since January 2010 after a long period working in United Kingdom and Portugal as Marketing Researcher & Communications Account within a broad range of sectors & clients. > PEDRO A. SERENA Place and date of birth Madrid (Spain), 1962 Education • Degree in Physical Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 1985 • PhD in Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 1990 Experience Researcher at the Madrid Materials Science Institute (ICMM) of Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). His research interests include the theoretical study of mechanical and electrical properties of nanosized and low-dimensional systems (metallic surfaces, clusters and nanowires, viral capsids, etc). He is co- author of 125 articles published in international and national journals covering different topics: basic science, scientific dissemination, scientific policy, technologies convergence, prospective studies, sustainable development, etc. He has been editor of the book “Nanowires” (Kluwer,1997), and co-author of the “Unidad Didáctica sobre Nanotecnología” (FECyT, Spain, 2009) and author of the book “¿Qué sabemos de la nanotecnología?” (CSIC-La Catarata, 2010). He was coordinator (2000-2003) of the Nanoscience Network and co-founder and co-coordinator (2000-2005) of the NanoSpain Network. Since 2002 to 2005 he was Deputy Director of the ICMM . From 2007 he has been working as Advisor/Assistant of the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation to manage the Strategic Action in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.From 2006 is secretary of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Madrid Science Park and from 2010 is member of the CSIC Scientific Advisory Committee. 6
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION1. Introduction existent to being object of extensive articles and reports in scientific and non-scientific journals,Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (N&N) have as well as to be a favorite discussion topic in webbecome a rapidly growing research and pages, forums and blogs in Internet.development (R&D) field that is cutting acrossmany traditional research topics. Nowadays the When we speak about social impact, we areability to construct nano-objects and nano- referring to the capacity of Nanotechnology todevices provides novel advanced materials and generate applications and devices that willastonishing devices and will lead to the future induce true changes in our daily life, our jobs, ourdevelopment of fully functional nano-machines homes, our health, etc. N&N will fundamentallyand nano-materials, virtually having an effect on restructure the technologies currently used forevery manufactured product, the production and manufacturing, medicine, security, defence,storage of energy, and providing a host of medical energy production and storage, environmentalapplications ranging from in situ and real time management, transportation, communication,diagnostics to tissue regeneration. N&N are more computation and education. Given thethan simply the next frontier in miniaturization, multidisciplinary character of N&N, the list ofsince the properties of materials and devices expected application areas is very long.dramatically change when their characteristicdimensions moves down the nanoscale, revealing The broad scope of N&N applications will affectan entirely new world of possibilities. different aspects of the activity of human beings. Nevertheless, we can highlight that many of2. Potential nanotechnology applications and these applications are focused on thetheir social impact improvement of human health, whereas others will facilitate a more sustainable economicThe evaluation of the expected impact of a development allowing the optimization oftechnology wave is always an uncertain business. resources and diminishing environmental impact.Yet there seems little doubt that the very natureof nanotechnology will precipitate important 3. Nanotechnology Research Fundingchanges, the only question is its timetable. In thecase of N&N, perhaps, the first measurable Nanoscience, transformed in Nanotechnology, isimpact has been its effect on the media. In a taking now its first steps outside the laboratoriesdecade everything nano has gone from non- and many small and large companies are 7
  8. 8. N & N i n S p a i n launching a first wave of nanoproducts into the control of Nanotechnology know-how. According markets. However, the actual power of to Mihail Roco, Japan increased their budget Nanotechnology resides in an immense potential from US$ 245 million in 2000 to US$ 950 million for the manufacture of consumer goods that, in in 2009, proving a significant rising of the many cases, will not be commercialized before a investment from the Japanese Government. couple of decades, thus bringing tangible and Taiwanese, Japanese and South Korean promising results for the economy. Because this companies are leading the NanotechnologyINTRODUCTION huge expected economic impact, investments in their respective countries. In the nanotechnology has roused great interest among meantime, China has become a key player in the the relevant public and private R&D stakeholders Nanotechnology field, leading sectors as the of the world’s most developed countries: funding fabrication of nanoparticles and nanomaterials. agencies, scientific policymakers, organisations, Countries as Israel, Iran, India, Singapore, institutions and companies. Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia have launched specific programmes to promote the use of N&N represent one of the fastest growing areas Nanotechnologies in many industrial sectors with of R&D. In the period of 1997-2005 worldwide local or regional impact (manufacture, textile, investment in Nanotechnology research and wood, agriculture, water remediation, etc). development has increased approximately nine times, from US$ 432 million to US$ 4200 million. Europe has intensively promoted This represents an average annual growth rate of Nanotechnology within the VI (FP6) and the VII 32%. A great example is the National (FP7) Framework Programme through thematic Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) that was Areas denominated NMP1 and ICT2. During the established in 2000 and links 25 federal agencies period of 2003-2006 the budget for NMP was closely related to activities in N&N. NNI budget 1429 million Euros and a remarkable increase of allocated to the federal departments and agencies 3475 million Euros for funding N&N over the increased from US$ 464 million in 2001 to duration of FP7 (2007-2013). There’s a proven approximately US$ 1700 million in 2009. For 2011 commitment of the EU to strengthen research in the funding request for nanotechnology research Europe. Initiatives involving not only increased and development (R&D) in 15 federal investment, but also stronger coordination and departments and agencies is US$ 1760 million, collaboration between all stakeholders like the reflecting a continuous growth in strategic FET flagship (ICT) are being implemented. In collaboration to accelerate the discovery and order to improve the competitiveness of deployment of nanotechnology. In addition to the European industry, to generate and ensure federal initiative, an important effort has been transformation from a resource-intensive to a carried out by the different US state governments, knowledge-intensive industry were created the as well as companies (Motorola, Intel, Hewlett- FET Flagships Initiatives. FET-Proactive acts as a Packard, IBM, Amgen, Abbot Lab., Agilent, etc). pathfinder for the ICT program by fostering novel non-conventional approaches, Industrialized Asian countries have promoted foundational research and supporting initial the development of Nanotechnology from the developments on long-term research and industrial and governmental sectors, with technological innovation in selected themes. investments similar to those of USA. Countries Under the FP7 program were created AMOL-IT, as Taiwan and Korea have made a great effort to nanoICT and Towards Zero-Power ICT projects in keep their current privileged positions in the order to focus resources on visionary and 8
  9. 9. N & N i n S p a i nchallenging long-term goals that are timely and coordinates NANO measures on the nationalhave strong potential for future impact. There and regional levels and is supported by severalhas been a boom of European initiatives Ministries, Federal provinces and Fundingdedicated to develop and popularize institutions, under the overall control of theNanotechnology and this area maintains its BMVIT Federal Ministry for Transport,outstanding role in the FP7 Program. Innovation and Technology. The orientation and the structure of the Austrian NANO Initiative INTRODUCTIONAmong the EU members, Germany stands right have been developed jointly with scientists,at the forefront of international Nanoscience entrepreneurs and intermediaries. The Austrianand is considered as a key location for nano NANO Initiative4 has funded nine RTD projectresearch. The Federal Government by clusters involving more than 200 Austrianexceptional funding programs is helping to turn companies and research institutions.Germany into the leading nano spot. In 2008about 430 million Euros were invested by public EU authorities have also taken into accountfunding in Nanotechnology. Nowadays, around serious concerns on Nanotechnology, appearing740 companies work on the development, in diverse social and economic forums during theapplication and distribution of nanotechnology last decade, in relation with its possibleproducts. Following similar long term strategies, environmental and health effects. These non-on December 2009, French Government desired drawbacks would provide a negativeunveiled a 35000 million Euros national bond to social perception on the development onprepare France for the challenges of the future. Nanotechnology and could lead to an unexpectedThe spending spree over the coming years cut of private and public investments, with thecontemplates higher education and research as subsequent delay in the arrival of the bunch ofthe main priorities, among others. Part of this promised goods, devices and materials. In orderamount will be applied to create new Campus of to allow a coherent (rational, sustainable, non-Excellence, develop research teams, boost aggressive, etc) development of Nanotechnology,competitiveness and increase efforts in the EU has promoted basic and applied researchbiotechnology and nanotechnology. The on nanoecotoxicology and different studies onNanoNextNL3 (2011-2016) consortium in social perception on N&N. Simultaneously,Netherlands which supports research in the field several EU Departments have launched initiativesof nano and microtechnology is another great to improve the communication andexample of the efforts made by the European dissemination among population on the futurecountries. This initiative embrace 114 partners advances and risks that Nanotechnology willand the total sum involved is 250 million Euros, bring. A good example is the European Projecthalf of which is contributed by the collaboration NanoCode5, funded under the Programof more than one hundred businesses, Capacities, in the area Science in Society, withinuniversities, knowledge institutes and university the 7th Framework Program (FP7) which startedmedical centres and the other half by the in January 2010 in order to implement theMinistry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and European Code of Conduct for ResponsibleInnovation. NanoNextNL is the successor of Nanosciences & Nanotechnologies.NanoNed and MicroNed programmes whichwere also greatly supported. In the same line, In addition, EU has also promoted the generationwe must mention the Austrian NANO Initiative, of knowledge based on Nanotechnologya multi-annual funding programme for N&N that emphasizing the role of this techno-scientific area 9
  10. 10. N & N i n S p a i n as foundation for future convergence with other enabled communication between scientific disciplines such as Biotechnology, Medicine, communities and different areas, improving the Cognitive Science, Communications and interaction between Spanish groups and Information Technologies, Social Sciences, etc. improving the visibility of this community. NanoSpain network6 is the clearest example of 4. Nanotechnology in Spain: a successful history self-organization of scientists that helped to promote to the authorities and the general publicINTRODUCTION At the end of 90´s, Spain had not any the existence of this new knowledge, in order to institutional framework nor initiative pointed generate and achieve competitive science, which towards the support and promotion of R&D in can result into high value added products in the Nanotechnology. This fact pushed the scientific near future. NanoSpain network comprises community to promote several initiatives to nearly 300 R&D groups (See Annex I) from strengthen research in Nanotechnology and, at universities, research centers and companies, the same time, to raise the awareness of Public distributed throughout the country. These groups Administration and industry about the need to respresent a research task force formed by more support this emergent field. than 2000 scientists working in N&N. Despite being the meeting point of the continuously Among the initiatives that emerged in Spain in increasing Spanish nanotechnology community, this last decade we can highlight the creation of NanoSpain network has received little support several thematic networks with a strong from Spanish Administration in contrast to those multidisciplinary character. These networks have networks established in other countries. Figure 1. Regional Distribution of research groups – NanoSpain Network. (As of March 31, 2010). 10
  11. 11. N & N i n S p a i nAnother Spanish initiative, which emerged from scale initiatives as the building of new R&Dthe scientific community and has become an centers or public-private consortia and benchmark, is the celebration ofeleven consecutive editions of the conference The International Campus of Excellence program"Trends in Nanotechnology"7. These meetings, was discussed in 2008, first staged competitivelya true showcase of Spanish nanoscience and in 2009 and in 2010 became firmly establishednanotechnology, attracted the most prestigious and aims to put major Spanish universities among INTRODUCTIONinternational researchers, improving the the best in Europe, promoting internationalvisibility of Spanish scientists. The international recognition and supporting the strengths of theevent, ImagineNano8, is also a step further, a Spanish university system. The program ismeeting that gather nearly 1500 participants managed by the Ministry of Education infrom all over the world, combining within the collaboration with other ministries and supportedsame initiative a set of high impact conferences by the Autonomous Communities. In many cases,and an industry exhibition with more than 160 as the Excellence Campus of Universidadinstitutions/companies. Autónoma de Madrid or the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona include remarkableIn early 2003 the initiatives launched by the activities related to the promotion of N&N.scientific community (networks, workshops,conferences) related to nanotechnology led to the Under the policies of the General Stateincorporation of the Strategic Action in Administration (GSA), the Ingenio 2010 programNanoscience and Nanotechnology in the National through programs such as CENIT, CONSOLIDERPlan R+D+I for the 2004-2007 period. This and AVANZA, allowed many economic resourcesStrategic Action has had its continuity in the in strategic areas such as nanotechnology.current National Plan (2008-2011), also including Currently, 8 CONSOLIDER and 9 CENIT projectstopics related to new materials and production are related to nanotechnology, with a total GSAtechnologies. Both strategic actions maintained an funding of 37.9 and 127.8 million Euros,increasing rate of investment in nanotechnology respectively. In the case of CENIT projects,in the period of 2004-2009. For example, the participating companies provided an additionaleffort made by the General State Administration amount of 127.8 M €. Over the next few years(GSA) in the implementation of N&N has been we expect to see the results of these initiativesover 82 million Euros in 2008. During the 2004- through several indicators. Another important2007 period the Strategic Action focused on small initiative is the Biomedical Research Networkingscale projects whereas during the 2008-2011 center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials andperiod the funding was mainly allocated to large Nanomedicine9 (CIBER-BBN), a consortia, created under the leadership of the “Carlos III Health Institute” (ISCIII) to promote research excellence in bioengineering and biomedical imaging, biomaterials and tissue engineering and nanomedicine, diagnosis and monitoring and related technologies for specific treatments such as regenerative medicine and nanotherapies.Table 1. Fiscal effort made by Spanish government in the field of In addition to GSA strategies, the regionalNanoscience and Nanotechnology in the year 2008 (Source: Ministry governments expressed with more or lessof Science and Innovation of Spain). 11
  12. 12. N & N i n S p a i nINTRODUCTION Figure 2. Emerging N&N Centers in Spain. emphasis their interest in nanotechnology, membership of other countries of Europe and including this topic in its regional plans of R&D other regions of the world. and encouraging the creation of new regional networks. However, most palpable manifestation Some of the centers indicated in Fig. 2 are under of the widespread interest in nanotechnology is construction and are expected to be fully the establishment of new research centers as operational during the decade 2010-2020. This joint projects of the Ministry of Science and set of centers, along with those already existing Innovation, Autonomous Communities and in the public research organizations, the network Universities. (See Annex VI and Fig. 2). of Singular Scientific and Technological Infrastructures forms a system of huge potential The International Iberian Nanotechnology forms research in nanoscience and Laboratory10 (INL) is the result of a joint decision nanotechnology. The task of knowledge of the Governments of Portugal and Spain, taken generation must be completed by the technology in November 2005 whereby both countries transfer offices of universities and public research made clear their commitment to a strong organizations, the Technology Centers, and the cooperation in ambitious science and many Science and Technology Parks that have technology joint ventures for the future. The been successfully implemented in Spain11. Also new laboratory is established by Portugal and emerge thematic "nano-networks" and “nano- Spain, but in the future will be open to the platforms” oriented to productive sectors as 12
  13. 13. N & N i n S p a i nRENAC12 (Network for the application of designed to spread among teachers in secondarynanotechnologies in construction and habitat and high school education along with booksmaterials and products), SUSCHEM13 (Spanish devoted to N&N dissemination that have beenTechnology Platform on Sustainable Chemistry), recently issued. On the other hand, events asGÉNESIS14 (Spanish Technology Platform on “Atom by Atom” or “Passion for Knowledge”Nanotechnology and Smart Systems Integration), disclose the progresses, challenges andNANOMED15 (Spanish Nanomedicine Platform), implications of various “nano-areas” to a broad INTRODUCTIONMATERPLAT16 (Spanish Technological Platform on and general audience. Furthermore, initiatives asAdvanced Materials and Nanomaterials) or the SPMAGE international contest19 of SPMFotonica2117 (The Spanish Technology Platform of (Scanning Probe Microscopy) images or thePhotonics), among many others. exhibition “A walk around the nanoworld” are succesful initiatives to disseminate N&N. Recently,These strategies for generation and transfer of an Iberoamerican Network for Dissemination andknowledge are reinforced by other Training in N&N (NANODYF)20 has been funded bycomplementary activities aimed at both the the Iberoamerican Programme for Science andinternationalization of our scientific-technological Technology (CYTED) in order to promote formalresults and the dissemination of science. As an and non-formal education of N&N inexample of the internationalization, the Spanish Iberoamerican countries where more than 460Institute of Foreign Trade (ICEX), through its million people communicate in Spanish."Technology Plan" in Nanotechnology(coordinated by Phantoms Foundation) One could say that in this last decade we haveencourages external promotion activities of seen an explosion of initiatives in the field ofresearch centers and companies, enabling the nanotechnology. All initiatives represent a clearparticipation of Spain with pavilions and commitment that Spain is situated in theinformative points in several international medium term between the group of countriesexhibitions as Nanotech Japan (2008-2011), one that can lead the change towards a knowledge-of the most important events in nanotechnology, based society. However, it is necessary toNSTI fair (2009) in U.S. and Taiwan Nano (2010)18. maintain a constant tension to strengthen the settlement of all initiatives. The short-termMore recently, a catalogue of N&N companies in challenge is to continue the investement,Spain was compiled by Phantoms Foundation and despite being in an economic crisis, and improvefunded by ICEX and gives a general overview of coordination of all players involved in the R+D+I.the enterprises working in this field. Since the The next decade will confirm whether effortsyear of 2000 until 2010, were created 36 have been sufficient to be amongst the mostcompanies mainly in nanomaterials, advanced economies, fulfilling the expectationsnanocomposites, nanobio and nanoparticles. So for nanotechnology as an engine of Spanishfar 60 companies performing R&D in nanoscience industry in 2020. Everything achieved so far hasand nanotechnology are listed and is predicted a required a great effort, but still we have a R&Dsignificant increase in the upcoming years. system relatively weak compared with those countries which we want to look like. Any changeIn terms of outreach efforts we can mention in the sustained investment policies in our R&Dseveral initiatives. On one hand the edition of the system can take us back several years, as budgetfirst book in N&N issued by the Spanish cuts are announced to overcome this period ofFoundation for Science and Technology (FECYT), crisis they can also be very harmful in an 13
  14. 14. N & N i n S p a i n emerging issue as nanotechnology. We hope automation, and therefore contributing to global these cuts are punctual and that soon will regain sustainable development. On the other hand, the road of support R&D&I. the nanotechnological revolution will speed up the seemingly unstoppable expansion of the In the meantime, before recovering the previous information technologies, and causing the momentum, we need to implement new globalization of the economy, the spreading of strategies intended to keep the path we started ideas, the access to the different sources ofINTRODUCTION ten years ago under a more restrictive economic knowledge, the improvement of the educative scenario. These strategies must be based in few systems, etc, to increase vertiginously. Finally, the ingredients, including among others: (i) the irruption of the Nanotechnologies will directly stimulus of the dialogue between Spain affect human beings by substantially improving Ministries and Regional Goverments, on one diagnosis and treatment of diseases, and also our side, and scientific community using existing capacities to interact with our surroundings. networks that must be suitably funded on the other; (ii) the increasing coordination of research Right now we are facing a powerful scientific centres and large scale infrastrutures in order to paradigm with a multidisciplinary character, optimize the access to scientific services of where Chemistry, Engineering, Biology, Physics, public and private groups; (iii) to enhace public- Medicine, Materials Science, and Modelling- private cooperation through Technology Computation converge. Establishing links Platforms, Industry Networks and Science and between the scientific communities, looking for Technology Parks; (iv) an actual support to small contact points and promoting the existence of N&N spin-offs emerging from research centres, multidisciplinary groups, where imaginative (v) the formation of a new generation of PhD solutions to nanoscale problems are forged, students and technicians highly skilled for becomes now essential. multidisciplinary research through specific training programs (Master and PhD courses); Further reading and (vi) the involvement of society through well designed dissemination activities using Introduction emerging communication technologies. • C. P. Poole and F. J. Owens, “Introduction to 5. Conclusions the Nanotechnology”, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2003). Nanoscience and Nanotechnology represent • R. Waser (Ed.) “Nanoelectronics and scientific-technical areas that in less than two Information Technology“, Wiley-VCH, decades have gone from being in the hands of a Weinheim (2003). reduced group of researchers who glimpsed • M. Ventra, S. Evoy, J.R. Heflin (Eds.), their great potential, to constitute one of the “Introduction to Nanoscale Science and recognized pillars of the scientific advance for Technology”, Series: Nanostructure Science the next decades. The ability to manipulate the and Technology, Springer (2004). matter on atomic scale opens the possibility of • A. Nouaihat, “An Introduction to Nanosciences designing and manufacturing new materials and and Nanotechnology” , Wiley-ISTE (2008). devices of nanometric size. This possibility will • G. L. Hornyak, J. Dutta, H.F. Tibbals and A. Rao, alter the methods of manufacturing in factories, “Introduction to Nanoscience”, CRC Press allowing for greater process optimization and (2008). 14
  15. 15. N & N i n S p a i n• S. Lindsay, “Introduction to Nanoscience”, • Research in Germany: Oxford University Press (2009).• M- Pagliaro, “Nano-Age: How Nanotechnology portal/en/downloads/download-files/ Changes our Future”, Wiley-VCH (2010). 9434/welcome-to-nanotech-germany.pdf• S.H. Priest, “Nanotechnology and the Public: Risk Perception and Risk Communication areas/68296/nanotechnology.html (Perspectives in Nanotechnology)”, CRC Press • “Paris plans science in the suburbs”: INTRODUCTION (2011). 467897a.htmlFunding • “French research wins huge cash boost”:• Marks & Clerk, Nanotechnology, Report full/462838a.html (2006). •• documents/ev_20040301_en.pdf• “The long view of Nanotechnology develop- • A. Nordmann, “Converging Technologies – ment: The national Nanotechnology Initia- Shaping the Future of European Societies”: tive at ten years”, Mihail Roco (2011) /chapter00-2.pdf Nanotechnology in Spain• “Some Figures about Nanotechnology R&D in Europe and Beyond”, European Commis- • I+D+I National Plan 2008-2011 sion, Research DG PLAN_NACIONAL_CONSEJO_DE_ nanotechnology/docs/nano_funding_data_ MINISTROS.pdf 08122005.pdf • P.A. Serena, “Report on the implementation• UE FP7 (NMP theme): of the Action Plan for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies in Spain (2005-2007)", nanotechnology_en.html Oficina Europea Micinn:• EU FP7 Nanotechnology funding opportuni- ties: cooperacion/nanociencias-nanotecnologias- nanotechnology/src/eu_funding.htm materiales-y-nuevas-tecnologias-de-la-• EU FP7 Technological Platforms: produccion/documentos-de-interes/in- forme-de-la-implementacion-del-plan-de-ac- platforms/ home_en.html cion-de-nanociencias-y-nanotecnologias-par• FET Flagships a-el-periodo-2005-2007-en-espana • P. A. Serena, “A survey of public funding of programme/fet/flagship/ nanotechnology in Spain over 2008”. Mi-• EU-FP7 (ICT-FET) proactive initiative (nano nistry of Science and Innovation report to ICT - NANO-SCALE ICT DEVICES AND SYSTEMS): the European Commission. proactive/nanoict_en.html download/1122/7623/file/• REPORT2008-First-Implementation-Plan- index.cfm?fuseaction=prog.document& FINAL-INL.pdf PG_RCN=8737574 15
  16. 16. N & N i n S p a i n 14 • 15 excelencia.html 16 • menui- 17 tem.7eeac5cd345b4f34f09dfd1001432ea0/? 18 vgnextoid=b0b841f658431210VgnVCM1000; 001034e20aRCRD (Technological Platforms); • J.A. Martín-Gago et al. “Teaching Unit;INTRODUCTION Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Among; the science fiction of the present and the 19 future technology”, Foundation for Science 20 and Technology (FECYT), Madrid 2008 • Event Atom by Atom (San Sebastian, Spain): • Event Passion for knowledge (San Sebastian, Spain): knowledge • “Industrial Applications of Nanotechnology in Spain in 2020 Horizon, Fundación OPTI and Fundación INASMET-TECNALIA, Madrid. (2008). The book can be downloaded free from: References 1 FP6 Thematic Area denominated “Nanotechnologies and nano-sciences, knowledge-based multifunctional materials and new production processes and devices” and FP7 denominated “Nanosciences, Nanotechnologies, Materials and new Production Technologies” 2 ICT: Information and Communication Technologies 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 16
  17. 17. N & N i n S p a i n 17
  18. 18. > JAUME VECIANA Place and date of birth San Salvador (Rep. El Salvador), 1950 Education Degree in Chemical Science, Univ. Barcelona, June 1973. Doctor in Chemistry, Univ. Barcelona, November 1977. Experience Main research activities are focused on functional molecular materials with metallic- transport and magnetism-properties, supramolecular materials and to the development of molecular nanoscience and nanotechnology. Research is also aimed towards the development of new processing methods for structuring functional molecular materials as nanoparticles and their patterning on surfaces. Also activities in Nanomedicine are currently 18
  19. 19. NANOCHEMISTRY1. Introduction in this area will contribute to solving multiple societal issues and will have an enormousNanochemistry is the term generally used to impact in many aspects and activities of ourgather all activities of Nanoscience and lives; especially those related with:Nanotechnology (N&N) having in common theuse of the traditional concepts, objectives and a) Energytools of Chemistry. Accordingly, Nanochemistry b) Information and Communication Technologiesdeals with the design, study, production, and c) Healthcaretransformation of basic materials into other d) Quality of Lifeoften more complex products and materials that e) Citizen Protectionshow useful properties due to their nanoscopic f) Transportdimensions. This area of research has thepotential to make a significant impact on our Indeed, activities in this discipline will enable ourworld since it has an enabling character European society to become more sustainable,underpinning technology clusters such as due to new and improved products andmaterials and manufacturing. processes that supply new and existing products more efficiently.Application areas include construction,cosmetics, pharmaceutical, automotive, and Moreover, it is anticipated that the economicalaerospace industry, as well as polymer additives, and social impacts of Nanochemistry in our societyfunctional surfaces, sensors and biosensors, will be very high both in terms of generatingmolecular electronics, and targeted drug greater wealth and larger economical revenues,release. It is just in this area of research where improving our trade balances, as well as in theone of the most important and commonly used generation and maintaining employmentsapproaches of N&N, the “bottom-up-approach”, because it will push and renew traditionalcomes from, whose objectives are to organize activities of chemical industry in Europe.the matter at the nanoscale from atoms ormolecules with the purpose of obtaining new This aspect is important because the chemicalproperties or applications. industry is one of the pillars of the European economy. It is ubiquitous and is a significantDue to the transversal character of factor in the improved quality of life enjoyed byNanochemistry, it is expected that the research European citizens today. 19
  20. 20. N & N i n S p a i n 2. State of the Art (recent advances, etc.) In order to analyse the state of the art of this area and describe the recent advances, over the 2007-2009 period, a search was made in the ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science) crossing the terms chem* and nano*. This search gaveNANOCHEMISTRY 36.400 results corresponding to papers that appeared in journals devoted to general science, chemistry, nanoscience, materials science, and physics. A careful analysis of the most cited articles of this search permitted to localize those topics inside Nanochemistry that have received more attention among the scientific community. A list of those topics, randomly ordered, is as follows: Figure 1. SEM image of a drug processed as a particulate material for • Self-assembled organizations in 0-, 1-, 2-, and controlling its delivery. Courtesy of NANOMOL, ICMAB (CSIC)-CIBER- BBN. 3-Dimensions. • Hierarchical functional supramolecular According with the vision paper of the European organizations. Technology Platform for Sustainable Chemistry (SUSCHEM), “The vision for 2025 and beyond”, • Studies on molecular dynamics on surface the EU is a leading global chemicals producing reactions. area, with 32% of world chemicals production. • Basic studies on interfacial structural aspects of small molecules. This sector contributes 2.4% to European Union GDP and comprises some 25,000 enterprises in • Synthesis and studies of molecular Europe, 98% of these are SMEs, which account motors/machines/valves. for 45% of the sectors added value. The • Design, preparation and study on chemical industry of the 25 State Members of nanoreactors. EU currently employs 2.7 million people directly, of which 46% are in SMEs, with many times this • Design and preparation of metal-organic number employed indirectly. frameworks with new properties. • Chemically modified surfaces for microfluidics. Consequently, N&N could help to boost European research, development and innovation in • Nanogels obtained by polymerization chemical technologies becoming a major techniques. determining factor to secure the sectors • Catalytic activity studies of metallic clusters. competitiveness and consequently the overall competitiveness. Thus, the future activities in • Chirality enhancement of surfaces or nanotubes. Nanochemistry will be of the utmost importance • New methods for preparation of nanocrystals for our lives and economy. /nanowires/nanotubes/nanovesicles. 20
  21. 21. N & N i n S p a i n• Chemically modified surfaces / nanofibres / • Molecule-based techniques for printing. nanotubes and their applications. • Plasmon resonance studies of functionalized• Nanofabrication based on “layer-by-layer” surfaces/particles. assembly techniques. • Electron transport in molecular junctions and• Polymers with responsive properties to in nanotubes and graphenes. external stimuli. NANOCHEMISTRY • Nanoparticles and nanostructrued materials• Nanoparticles for being used as sensors, for sensing Hg2+ ions in water. medical imaging and therapy. • Preparation and functionalization of• Nanostructured materials for gas storage polymeric dendrons and dendrimers. applications. • Synthesis and characterizaton of monodisperse• Nanostructured materials for photovoltaics structured (hollow, core-shell, capsules, etc.) and photonics. nanoparticles.• Nanostructured materials for energy 3. Most relevant international papers in the area applications. appearing during 2007-2009• Nanostructured materials for drug delivery and targeting purposes. The most cited papers found in the above men- tioned searching using the terms nano* and• Self-assembled nanoprobes for NMR imaging. chem* are the following:• Synthesis, functionalization, and application of magnetic nanoparticles. •“Synthetic molecular motors and mechanical machines”.• Mesoporous materials for drug delivery. Kay, ER; Leigh, DA; Zerbetto, F., Angew. Chem.• Drug encapsulation in nanostructured objects Int. Ed., 46, 72-191 (2007). for biomedical applications. •“Titanium dioxide nanomaterials: Synthesis,• DNA hybridized materials for use in medical properties, modifications, and applications”. and sensing applications. Chen, X; Mao, SS, Chem. Rev., 107, 2891-2959 (2007).• Basic studies on cell internalization of nanostructured organizations. •“Chemically derived, ultrasmooth graphene nanoribbon semiconductors”.• Functionalization of quantum dots for cellular Li, XL; Wang, XR; Zhang, L; Lee, SW; Dai, HJ, imaging. Science, 319, 1229-1232 (2008).• Positioning and manipulating enzymes, •“Detection of individual gas molecules nucleic acids, and protein-based objects in adsorbed on graphene”. nanoreactors. Schedin, F; Geim, AK; Morozov, SV; Hill, EW;• Synthesis and studies of graphene and Blake, P; Katsnelson, MI; Novoselov, KS, derivatives. Nature Mater, 6, 652-655 (2007).• “Click” chemistry and its applications. •“Click chemistry in polymer and materials science”.• Modification of surface wetting properties. Binder, WH; Sachsenhofer, R, Macromol. Rapid Comm., 28, 15-54 (2007). 21
  22. 22. N & N i n S p a i n •“Polyoxometalate clusters, nanostructures from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by electron and materials: From self assembly to designer transfer dissociation (ETD) mass materials and devices”. spectrometry”. Long, DL; Burkholder, E; Cronin, L, Chem. Soc. Chi, A; Huttenhower, C; Geer, LY; Coon, JJ; Rev., 36, 105-121 (2007). Syka, JEP; Bai, DL; Shabanowitz, J; Burke, DJ; Troyanskaya, OG; Hunt, DF, Proc. Nat. Acad. •“Synthesis of tetrahexahedral platinum Sci. USA, 104, 2193-2198 (2007).NANOCHEMISTRY nanocrystals with high-index facets and high electro-oxidation activity”. Tian, N; Zhou, ZY; Sun, SG; Ding, Y; Wang, ZL, 4. Actuations to undertake in Spain during Science, 316, 732-735 (2007). 2010-2013 •“Localized surface plasmon resonance It would be convenient that actions to promote spectroscopy and sensing”. and boost Nanochemistry in Spain in the next Willets, KA; Van Duyne, RP, Ann. Rev. Phys. years follow the general directions undertaken by Chem., 58, (2007). the most important European initiatives. There •“Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via is a prospective roadmap, performed at the chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite European level by the “European Technology oxide”. Platform (ETP) for Sustainable Chemistry” Stankovich, S; Dikin, DA; Piner, RD; Kohlhaas, (SusChem) that appeared in its “Strategic KA; Kleinhammes, A; Jia, Y; Wu, Y; Nguyen, ST; Research Agenda” (SRA), where products and Ruoff, RS, Carbon, 45, 1558-1565 (2007). technologies are given, together with their short-, mid- and long-term priorities and the •“Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene expected market volume. Most of such products nanosheets”. and technologies can be benefited from advances Li, D; Muller, MB; Gilje, S; Kaner, RB; Wallace, in Nanochemistry and, therefore, grouped by GG, Nature Nanotechnology, 3, 101-105 (2008). socio-economical sectors are detailed below: •“New directions for low-dimensional thermoelectric materials”. Energy Dresselhaus, MS; Chen, G; Tang, MY; Yang, RG; Lee, H; Wang, DZ; Ren, ZF; Fleurial, JP; Gogna, Products: Materials for hydrogen storage and P, Adv. Mater., 19, 1043-1053 (2007). transport, fuel cells and batteries, conducting •“Nanoelectronics from the bottom up”. polymers, superconductors and semiconductors, Lu, W; Lieber, CM, Nature Mater, 6, 841-850 light emitting diodes, solar cells, and thermal (2007). insulating materials. •“Molecular architectonic on metal surfaces” Technologies: Scale-up processes for the Barth, JV, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem., 58, 375-407 production of advanced materials, analytical (2007). technologies for the quality control of advanced •“Colorimetric detection of mercuric ion materials, and process development and control (Hg2+) in aqueous media using DNA- technology. functionalized gold nanoparticles”. Lee, JS; Han, MS; Mirkin, CA, Angew. Chem. Information and Communication Technologies Int. Ed., 46, 4093-4096 (2007). •“Analysis of phosphorylation sites on proteins Products: Supercapacitors, luminescent materials 22
  23. 23. N & N i n S p a i nfor displays, OLEDs, E-paper, molecular Healthcareelectronics, molecule-based for spintronics,semiconducting materials, conducting polymers, Products: Tumor therapy, targeted drug-delivery,materials with enhanced mobility, materials for bone reconstruction, tissue engineering. Newstorage and transport of information and for antibiotics by novel microorganisms, preparationholography, batteries, eco-efficient electronic of antibodies, peptides, and proteins bydevices, optical materials, pico-second molecular bioprocesses, medical devices, Smart delivery NANOCHEMISTRYswitches, and portable devices for hydrogen systems, tissular engineering, instant diagnosis,transport. functional textiles, and “lab-on-a-chip” devices.Technologies: Scale-up processes for the Technologies: Formulation engineering of micro,production of advanced materials, process nanostructured emulsions/ dispersions anddevelopment and control technology, technologies particulate products for controlled release, genericwhich take advantage of structure-property methods for introduction of chiral centers, in-silicorelationships and interface effects, high-power prediction of drug pharmacokinetics, high-technologies, miniaturization, and biotechnological throughput screening technologies, new MRI,production processes of molecular components. NMR and spectroscopy techniques, scale-up processes for the production of advanced materials, innovative fermentation processes for novel antibiotics production, biocatalytic production of pharma building blocks. Quality of Life Products: Devices for efficient lightening, environment sensors, membranes for treatment of drinkable water, materials for acoustic and thermal insulation, smart electro- chromic devices, interactive functional textile devices, intelligent materials for packaging, and food quality sensors, enzymes for new detergents and for removal of carcinogenic compounds in food, food tracking systems. Technologies: SensingFigure 2. Weaved textile with metallic conducting properties based on a nanocomposite poly-meric material. Courtesy of NANOMOL, ICMAB (CSIC)-CIBER-BBN. materials and techniques, 23
  24. 24. N & N i n S p a i n formulation of products with defined particulate technology-platforms/ individual_en.html where structure, adapting intensified process it is also possible downloading their strategic equipment, scale-up processes for the research agendas and implementation action production of advanced materials, process plans. development and control technology. Many of such ETPs have created mirror Citizen Protection platforms in Spain which are currentlyNANOCHEMISTRY developing intense activities to boost their Products: Devices for biometric identification, respective areas in our country. Probably those smart cards, protecting tissues, ETPs whose interests are closer to superhydrophobic fibers, conducting and optical Nanochemistry activities and will benefit from fibers, alarm devices, thermo-chromic windows, new advances in this area are the following: functionalized polymers and surfaces as recognition layers, electrostrictive materials, and • Advanced Engineering Materials and pressure sensitive carpets. Technologies (EuMaT); Technologies: Scale-up processes for the production of advanced materials, sensing • European Construction Technology Platform materials and techniques, and process (ECTP); development and control technology. • European Nanoelectronics Initiative Advisory Transport Council (ENIAC); Products: Devices for instantaneous diagnosis and attending car drivers, traffic management • European Space Technology Platform (ESTP); sensors, improved safety devices, materials for recyclable and biodegradable vehicles, materials • Food for Life (Food); for constant repair, silent car & road, instant home/welcome.asp diagnosis/sensors, enhanced safety for transportation systems, functional coatings, eco- • Future Manufacturing Technologies (MANU- efficient car, plane & ships, improved tyres, FUTURE); recyclable materials. • Future Textiles and Clothing (FTC); Technologies: Scale-up processes for the production of advanced materials, and process • Nanotechnologies for Medical Applications development and control technology. (NanoMedicine); 5. Relevant initiatives nanomedicine.htm During the last years several European • Photonics21 (Photonics); Technology Platforms (ETPs) have been created and boosted by industrial and academic • Photovoltaics (Photovoltaics); partners. A complete list of ETPs can be found at the website 24
  25. 25. N & N i n S p a i n• Sustainable Chemistry (SusChem); In order to achieve such a level important financial efforts must be made from the different national and local research agencies to provide• Water Supply and Sanitation Technology with considerable amounts of funds to the most Platform (WSSTP); competitive Spanish laboratories and groups, judging their past activity based only in terms of excellence and productivity. The traditional NANOCHEMISTRYFor training and formation activities it is worth attitude of such agencies to distribute smallto mention the European School on Molecular amounts of funds to all groups must beNanoscience that has been organized two completely disregarded. Such agencies must alsoeditions in Spain with a successful attendance of consider those small groups with promisingyoung researchers from all Europe with the backgrounds to boost their activities.participation of worldwide recognizedresearchers and professors.This initiative was organized by the EuropeanNetwork of Excellence MAGMANet becoming animportant international event whereNanochemistry plays a key role. There are alsofew Master Degrees that are given by someSpanish Universities where the training onchemistry and nanoscience is provided.6. Infrastructure needed (2010-2013)Because of the special characteristics ofNanochemistry, there is no need to performlarge investments in huge research facilities. Thefunds provided by the local and nationalgovernments must be addressed mostly toincrease the manpower of the groups and toachieve efficient and rapid ways to acquiresmall-medium equipments without long waitingtimes since this decrease the efficiency andcompetitiveness of the groups.7. ConclusionAs a general conclusion it is worth to mention theneed to promote in Spain the research addressed toall the topics reported before. Nowadays there is agood level of research in our country in comparisonwith Europe although we are still far from theoptimal rank of excellence and productivity existingin the most developed countries. 25
  26. 26. > FRANCESC PÉREZ-MURANO Place and date of birth Barcelona (Spain), 1966 Education PhD on Physics. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona Experience Prof. Francesc Pérez-Murano is research professor at IMB-CNM. His research activities are dedicated to developing novel methods of nanofabrication for micro and nano electronics, and to applications of MEMS and NEMS in the areas of Sensing. He made his PhD at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, and he has made post-doctoral and visiting stays at MIC in Denmark, NIST in USA, AIST in Japan and EPFL in Switzerland. In 2001, he set-up the CSIC nanofabrication facilities and nanotechnology-oriented research at CNM-Barcelona. He has been strongly involved in EU collaborative research projects in FP5 and FP6 covering several aspects of Nanotechnology and Nanofabrication, including the coordination of an STREP project in FP6. He is co-author of more than 100 articles in peer reviewed International Journals and co-inventor of four patents. He is member of the Steering Committee of the MNE (Micro and Nano Engineering) conference series. 26
  27. 27. NANOELECTRONICS AND MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS1. IntroductionIt is widely accepted that electronics based onnano-scale integration and nanostructuredmolecular materials provides new types ofdevices and intelligent systems. Nanoelectronicstechnology development is following severalapproaches to improve performance of systemsthrough miniaturization. On one side, electronicsindustry (traditionally called Microelectronics)relies on the classical top-down approach, wherereliability and throughput is guaranteed tomanufacture millions of chips with integrated Figure 1. Different areas of Nanoelectronics according to the charac-nanoscale transistors. As stated by the well teristic length of the devices.known Moore’s law, continuous reduction of thetransistor size allows improving circuit Within the “More than Moore” area,performance. Microprocessors with 2 billion microelectronics-based technology is used andtransistors (32 nm node) are now close to the extended to the fabrication of sensors andmarket. transducers, amongst other devices. A paradigmatic example of this is the growing areaThe extremely complexity and cost of this of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).technology, together with the envisioned limits “Beyond CMOS” focuses on the introduction offor further miniaturization triggers the disruptive, emerging materials and technologiesdevelopment of other concepts, materials and aiming to continue the integrated circuitsmanufacturing technologies, encompassed in growing up device density race. Lot ofwhich are known as “More than Moore” and development is being achieved in the so-called“Beyond CMOS” areas of nanoelectronics, carbon-based electronics, where carbonaccording to ENIAC1 initiative. nanotubes and graphene can be used to provide more-powerful devices. Along with this,In this sense, the research area of polymers, single molecules and nanocrystals arenanoelectronics covers a large range of aspects, also being introduced to developed new kind ofsome of which will be revised in this report. concepts. 27
  28. 28. N & N i n S p a i n The area of nanoelectronics and molecular further generations, however, 20 nm seems toNANOELECTRONICS AND MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS electronics extends also towards materials be challenging. High volume, high throughput science and chemistry on one side, and towards lithography is predicted to reach the sub 20 nm many aspects of sensing (including biosensing). feature scale in 20173 . The technologies at hand These aspects are almost not treated in this to provide such a resolution at sufficient feature report, which is mainly focused to information quality are rare. Also, for the time being, it is not processing. clear, if its potential successor, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is arriving at the At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, market. Other technologies like nanoimprint we are in the situation where researchers and lithography (NIL)4 or electron beam (EBL) mask- engineers are starting to take benefit of the new less lithography5 provide sufficient resolution. “nano-based” materials and technologies While EBL is too slow (and parallelization is originated in previous decades. We anticipate the difficult) to provide enough throughput for high outcome of a new area for nanoelectronics, volume production, NIL gathers increasing where a real merge between top-down attention and it is proposed to be used in FLASH (microelectronics) and bottom-up (molecular memory production in the near future6. electronics) will give place to extremely powerful systems to satisfy the increasing demands for However this solution still requires a mask efficient information processing and technology with the added difficulty to fabricate communications, including quantum computing. a 1X mask. In addition, because it is a contact lithography, mask defects is a main issue. 2. State of the art Scanning Probe lithography for mask fabrication and technology development are being 2.1 Miniaturization in Microelectronics considered as well7. In any case, Microelectronics industry is seriously considering incorporating Progress in nanotechnology and microelectronics nanotechnology tools and concepts, like block- is intimately linked to the existence of high copolymers self-assembly8. quality methods for producing nanoscale patterns and objects at surfaces. The explosive 2.2 Carbon based nanoelectronics (CNTs and growth in the capability of semiconductor Graphene) devices has to a large extent been due to advances in lithography. Miniaturization has The approaching limits of the top-down enabled both the number of transistors on a chip miniaturization have triggered a global effort to and the speed of the transistor to be increased generate alternative device technologies. By by orders of magnitude. Optical lithography has replacing the conducting channel of a MOS kept pace with this evolution for several decades transistor by structured carbon nanomaterials and has always been the workhorse for such as carbon nanotubes or graphene layers, patterning the critical layers in semiconductor devices with enhanced properties for electronic manufacturing. transport are encountered9. Emerging of graphene as a high performance semiconductor At present, technological solutions for the 32 nm material has been a major hit during 2007-2009. node exist. Today’s predominantly used technology, optical deep UV (DUV) lithography2 Key results on this aspects have been the will be extended by computational methods to achievement of ultrahigh electron mobility in 28
  29. 29. N & N i n S p a i nsuspended graphene layers10 and the NEMS is a clear example of multidisciplinary NANOELECTRONICS AND MOLECULAR ELECTRONICSobservation of room - temperature quantum effort, where the progress is achieved byhall effect. Technology for CNT-based simultaneous efforts on advancednanoelectronic devices is arriving to a mature nanofabrication processing, use of nanoscalestage. Improvements on the control of CNT characterization methods and tools, andorientation and their combination with CMOS introduction of concepts from photonicstechnology are especially relevant for future biochemistry physics, etc. NEMS technologyapplications13. Also important are the new include aspects of top-down fabrication usingapplications of CNT based devices for charge nanolithography and advanced opticaldetection14 and for nanomechanical mass lithography, but also combination with bottom-sensing (see below, NEMS subsection). up fabrication for the development of NEMS based on carbon nanotubes17 and silicon2.3 Spintronics nanowires18. Most relevant results include the demonstration of single atom sensitivity for massSpin based electronics deals with the sensors using carbon nanotubes and siliconmanipulation of spin of charge carriers in solid nanowires , the joint effort of CEA-LETI and UCLAstate devices. It can be distinguished between to develop a robust/wafer scale technology forinorganic spintronics (devices based on metals NEMS integration19, and the initial detection ofor semiconductors) and molecular spintronics, the quantum limits of NEMS20 .(either the design of molecular analogs of theinorganic spintronic structures and the evolution 2.5 Molecular electronicstowards single molecule spintronics). Understanding the electronic properties ofA recent review about molecular spintronics can single molecules and developing methods forbe found in15. Besides the well known impact of making reliable and optimal contacts to them are major challenges in Nanotechnology. Evenspintronics in storage technology (giant though a single molecule electronic device ismagneto-resistance effect used in the operationof magnetic hard-drives heads), inorganicspintronics has a potential to provide low-powerdevices for memories (MRAM). On the otherhand, molecules and single-molecule magnetsoffer possibilities for future applications inquantum computing.2.4 Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS)The area of nanomechanical systems hasexperienced a tremendous advance during the2007-2009 period. Roughly, three maindirections are being pursued: development ofextremely sensitive nanomechanical sensors16,large scale integration of nanomechanicalstructures and quantum limits of Figure 2. Example of massive fabrication of nanoelectronics devices. A four inch-wafer containing 138,240 CNT-FET structures. I. Martin etnanomechanical resonators search. The area of al12. 29