Graphene for Emerging Technologies - Workshop booklet (October 2011)


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Workshop “Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies: Challenges and Opportunities”.

This workshop presented the current state of the art and the opportunities of
graphene-based materials/devices and related structures for future emerging
technologies in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Focus
was made on identifying the directions of promising innovation and disruptive
technologies, including flexible electronics and transparent conductors, high frequency
devices, digital logic, spintronics, nanoelectromechanical devices, ultimate sensors and
bio-related applications. Challenges in the fields of ultimate microelectronics, energy dissipation and thermal management, advanced composites for aeronautics, and large
scale graphene production and device integration were discussed.

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Graphene for Emerging Technologies - Workshop booklet (October 2011)

  1. 1. We take great pleasure in welcoming you to Madrid (Spain) for the workshop“Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies: Challenges and Opportunities”.This workshop aims to present the current state of the art and the opportunities of Graphene for Future Emerging Technologiesgraphene-based materials/devices and related structures for future emergingtechnologies in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Focuswill be made on identifying the directions of promising innovation and disruptivetechnologies, including flexible electronics and transparent conductors, high frequencydevices, digital logic, spintronics, nanoelectromechanical devices, ultimate sensors andbio-related applications. Challenges in the fields of ultimate microelectronics, energydissipation and thermal management, advanced composites for aeronautics, and largescale graphene production and device integration will be discussed.We are indebted to the following Scientific Institutions, Companies, Projects andGovernment Agencies for their financial support: Graphene Flagship Pilot Action,NOKIA, 7th Framework Program / European Commission, nanoICT coordination action,Future Emerging Technologies (FET) Program, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique(CEA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), GRAnPH Nanotech,Acción Complementaria “Graphene” and Graphenea.We truly hope that this gathering will meet your goals and allow fruitful interactions.The Organising Committee Stephan Roche (ICN, Spain) Francisco Guinea (CSIC-ICMM, Spain) Mar García-Hernández (CSIC-ICMM, Spain) Antonio Correia (Phantoms Foundation, Spain) 1
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  3. 3. Sponsors Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies3
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  6. 6. Scientific Program (October 18, 2011) Welcome address Arturo Azcorra [CDTI], Francisco Guinea [CSIC], Stephan Roche [ICN] and08h45-09h00 Rafael Rodrigo [CSIC] Chairman: Stephan Roche [ICN] Introduction to the Graphene Flagship and Industrial two-day event 9h00-9h15 p. 25 Jari Kinaret [Graphene Flagship coordinator] [Chalmers Univ., Sweden] Opening Session A challenge for European Industries 9h15-9h45 p. 37 Tapani Ryhänen [NOKIA, UK] Vision for the future: Graphene science driven innovation Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies9h45-10h00 p. 33 Vincenzo Palermo [CNR, Italy] Chairman: Mar Garcia-Hernandez [ICMM-CSIC] Graphene Technology Platform at BASF10h00-10h15 p. 39 Matthias Schwab [BASF, Germany] Bulk production of faceted graphene oxide and graphene platelets:10h15-10h30 properties and applications p. 31 Cesar Merino Sanchez [GRAnPH Nanotech, Spain] Graphene and graphene nanocomposites10h30-10h45 p. 21 Julio Gomez [AVANZARE, Spain] Graphene films synthesized via CVD10h45-11h00 p. 49 Amaia Zurutuza [GRAnPH Nanotech, Spain] Graphene crystal growth11h00-11h30 p. 17 Luigi Colombo [Texas Instruments, USA]11h30-12h00 Coffee break Chairman: Jari Kinaret [Chalmers University] Graphene and its applications in energy storage devices12h00-12h30 p. 47 Di Wei [NOKIA, UK] Graphene-based Metrology12h30-13h00 p. 23 Jan Theodoor Janssen [National Physical Laboratory Ltd, UK] Graphene for flexible Electronics13h00-13h15 p. 19 Andrea Ferrari [University of Cambridge, UK]13h15-14h30 Lunch break Chairman: Jani Kivioja [NOKIA] R2R printing on organic and inorganic materials14h30-15h00 p. 29 Raimo Korhonen [VTT, Finland] Material Innovation for Aeronautics 715h00-15h30 - Jose-Sánchez Gómez/Tamara Blanco [Airbus, Spain] Title to be defined15h30-16h00 - Salvatore Coffa [STMicroelectronics, Italy]
  7. 7. Scientific Program (October 18, 2011) Chairman: Daniel Neumaier [AMO] IBM large scale graphene nanoelectronics technologies for future post CMOS 16h00-16h30 p. 45 Chun Yung Sung [IBM, USA] Samsungs approach to graphene transistor 16h30-17h00 p. 15 Hyun-Jong Chung [SAMSUNG, Korea] Graphene Logic Gates and Nanoribbon Memories 17h00-17h30 p. 43 Roman Sordan [Politecnico di Milano, Italy] 17h30-18h00 Coffee break Chairman: Paco Guinea [ICMM-CSIC] Graphene Spintronics 18h00-18h20 p. 41Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies Pierre Sénéor [THALES-CNRS, France] Electromechanical resonators made from graphene 18h20-18h40 p. 11 Adrian Bachtold [ICN/CIN2, Spain] Graphene for Photovoltaics 18h40-19h00 p. 13 Francesco Bonaccorso [University of Cambridge, UK] Graphene for Advanced Photonics & Plasmonics 19h00-19h20 p. 27 Frank Koppens [ICFO, Spain] Venture capital and graphene: Are we at proof of principle or beyond? 19h20-19h40 p. 35 Mark Rahn [MTI, UK] Concluding Remarks 19h40-20h00 Jani Kivioja [NOKIA, UK] and Stephan Roche [ICN, Spain] 8
  8. 8. Abstracts (Alphabetical Order) page Adrian Bachtold [ICN/CIN2, Spain] 11 Electromechanical resonators made from graphene Francesco Bonaccorso [University of Cambridge, UK] 13 Graphene Photovoltaics Hyun-Jong Chung [SAMSUNG, Korea] 15 Samsungs approach to graphene transistor Salvatore Coffa [STMicroelectronics, Italy] - Title to be defined Luigi Colombo [Texas Instruments, USA] 17 Graphene crystal growth Andrea Ferrari [University of Cambridge, UK]Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies 19 Graphene for Flexible Electronics Julio Gomez [AVANZARE, Spain] 21 Graphene and graphene nanocomposites Jan Theodoor Janssen [National Physical Laboratory Ltd, UK] 23 Graphene-based Metrology Jari Kinaret [Graphene Flagship coordinator] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Sweden] 25 The Graphene Flagship Initiative Frank Koppens [ICFO, Spain] 27 Graphene for Advanced Photonics & Plasmonics Raimo Korhonen [VTT, Finland] 29 R2R printing on organic and inorganic materials Cesar Merino Sanchez [GRAnPH Nanotech, Spain] Bulk production of faceted graphene oxide and graphene platelets: 31 properties and applications Vincenzo Palermo [CNR, Italy] 33 Vision for the future: Graphene science driven innovation Mark Rahn [MTI, UK] 35 Venture capital and graphene: Are we at proof of principle or beyond? Tapani Ryhänen [NOKIA, UK] 37 A challenge for European Industries Jose Sanchez Gomez/Tamara Blanco [Airbus, Spain] - Material Innovation for Aeronautics Matthias Schwab [BASF, Germany] 39 Graphene Technology Platform at BASF Pierre Sénéor [THALES-CNRS, France] 41 Graphene Spintronics Roman Sordan [Politecnico di Milano, Italy] 43 Graphene Logic Gates and Nanoribbon Memories Chun-Yung Sung [IBM, USA] 45 IBM large scale graphene nanoelectronics technologies for future post CMOS 10 Di Wei [NOKIA, UK] 47 Graphene and its applications in energy storage devices Amaia Zurutuza [GRAnPH Nanotech, Spain] 49 Graphene films synthesized via CVD
  9. 9. Electromechanical resonators made from graphene A. Bachtold ICN and CIN2, Campus UABarcelona, 08023 Bellaterra, Spain Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesGraphene offers unique scientific and technological opportunities asnanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Namely, graphene has allowedthe fabrication of mechanical resonators that can be operable at highfrequencies and that have an ultra-high quality factor [1]. In addition,graphene has exceptional electron transport properties. For instance, theroom-temperature mobility is higher than that of any knownsemiconductor. Coupling the mechanical motion to electron transport inthese remarkable materials is thus highly appealing. In this talk, I willreview some of the recent progresses on graphene NEMS resonators. I willalso discuss the possibility to use graphene resonators for future masssensing applications.References[1] A. Eichler, J. Moser, J. Chaste, M. Zdrojek, I. Wilson-Rae, A. Bachtold, Nature Nano (2011) 11
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  11. 11. Graphene Photovoltaics Francesco Bonaccorso Engineering Department, Cambridge University, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, UK Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesGraphene has great potential in photonics and optoelectronics, where thecombination of its unique optical and electronic properties can be fullyexploited, the absence of a bandgap can be beneficial, and the lineardispersion of the Dirac electrons enables ultra-wide-band tenability [1].The rise of graphene in photonics and optoelectronics is shown by severalrecent results, ranging from solar cells and light emitting devices, to touchscreens, photodetectors and ultrafast lasers [1]. Despite being a singleatom thick, graphene can be optically visualized [2]. Its transmittance canbe expressed in terms of the fine structure constant [3]. The lineardispersion of the Dirac electrons enables broadband applications [4,5,6,7].Saturable absorption is observed as a consequence of Pauli blocking [7,8].Chemical and physical treatments enable luminescence [1,9]. Graphene-polymer composites prepared using wet chemistry [7,8,10] can beintegrated in a fiber laser cavity, to generate ultrafast pulses and enablebroadband tunability [7,8]. Graphene’s suitability for high-speedphotodetection was demonstrated in optical communication linksoperating at 10Gbits-1 [5]. By combining graphene with plasmonicnanostructures, the efficiency of graphene-based photodetectors can beincreased by up to 20 times [11]. Wavelength and polarization selectivitycan be achieved by employing nanostructures of differentgeometries [11]. Plasmonic nanostructures can also increase dramaticallythe light harvesting properties in solar cells [11]. In the case of solar cellsgraphene can fulfill the following functions: as the transparent conductorwindow [12], antireflective material [13], photoactive material [14], 13channel for charge transport [15], and catalyst [16]. A variety ofconfigurations have been demonstrated to date, ranging from silicon solar
  12. 12. cells [13], to organic [14] and dye-sensitized solar cells [12,15,16]. I will give a thorough overview of the state of the art of graphene-enabled solar cells, outlining the major stumbling blocks and development opportunities. References [1] F. Bonaccorso et al. Nat. Photon. 4, 611 (2010) [2] C. Casiraghi et al. Nano Lett. 7, 2711 (2007). [3] R. R. Nair et al. Science 320, 1308 (2008). [4] M. Liu, et al. Nature 474, 64 (2011) [5] T. Mueller et al. Nat. Photon. 4, 297 (2010)Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies [6] Xia, et al. Nature Nanotech. 4, 839 (2009) [7] Z. Sun et al. ACS Nano 4, 803 (2010); Nano Research 3, 653 (2010) [8] T. Hasan, et al. Adv. Mat. 21,3874 (2009) [9] T. Gokus et al. ACS Nano 3, 3963 (2009) [10] T. Hasan et al. Physica Status Solidi B, 247, 2953 (2010) [11] T.J. Echtermeyer et al. Nat. Commun.2, 458 (2011) [12] X. Wang, L. Zhi, K. Mullen, Nano Lett. 2007, 8, 323. [13] X. Li et al. Adv. Mater. 2010, 22, 2743 [14] V.Yong, J. M. Tour, Small, 6, 313 (2009). [15] N. Yang, et al. ACS Nano 2010, 4, 887. [16] W. Hong, et al. Electrochem. Commun. 10, 1555 (2008). 14
  13. 13. Samsungs approach to graphene transistor Hyun-Jong Chung*, Heejun Yang, Jinseong Heo, Seongjun Park, David H. Seo, Hyun Jae Song and Kyung-Eun Byun Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, San 14, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu,Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do Korea Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies hyunjong.chung@samsung.comSamsungs approach will be presented. In the approach, monolayergraphene has been grown on Cu thin film in 6-inch scale at lowtemperature using inductive coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition.More than 99% of the film is single layer according to Raman mapping andoptical microscopy. [1] Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopystudy reveals line structure and undisturbed spectroscopy of graphenewhich could be the origin of the thinner layer than thermally growngraphene on Cu foil. [2] More than 2000 devices were fabricated on the 6-inch wafer and measured Id-Vg and Id-Vd curves.References[1] J. Lee et al., IEDM (2011).[2] Jeon et al., ACS Nano, 3 (2011) 1915. 15
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  15. 15. Graphene crystal growth Luigi Colombo Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, TX 75243, USA Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesGraphene with its superior mechanical, thermal, chemical and electricalproperties is emerging as a material that can be used to address manychallenges that face the electronics industry for a number of applications.In order to meet the requirements set by the various applications it isimperative to learn how to prepare the optimum graphene.Graphene for electronics has been prepared by a several techniques butthe technique that is emerging at this time as being the most scalable thatcan also meet stringent requirements for electronics, the most demandingof the applications, is chemical vapor deposition on copper. Copper is aconvenient and necessary substrate at this time because of its unique Cu-C phase diagram. However while this is a major advantage that hasenabled the graphene community to make significant advances in devicefabrication on a much larger scale than any of the other preparationtechniques, there still remain many challenges that will have to beaddressed. Some of the challenges have to do specifically with the Cuitself and current process regime; others have to do with graphenetransfer. In this presentation I will review the various graphenepreparation techniques and integration of graphene for electronicapplications. In addition I will provide an overview and layout some of theaspects of graphene growth and integration that will have to be addressedbefore graphene can be integrated in a real silicon device flow. 17
  16. 16. Outline − Applications of graphene for the Si electronics industry − Graphene crystal growth by chemical vapor deposition − Integration of graphene with metals and dielectrics − Key challenges and opportunities in graphene crystal growth and integrationGraphene for Future Emerging Technologies 18
  17. 17. Graphene for Flexible Electronics Andrea Ferrari University of Cambridge, Engineering Department, Cambridge CB3 OFA, UK Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesThe richness of optical and electronic properties of graphene attractsenormous interest. Graphene has high mobility and optical transparency,in addition to flexibility, robustness and environmental stability. So far, themain focus has been on fundamental physics and electronic devices.In this talk, I will outline some of the key properties and advantages ofgraphene and related layered materials. In particular I will focus on theintegration of graphene into flexible electronics and plastic substrates. 19
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  19. 19. Graphene and graphene nanocomposites Julio Gomez Avanzare Innovación Tecnológica S.L., Logroño (La Rioja), Spain Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesOne on the handicaps in the graphene technology is the production ofgraphene in industrial large scale.Large scale, reproducible and cost effective synthesis of graphene isneeded for their use in industrial applications, because in most of theapplications, graphene composites are alternative to existing materials:grams, kilo, 100 kg, tons is the typical scale up for this type of material;however scalability is not easy and usually it is unsuccessful.Most of the graphene applications are in composites materials due to itsmechanical, thermal and electrical properties. To obtain a goodintegration of the graphene layers it is necessary the functionalization ofgraphene, however in most of the cases it produce loss of properties, forthis reason, other alternatives are necessary to obtain optimalphysicochemical properties of the final material. 21
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  21. 21. Graphene based Metrology Jan-Theodoor Janssen National Physical Laboratory, TW11 0LW Teddington, UK Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesGraphene is a material which holds promise for a myriad of excitingapplications across many technologies and a large number of these havebeen demonstrated in principle in the laboratory. However going fromlaboratory demonstration to real-life application can be a difficult processand this is where many new technologies have failed in the past.Metrology plays an essential role in this process by providing reliable andreproducible measurement technology which gives confidence in theresults of research. It provides a basis which can be used for the objectivecomparison of measurement results and can be used to set standards forindustry to work towards.Metrology has often been the first adopter of new technologies. Inparticular, the quantum Hall effect was one of the first discoveries ingraphene and it has been the metrological community which has takenthis from first observation to the best quantum resistance standard inperiod of less than 6 years. Conversely, the demonstration of a highaccuracy quantum Hall effect gives confidence in graphene as a maturetechnology with real potential.In this short talk I will focus on the development of quantum standard forresistance based on epitaxial graphene and discuss some of the challengesin developing metrology for graphene production. 23
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  23. 23. The Graphene Flagship Initiative Jari Kinaret Department of Applied Physics Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesIn this talk I will briefly describe the graphene flagship pilot. I will describethe FET flagship process in general and how our flagship proposal is beingdeveloped. In particular, I will describe our initial ideas regarding flagshipimplementation and governance and the procedure for developing theresearch program for the flagship.For additional information, please consult: 25
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  25. 25. Graphene for Advanced Photonics & Plasmonics F.H.L. Koppens ICFO, The institute of Photonic Sciences, Barcelona, SpainIn this talk, I will discuss a variety of (nano)opto-electronic applications of Graphene for Future Emerging Technologiesgraphene, including ultrafast photodetection, ultrasensitivephotodetection with high gain, and nanoscale optical field confinementusing tuneable surface plasmons in graphene.Graphene is a promising photonic material whose gapless band structureallows electron-hole pairs to be generated over a broad range ofwavelengths, from UV, visible, and telecommunication bands, to IR andTHz frequencies. Previous studies of photocurrents in graphene havedemonstrated ultrafast photoresponse near metallic contacts or at theinterface between single-layer and bilayer regions. We will discuss herealso the photoresponse of graphene devices with top gates, separatedfrom otherwise homogeneous graphene by an insulator. This geometryenables local on-off control of photodetection by switching from thebipolar to ambipolar regime.Moreover, we use a hybrid approach to make graphene photodetectorsfor visible and/or infrared light with extremely high gain of up to 109 and aresponsivity of 108 W/A.The second part of my talk will be devoted to the emerging and potentiallyfar-reaching field of graphene plasmonics. Graphene plasmons provide asuitable alternative to noble-metal plasmons because they exhibit muchlarger confinement and relatively long propagation distances, with theadvantage of being highly tunable via electrostatic gating. We will discuss 27how these properties translate into appealing optical behavior of thisatomically thin material, with potential applications to infrared detection,
  26. 26. single-photon quantum devices, and ultrasensitive detectors. In particular, we will show that graphene layers produce extraordinarily large Pucell factors and light scattering, strong light-matter interaction, and total light absorption. Compared to conventional plasmonic metals, graphene can lead to much larger field enhancement and extreme optical field confinement.Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies 28
  27. 27. R2R printing on organic and inorganic materials Raimo Korhonen Technology Manager of Printed Functional Solutions Knowledge Center, Microtechnologies and Electronics, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, 33101 Tampere, Finland Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies Raimo.Korhonen@vtt.fiPrinted intelligence are components and systems which extend thefunctions of printed matter beyond traditional visually interpreted text andgraphics, and perform actions as a part of functional products or widerinformation systems. VTT has investigated and developed enablingtechnologies for printed intelligence, electronics and optics and theirapplications with a vision that ‘electronics and functionalities from inks’,manufactured by printing like R2R ‘continuously running’ methods, enablescost efficient integration/embedding of simple intelligence everywhere.Advances in organic and inorganic materials have been an important driverin these developments. Graphene is seen as future opportunity whencarbon nanotubes are already used in functional inks. Instead ofevolutionary replacement of traditional paper and printing industryproducts or ICT/electronics industry products the development goals are indisruptive new applications like interactive and smart packages andshopping environments, disposable diagnostics and bioactive paper, largearea sensors for building use and gaming, tag and code technologies for ICTand hybrid media applications etc. Printed components like OLED, OPV,transistors, passive components, ecological holograms, sensors, batterieshave been developed as building blocks for system solutions and innovativeproducts. In addition to technology development VTT is actively buildingcapabilities towards industrialisation and commercialization. PrintoCentpilot-factory is ramping-up for scaling up manufacturing, demonstration and 29piloting capability and services together with collaborating companies.
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  29. 29. Bulk production of faceted graphene oxide and graphene platelets: properties and applications C. Merino*, H. Varela, M. Terrones and I. Martín-Gullón GRAnPH Nanotech, Burgos, Spain Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesWe will describe the synthesis of graphene oxide platelets and reducedgraphene oxide, which novelty lies in the use of helical-ribbon carbonnanofibers (GANF, produced by Grupo Antolin) as starting material,instead of the typically used graphite. These fibers, successfully applied indifferent applications, present an unique structure consisting of a coiledgraphene nanoribbon. Grupo Antolin has been successful in developing anefficient method able to produce bulk amounts of novel types ofgraphene-like structures from these carbon nanofibers. Thecharacterization of the new material using different techniques wasconsistent and confirmed the presence of majority single-layer grapheneoxide platelets. In particular, TEM explorations combined with SAEDshowed high crystalline single-layer and few-layer (2-5 layers) grapheneoxide with faceted edges, which was also confirmed by Ramanspectroscopy. We will discuss the physico-chemical properties of thefibers and the derived graphene products. It is clear that all these novelgraphene platelets could be used in the fabrication of robust composites,sensors, supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries and electronic devices. Furtherresearch in collaboration with Research Laboratories and Universities isneeded and Grupo Antolin is looking forward to explore new horizons inthe field of graphene applications. 31
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  31. 31. Visions for the future: graphene science driven innovation Vincenzo Palermo Nanochemistry Lab – ISOF National Research Council, Bologna, Italy Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesThe use of new materials has always fostered new technological andindustrial revolutions. Steel, glass, rubber, silicon or uranium are just fewexamples of materials that changed our life. In graphene flagship, we are trying to translate the exceptional properties of graphene into actual industrial and commercial applications.Electrons in graphene dont simply go faster than in silicon, they also obeya completely different physics, which will allow technology applicationssignificantly different form the actual ones.Even if we cannot foresee which will be most important effects of such anew technology on every day’s life, we can learn from experience of thepast.A huge carbon-based technological revolution took place in 20th century,when the first polymers moved from scientific research, to technologicalapplication, to every day’s products, under the name of plastic. 33The use of plastic tools or even clothes rapidly displaced metal, wood orleather for many applications. This was not due to better performance in
  32. 32. absolute value of plastic respect to more conventional materials; plastic was not stronger than steel, or warmer than wool; even today people prefer to buy wooden furniture in their homes respect to plastic ones. Plastics success was not due to pure performance, but rather to cost and versatility advantages. As we now use plenty of plastic GRAPHENE tools, but still build airplanes of metal and tables of wood, graphene will not replace silicon in microelectronics; probably, silicon will still be at the heart ofGraphene for Future Emerging Technologies computers and microprocessors, but graphene will allow information processing and communication to reach a new level of diffusion in our life; using low cost devices, transparent flexible displays and touch screens (based on graphene seamlessly integrated with plastic materials) we will have the possibility to include data and information in virtually any aspect of everyday life. 34
  33. 33. Venture capital and graphene: Are we at proof of principle or beyond? Mark Rahn MTI, UK Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesNo-one is doubting the importance of graphene in scientific endeavor andmost people now agree that graphene will play an important role inpractical materials and devices of tomorrow. Substantial commercialsuccess of graphene in at least one market is not assured, but is nowhighly likely. But great businesses and great projects dont always makegreat investments and the principle factor affecting this is time.Investments with poor timing, timescales that are too long and timescalesthat are too short tend to result in failure even if the underlying technicalmerit of the project is good. So what about graphene? Is graphene readyfor substantial VC investment beyond a few speculative proof of principleprojects? This, and the bottlenecks for progress, will be discussed. 35
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  35. 35. A challenge for European Industries Tapani Ryhänen Director and Head of Eurolab Nokia Research Center, Cambridge, UK Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesThe electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of graphenemake it one of the most important new materials for a multitude ofapplications in a large number of industrial sectors. In the electronicsindustry graphene is expected to become a significant new technologyplatform that creates applications ranging from functional compositematerials to integrated circuits and printed electronics. Current examplesof this broad scope of applications include transparent conductive films,graphene battery electrodes, graphene transistors, graphene composites.Based on these remarkable early achievements, it is possible to evaluatethe potential consumer value, and graphene has become in a very shortperiod of time a target of a huge global investment in the billions. In thiscompetition Europe, while being today the leader in the graphene basicresearch, has already a challenge to catch up with the speed of theAmerican and Asian development of graphene applications. A successfulEuropean research agenda in graphene research requires the creation of acomplete value chain from materials to components and finally to endproducts. Graphene based technologies are highly disruptive and willcreate opportunities for European manufacturing industries. Thispresentation discusses an industrial vision of graphene as a newtechnology platform, the challenges in creating new value networks andchains, the European position in graphene industrialisation, andopportunities for new manufacturing based on graphene. Thepresentation will use examples of future mobile communication products 37and their technology requirements to illustrate potential consumer andsocietal values of graphene. Nokia Research Center has carried out
  36. 36. graphene related research since 2006 together with its key university partners, Aalto University and the University of Cambridge. Examples of results related to electronics, optoelectronics and electrochemistry will be shown, with a vision of their impact in radio, sensor, battery and computing technologies.Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies 38
  37. 37. Graphene Technology Platform at BASF Matthias Schwab BASF SE Physical Chemistry, Formulation Technologies GVC/F, J550, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies matthias.schwab@basf.comGraphene as an emerging material has recently spurred the interest ofscientific research both in academia and industry. At BASF graphene andgraphene materials are currently being studied for several potential fieldsof application. We have set up a graphene technology platform aiming atthe systematic investigation of this new carbon material fabricated eitherby top-down or bottom-up procedures. Owing to its appealing electricalconductivity, graphene can be used for conductive formulations andcoatings as well as for polymer composite materials with antistaticproperties. Also, graphene may serve as a new carbon material thusreplacing or complementing traditional carbon black additives in lithium-ion batteries as well as activated carbons in supercapacitor devices. It isalso intended to evaluate graphene-based transparent conductive layersfor their use in displays, organic solar cells and organic light emittingdiodes. On a longer perspective the semi-conducting properties ofgraphene nanoribbons fabricated from chemical bottom-up approachesshall be explored.The talk will focus on the recent activities of BASF in the field of grapheneand provide an evaluation of this promising material from an industrialpoint of view. 39
  38. 38. 40 Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies
  39. 39. Graphene spintronics P. Sénéor1*, B. Dlubak1, M.-B. Martin1, A. Anane1, C. Deranlot1, B. Servet2, S. Xavier2, R. Mattana1, H. Jaffrès1, M. Sprinkle3, C. Berger3,4, W. de Heer3, F. Petroff1 and A. Fert1 1 Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, Palaiseau and Université Paris- Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies Sud, Orsay, France 2 Thales Research and Technology, Palaiseau, France 3 School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA 4 Institut Néel, CNRS, Grenoble, France pierre.seneor@thalesgroup.comSpintronics is a paradigm focusing on spin as the information vector.Ranging from quantum information to zero-power non-volatilemagnetism, the spin information can be also translated from electronicsto optics. Several spintronics devices (logic gates, spin FET, etc.) are basedon spin transport in a lateral channel between spin polarized contacts. Wewant to discuss, with experiments in support, the potential of graphenefor the transport of spin currents over long distances in such types ofdevice. The advantage of graphene over classical semiconductors andmetals comes from the combination of its large electron velocity with thelong spin lifetime due to the small spin-orbit coupling of carbon. This leadsto spin diffusion lengths ≈ 100 µm and above.We will present new magneto-transport experiments on epitaxialgraphene multilayers on SiC [1] connected to cobalt electrodes throughalumina tunnel barriers [2]. The spin signals are in the MΩ range in termsof ∆R = ∆V/I [3]. This is well above the spin resistance of the graphenechannel. The analysis of the results in the frame of drift/diffusion 41equations [4] leads to spin diffusion length in graphene in the 100 µmrange for a series of samples having different lengths and different tunnelresistances. The high spin transport efficiency of graphene can also be
  40. 40. acknowledged up to 75% in our devices [3]. The advantage of graphene is not only the long spin diffusion length. The large electron velocity also leads to short enough dwell times even for spin injection through tunnel barriers. Our results on graphene can be compared with previous results [5] obtained on carbon nanotubes. This shows that a unified picture of spin transport in nanotubes and graphene can be presented. In conclusion, graphene, with its unique combination of long spin life times and large electron velocity, resulting in long spin diffusion length, turns out as a material of choice for large scale logic circuits and the transport/processing of spin information. Understanding the mechanism of the spin relaxation, improving the spin diffusion length and also testingGraphene for Future Emerging Technologies various concepts of spin gate are the next challenges. References [1] W.A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. Wu, M. Sprinkle, Y. Hu, M. Ruan, J.A. Stroscio, P.N. First, R. Haddon, B. Piot, C. Faugeras, M. Potemski, and J.-S. Moon, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 43, 374007, 2010. [2] B. Dlubak, P. Seneor, A. Anane, C. Barraud, C. Deranlot, D. Deneuve, B. Servet, R. Mattana, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 092502 (2010) [3] B. Dlubak, P. Seneor, A. Anane, M.-B. Martin, C. Deranlot, B. Servet, S. Xavier, R. Mattana, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, W. A. De Heer, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Submitted [4] H. Jaffrès, J.-M. George, and A. Fert, Physical Review B, 82, 140408(R), 2010. [5] L.E. Hueso, J.M. Pruneda, V. Ferrari, G. Burnell, J.P. Valdes- Herrera, B.D. Simons, P.B. Littlewood, E. Artacho, A. Fert, and N.D. Mathur, Nature, 445, 410, 2007. 42
  41. 41. Graphene Logic Gates and Nanoribbon Memories Roman Sordan1*, Floriano Traversi1, Fabrizio Nichele1, Eberhard Ulrich Stützel2, Adarsh Sagar2, Kannan Balasubramanian2, Marko Burghard2 and Klaus Kern2,3 1 L-NESS Como, Politecnico di Milano, Polo di Como, Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como, Italy 2 Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany 3 Institute de Physique des Nanostructures, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, SwitzerlandOver the past few years there has been a surge of interest in graphene, arecently isolated single sheet of graphite. From the application point ofview this interest has mainly been driven by the high carrier mobility ofgraphene which enables fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs) withmuch smaller channel resistance compared to their Si counterparts. In thismanner, the ultimate limits of Si technology, which are expected at thesub-10 nm scale, may be overcome, paving the way for digitalnanoelectronics. Here we demonstrate the operation of graphene logicgates and memories with a current on/off ratio much higher than this inconventional back-gated graphene devices.The same resistance of a graphene FET can be obtained for two differentgate voltages, one on either side of the Dirac point. This was exploited tofabricate four basic logic gates (XOR, NAND, OR, and NOT) with a singlegraphene FET. However, these logic gates require off chip resistors tooperate, i.e., they are not integrated on the same graphene flake. Anintegrated graphene digital logic gate was obtained by integrating one p-and one n-type graphene FET on the same sheet of monolayer graphene. 43Both FETs initially exhibited p-type behaviour at low gate voltages, sinceair contamination shifted their Dirac points from zero to a positive gate
  42. 42. voltage. Contaminants in one FET were removed by electrical annealing, which shifted its Dirac point back and therefore restored n-type behaviour. Boolean inversion is obtained by operating the FETs between their Dirac points. In order to improve the on/off ratio of graphene FETs an alternative gate stack was fabricated. Incorporation of such graphene FETs in logic gates resulted in an increase in small-signal voltage gain of around two orders of magnitude in comparison to conventional back-gated devices. Use of these FETs in a complementary inverter eliminated need for current annealing and ensured a gain larger than unity under ambient conditions. Such a high gain is a main prerequisite for direct cascading of logic gates.Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies An alternative promising strategy to increase the on/off ratio relies upon patterning of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), wherein quantum confinement and edge effects open a bandgap inversely proportional to the ribbon width. Here we demonstrate a high performance GNR memory cell based on a nondestructive storage mechanism, i.e., gate voltage pulses of opposite polarity are used to switch between the distinct on and off states of the device. The devices were fabricated by patterning graphene into nanoribbons using V2O5 nanofibres as etching masks. A pronounced memory effect is observed under ambient conditions, which is attributed to charge traps in the vicinity of the GNRs. Reliable switching between two conductivity states is demonstrated for clock frequencies of up to 1 kHz and pulse durations as short as 500 ns (tested limits) for > 107 cycles. The durable and stable memory cell can be rendered nonvolatile upon exclusion of oxygen and humidity. GNRs thus emerge as promising components of highly integrated memory arrays. 44
  43. 43. IBM large scale graphene nanoelectronics technologies for future post CMOS C.Y. (Chun-Yung) Sung IBM Nanoelectronics and DARPA CERA Graphene Program Manager IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, U.S.A. Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies graphene FETs (GFET) yield the highest cut-off frequency (fT) valuesreported: >200 GHz on epitaxially grown SiC wafer and >150 GHz on CVD-grown-transferred onto Si wafer which are well above Si MOSFET fT-Lgtrend in ITRS. IBM implemented in-situ monolayer control using LEEM,which is capable of monolayer thickness precision and provides real-timeelectron reflection images, allowing graphene formation via Si desorptionfrom the SiC surface to be studied, optimized and controlled. Grapheneuniformly across Si-face SiC wafers with only monolayer variation,exhibiting high mobility. CVD is a promising way to produce large-scalegraphene which hold great commercialization potential at low cost. IBMdemonstrated large dimension, single layer high quality graphene sheetsCVD grown on Cu foil and transferred to 8“-12” Si wafer. The talk will alsodescribe the world first wafer scale graphene integrated circuit 10 GHzmixer fabricated by IBM. These are important advances in large scalegraphene synthesis, device and circuit technologies. A novelreconfigurable graphene p-n junction based logic device is alsointroduced. Its switching is accomplished by using co-planar split gatesthat modulate the properties that are unique to graphene includingangular dependent carrier reflection which can dynamically change thedevice operation, leading to reconfigurable multi-functional logic.The talk is going to focus on large-scale graphene that are likely to be 45realized within the next 3-10 years. The challenges and practical hurdleswhich need to be overcome on the road from research to industry, and
  44. 44. the opportunities and advantage over competing technologies will be discussed. Many future graphene nanoelectronics applications will also be introduced as well. Outline − IBM Large Scale Graphene Synthesis Technologies − IBM Graphene Nanoelectronics Device and Circuit Development − Applications and Markets − Challenges and OpportunitiesGraphene for Future Emerging Technologies 46
  45. 45. Graphene and its applications in energy storage devices Di WeiNokia Research Center, Broers Building, 21 JJ Thompson Avenue, CB30FA, Cambridge, UK Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesGraphene is a material which consists of a 2D layer of sp2 hybridizedcarbon atoms bonded together and the shape that results from it is a“honeycomb” lattice, notable for its high regularity. It is attracting growinginterest from both scientific community and industries due to the recentadvancements that have led to the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics in2010. Among the possible fields of applications, the use of graphene inenergy harvesting and storage devices is particularly interesting due to thenumber of extremely promising and practical potential uses. Grapheneexhibits superior electrical conductivity, transparency, a high chargecarrier mobility (20 m2/V/sec), fascinating transport phenomena such asthe quantum Hall effect, high surface areas of over 2600 m2/g and a broadelectrochemical window. These features make graphene particularlyadvantageous for applications in energy technologies. This talk coverselectrochemical exfoliation of graphene and its comparison with otherdifferent manufacturing methods. It also updates the application ofgraphene in energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and batteries[1, 2]. 47
  46. 46. References [1] Di Wei, Hongwei Li, Dongxue Han, Qixian Zhang, Li Niu, Huafeng Yang, Piers Andrew and Tapani Ryhänen, ’Properties of graphene inks stabilized by different functional groups’, Nanotechnology, 22 (2011) 245702. [2] D. Wei, P. Andrew, H. Yang, Y. Jiang, W. Ruan, D. Han, L. Niu, C. Bower, T. Ryhänen, M. Rouvala, G. A J Amaratunga, and A.Ivaska ‘Flexible solid state lithium batteries based on graphene inks’, J.Mater. Chem., 21 (2011) 9762.Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies 48
  47. 47. Graphene films synthesized via CVD A. Zurutuza Graphenea Nanomaterials, San Sebastian, Spain Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesResearchers envision many different applications for graphene. Dependingon the application the required graphene format can vary frompowder/flake to homogeneous film form. The powder form can beobtained starting from graphite while the large area graphene films can beobtained using silicon carbide sublimation and chemical vapor deposition(CVD) methods. In the CVD method, graphene is synthesized via thedeposition of a carbon source on a metallic catalyst substrate at hightemperatures. Copper and nickel metals have been widely used asgraphene catalysts during CVD growth. Copper has been reported tocontrol better the monolayer graphene growth [1]. However, the growthis not the only process that needs to be optimized in order to have highquality graphene on insulating substrates. The graphene transfer processis as important as the growth since the synthesized graphene can easily bedamaged during the transfer. After a careful characterization of ourmonolayer graphene by means of Raman and optical microscopy, thelimiting factors for a successful graphene transfer were determined.Moreover, we have also obtained suspended graphene samples whichwere characterized via High Resolution TEM and Scanning mode TEM.References 49[1] X. Li, et al Science 324, 1312 (2009).
  48. 48. 50 Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies
  49. 49. 52 Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies
  50. 50. Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies Workshop (223) Last update (10/10/2011)Nélia Alberto [Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal]Carlos Algora [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain]Beatriz Alonso [Graphenea S.A., Spain]Antonio Alvarez [TOLSA, Spain]Susana Alvarez-Garcia [ICMM-IQFR CSIC, Spain]Frazer Anderson [Oxford Instruments, United Kingdom]Marcelo Antunes [Centre Català del Plàstic, Spain]Paulo Antunes [Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal]Miguel Ara [Tindaya Renovables, SL, Spain]Pablo Ares [Nanotec Electronica, Spain]Arturo Azcorra [CDTI, Spain] Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesZenasni Aziz [CEA Yechnologies, France]Adrian Bachtold [ICN, CIN2, Spain]Michael Balthasar [Volvo Technology, Sweden]Giovanni Barcaro [CNR-IPCF, Italy]Mike Bath [DGS, United Kingdom]Manuel Belmonte [ICV-CSIC, Spain]Ana Benito [CSIC-Instituto de Carboquimica, Spain]Jose Manuel Berzal [NANOCONECTA, S.L., Spain]Peter Blake [Graphene Industries Ltd., United Kingdom]Tamara Blanco [AIRBUS, Spain]Anders Blom [QuantumWise A/S, Denmark]Alirio Boaventura [Institute of Telecommunications, Portugal]Francesco Bonaccorso [Cambridge University, United Kingdom]Paolo Bondavalli [Thales, France]Luis L. Bonilla [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain]Timothy Booth [DTU Nanotech, Denmark]Alberto Bosca [ISOM-UPM (ETSIT), Spain]Alejandro F. Braña de Cal [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain]Iria Bravo Segura [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain]Francesca Brunetti [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy]Andrew Burgess [AkzoNobel, United Kingdom]Thomas Büsgen [Bayer MaterialScience AG, Germany]Peter Bøggild [Technical University of Denmark, Denmark]Javier Caballero Fernández [Indra, Spain]Fernando Calle [ISOM-UPM, Spain]Juan Carratala [AIJU, Spain]Manuel Carretero [University Carlos III de Madrid, Spain]Alba Centeno [Graphenea, Spain] 53Hyun-Jong Chung [SAMSUNG, Korea]Giorgio Cinacchi [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain]Tim Claypole [WCPC, Swansea Univerisity, United Kingdom]
  51. 51. Salvatore Coffa [STMicroelectronics, Italy] Karl Coleman [DGS, United Kingdom] Luigi Colombo [Texas Instruments, United States] Philippe Coronel [CEA Grenoble, France] Antonio Correia [Phantoms Foundation, Spain] Gabriel Crean [CEA, France] Alicia de Andrés [CSIC, Spain] Jesus de la Fuente [Graphenea, Spain] Beatriz Marta de la Iglesia Rodríguez [CISDEM (UPM-CSIC), Spain] Jose M. de Teresa [CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain] Hakan Deniz [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain] Enrique Diez [Universidad Salamanca, Spain] Olivier Ducloux [ONERA, France] Emilio Elizalde [CSIC, Spain]Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies Vladimir Ermolov [VTT, Finland] Juan Carlos Escriña López [Técnicas Reunidas S.A., Spain] Mirko Faccini [Leitat Technological Center, Spain] Severino Falcon [MICINN, Spain] Christel Faure [CEA Technologies, France] Andrea Ferrari [Cambridge University, United Kingdom] Rafael Ferritto [Nanoinnova Technologies, Spain] Stephane Fontanell [OMNT, France] Gio Fornell [Linköping University,InnovationskontorEtt, Sweden] Thomas Frach [Philips, Germany] Gaillard Frederic [CEA Grenoble, France] Jean-Christophe Gabriel [CEA, France] Francisco Gamiz [University of Granada, Spain] Mar Garcia-Hernandez [ICMM-CSIC, Spain] Idoia Gaztelumendi [Tecnalia, Spain] Adriana Gil [Nanotec Electronica, Spain] Enrique Gimenez Torres [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain] Mehdi Gmar [CEA LIST, France] Philippe Godignon [CNM-CSIC, Spain] Julio Gomez [AVANZARE, Spain] Jean-Yves Gomez [ISORG, France] Marian Gomez [CSIC, Spain] Cesar Gomez Anquela [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain] Jose-Maria Gomez Rodriguez [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain] Guillermo Gomez Santos [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain] Miguel Gomez Uranga [University of the Basque Country, Spain] Berta Gomez-Lor [ICMM, Spain] 54 Nieves González [CDTI, Spain] Maria Angeles Gonzalez-Fernandez [Repsol, Spain] Neil Graddage [Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating, United Kingdom] Francisco Guinea [ICMM-CSIC, Spain]
  52. 52. Teresa Guraya [University if the Basque Country, Spain]York Haemisch [Philips Electronics B.V., Germany]Uwe Hahn [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain]Henri Happy [IEMN - University Lille1, France]Ari Harju [Aalto University, Finland]Lars-Christian Heinz [LG Electronics, Germany]Ana Helman [European Science Foundation, France]Juan Carlos Hernandez [JCHG24,SL, Spain]Soon Hyung Hong [Office of Strategic R&D Planning, Korea]Manuel Ricardo Ibarra [Institute of Nanoscience of Aragon (INA), Spain]Julen Ibarretxe [University of the Basque Country, Spain]Marta Iglesias [ICMM-CSIC, Spain]Adelina Ile [University of Bath]Jan-Theodoor Janssen [National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom] Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesGuido Janssen [TU Delft, Netherlands]Jose M. Kenny [ICTP-CSIC, Spain]Chul-Hong Kim [LG Display Co.,Ltd., Korea]Jari Kinaret [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden]Jukka Kolemainen [DIARC-Technology Oy, Finland]Harri Kopola [VTT, Finland]Frank Koppens [ICFO, Spain]Raimo Korhonen [VTT, Finland]Chang Seok Lee [Ecole Polytechnique, France]Marcus Liebmann [RWTH Aachen University, Germany]Niclas Lindvall [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden]Harri Lipsanen [Aalto University, Finland]Nicola Lisi [ENEA, Italy]Javier LLorca [IMDEA Materials Institute, Spain]Giulio Lolli [Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Germany]Vicente Lopez [Técnicas Reunidas, Spain]María Encarnación Lorenzo [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain]Rosa Mª Lozano Puerto [Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB-CSIC), Spain]Anders Mathias Lunde [ICMM-CSIC, Spain]Grzegorz Lupina [IHP, Germany]Pablo Mantilla Gilart [Fundacion CTC, Spain]Bernabé Marí Soucase [Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain]Javier Marti [Nanophotonics Tech Center- Univ. Politec. Valencia, Spain]Francisco Martínez [Innovarcilla Foundation, Spain]Cruz Mendiguta [B-Able, Spain]Eduardo Menendez Proupin [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain]Francesco Mercuri [CNR-ISMN, Italy]Cesar Merino [GRAnPH Nanotech, Spain] 55Arben Merkoçi [Catalan Institut of Nanotechnology, Spain]Giacomo Messina [University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Italy]Christian Methfessel [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany]
  53. 53. Abir Mhamdi [Faculty of sciences of Tunis, Tunisia] Jan Michalik [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragón, Spain] Salah Mohammed Moaied [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain] Mohsen Moazzami Gudarzi [Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran] Mauro Montabone [Thales Alenia Space, Italy] Ana Lilian Montero Alejo [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain] Angela Montiel [UC3M, Spain] Vittorio Morandi [CNR-IMM Bologna, Italy] Konstantinos Moulopoulos [University of Cyprus, Cyprus] Prasanta Muduli [University of Leipzig, Germany] Miguel Murillo [Indra Sistemas, Spain] Daniel Neumaier [AMO GmbH, Germany] Sneha Nidhi [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain] Luigi Occhipinti [ST Microelectronics, Italy]Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies Juuso Olkkonen [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland] M. Isabel Osendi [ICV-CSIC, Spain] Ekmel Ozbay [Bilkent University, Turkey] Antonio Paez Dueñas [Repsol, Spain] Vincenzo Palermo [CNR, Italy] Felix Pariente [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain] Seongjun Park [Samsung Electronics, Korea] Jordi Pascual [ICN, Spain] Iwona Pasternak [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Poland] Flavio Pendolino [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain] Briza Pérez López [Catalan Institut of Nanotechnology, Spain] Blanca Teresa Pérez Maceda [Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB-CSIC), Spain] Amaia Pesquera [Graphenea, Spain] Laura Polloni [University of Insubria, Italy] Samuele Porro [IIT – Italian Institute of Technology, Italy] María Teresa Portolés [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain] Javier Portugal [CSIC, Spain] Elsa Prada [ICMM - CSIC, Spain] Silvia G Prolongo [University Rey Juan Carlos, Spain] Mark Rahn [MTI Partners, United Kingdom] Bertrand Raquet [LNCMI - CNRS, France] Félix Raso Alonso [Centro Español de Metrología, Spain] Mohamed Ridane [LPN-CNRS, France] Stephan Roche [ICN, Spain] Stefano Roddaro [Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain] Rafael Rodrigo [CSIC, Spain] María Rodríguez Gude [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain] 56 Rafael Roldán [ICMM-CSIC, Spain] Chantal Roldan [Indra, Spain] Guenther Ruhl [Infineon Technologies, Germany] Virginia Ruiz [CIDETEC-IK4, Spain]
  54. 54. Vanesa Ruiz Ruiz [CIN2-CSIC, Spain]Nalin Rupesinghe [AIXTRON Ltd, United Kingdom]Tapani Ryhänen [NOKIA, Finland]Marcin Sadowski [European Commission, Belgium]Pablo San Jose [IEM-CSIC, Spain]Juan Sanchez [University of valencia, Spain]Jose Sanchez [AIRBUS, Spain]Carmelo Sanfilippo [VSI, Italy]Peter Schellenberg [Universidade do Minho, Portugal]Christoph Schelling [Robert Bosch GmbH, Germany]Oliver Schlueter [Bayer Technology Services, Germany]Matthias Schwab [BASF SE, Germany]Emmanuel Scorsone [CEA, France]Pierre Seneor [THALES-CNRS, France] Graphene for Future Emerging TechnologiesF. Javier Señorans [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain]Inés Serrano Esparza [Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain]Martin Siegel [Zumtobel Group, Austria]Viera Skakalova [Danubia NanoTech, Slovakia]Fernando Sols [Universidad Complutense, Spain]Jamie Soon [Saint Gobain Recherche, France]Roman Sordan [Politecnico di Milano, Italy]Tobias Stauber [University Autonoma, Madrid, Spain]Jan Stroemer [Philips Research, Netherlands]Chun Yung Sung [IBM Research, United States]Marko Tadjer [ISOM-UPM, Spain]Jose A. Tagle [Iberdrola SAU, Spain]Bernardo Tejada [KRAFFT, Spain]Wolfgang Templ [Alcatel-Lucent, Germany]Sukosin Thongrattanasiri [Instituto de Optica - CSIC, Spain]Jorge Trasobares [Nanozar SL, Spain]Alejandro Ureña Fernández [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain]Falco van Delft [Philips Innovation Services, Netherlands]Pieter van der Zaag [Philips Innovation Services, Netherlands]Amadeo Vazquez de Parga [IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain]José Ignacio Velasco [Centre Català del Plàstic, Spain]Juan José Vilatela [IMDEA Materials, Spain]Frank Wang [CamLase Ltd, United Kingdom]Di Wei [Nokia Research Center, Cambridge, United Kingdom]Thomas Weitz [BASF SE, Germany]Rune Wendelbo [Abalonyx AS, Norway]Joerg Widmer [Institute IMDEA Network, Spain]Tobias Wirth [Philips Research, Germany] 57Aziz Zenasni [CEA Technologies, France]Afshin Ziaei [Thales R&T, France]Amaia Zurutuza [Graphenea, Spain]
  55. 55. 58 Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies
  56. 56. Cover image: Artistic impression of a corrugated graphene sheet Credit: Jannik Meyer [University of Graphene for Future Emerging Technologies Vienna, Austria] Edited byPhantoms Foundation Alfonso Gómez 17 Planta 2 – Loft 1628037 Madrid – Spain
  57. 57. GRAPHENE RESEARCH at theInstitut Català de Nanotecnologia (ICN)The Institut Català de Nanotecnologia (ICN), a private foundation located in Barcelona, wascreated in 2003 by the Catalan government to conduct high quality scientific research innanoscience and nanotechnology at an international level.ICN attracts talent worldwide, with over 50% of the current 100 researchers being of foreignorigin. The research groups cover a wide range of fields, from the theory of transport of statevariables, atomic spectroscopy and manipulation, the study of physical properties ofnanostructures (nanoelectronics, spintronics, nanophotonics, nanophononics,nanomagnetism), to the synthesis and functionalisation of nanoparticles, the encapsulation ofchemical agents and the development of nanosensors and biosensors.With the objective of bringingnanotechnology to society, ICNdevelops methods of production andanalysis of nano products, creatingopportunities for commercialisationand offers training to researchersand technicians.Together with CSIC-ICMM in Madrid,ICN is involved in creating a nationalnetwork, the Spanish GrapheneProgram, and also the Europeanpilot action "Graphene Flagship"( Graphene device in a points station (A. Bachtold)ICN has a number of world leading researchers in these fields, placing it at the vanguard ofgraphene research. The Group of Prof. A. Bachtold has studied mechanical oscillations insuspended graphene, functioning simultaneously as a transistor of one electron,demonstrating the strong electromechanical coupling of the system. Recently they havefabricated graphene oscillators with the highest quality factor achieved to date, openingpossibilities for applications derived from the detection of mass at the atomic level and theultrasensitive measurement of forces.A total of five groups within ICN, including some 30 researchers, are actively exploring thepotential of graphene in various fields, such as spintronics and chemical functionalisation, withpotential applications in biotechnology and medicine.For further information, please visit ICN online at or contact us ortel: +34 93 581 4408.