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E_English Grammar Course  Chapter VII The Simple Sentence (cont.)
Negation <ul><li>The negation of a sentence is accomplished by inserting  not  between the operator and the predication. <...
Negation <ul><li>Assertives vs. Non-assertives  </li></ul><ul><li>Negative intensification </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative N...
Negation 4 4/3 <ul><li>Non-assertive forms = items </li></ul><ul><li>that do not naturally </li></ul><ul><li>occur outside...
Negation 4 4/4 Negative Intensification  = ways to give emotive intensification  to a negative. I found nothing  at all  t...
Negation 4 4/5 Alternative Negative Elements  (Instead of the verb, another  element may be negated) An honest man would n...
Negation 4 4/6 Scope of Negation Normally extends  from the negative word itself to the end of the clause . E.g. I definit...
Negation 4 4/7 Focus of Negation 1.' JOHN  doesn’t love Mary. Somebody  loves Mary but it’s not John. 2. John doesn’t ' LO...
Negation 4 4/8 Scope & Focus of Negation I didn’t LISTEN all the time. (I listened none of the time.) I didn’t listen ALL ...
Negation 4 4/10 Main verb negation  vs . Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation Main Verb Negation
Negation 4 4/11 The scope of negation  includes the meaning of the auxiliary itself Main verb negation  vs . Auxiliary neg...
Negation 4 4/12 <ul><li>can’t (in all sense) </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t be serious. </li></ul><ul><li>(It is not possible...
Negation 4 4/13 2. Needn’t You needn’t pay that fine. (You are not obliged to…) It needn’t be my fault. (it is not necessa...
Negation 4 4/14 3. May not ( = permission) You may not go swimming. (You are not allowed to…) Main verb negation  vs . Aux...
Negation 4 4/15 <ul><li>May not (=possibility) </li></ul><ul><li>They may not come if it’s wet. </li></ul><ul><li>(It is p...
Negation 4 4/16 Main verb negation  vs . Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/...
Negation 4 4/17 Don’t worry. I won’t interfere (I’m willing not to interfere.) He won’t do it (He insists on not doing it....
Negation 4 4/18 Don’t worry, you shan’t lose your reward. (I’m willing to see that you don’t lose your reward.) Main verb ...
Negation 4 4/19 I shan’t know when you return (I predict that I shall not know…) Main verb negation  vs . Auxiliary negati...
Negation 4 4/20 You mustn’t make noise. (It is obligatory that you don’t make noise) Main verb negation  vs . Auxiliary ne...
Negation 4 4/21 You oughtn’t to keep us waiting (obligation) He oughtn’t to be long (necessity) Main verb negation  vs . A...
Let's check <ul><li>Do exercise 105 (handout Week 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Answers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.  a. I advised him ...
Let's check <ul><ul><li>5.  a. Once, he didn't arrive on time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. He didn't once arrive on time...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/1 See more in 7.43 - 7.66 Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Ex...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/2 <ul><ul><li>Sentences in which the subject is always </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pr...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/3 Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions Types of simple sentences ...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/4 Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/5 General Yes – No questions Has the boat left? Yes-no questions with positive orien...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/6 <ul><li>Tag questions </li></ul><ul><li>Rising tone = neutral assumption </li></ul...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/7 Declarative Questions You’ve bought a new car? He didn’t finish it?  Questions Yes...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/9 <ul><li>Wh- word pronouns: who, whom, which, what, whose </li></ul><ul><li>Who wen...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/10 <ul><li>Wh- word adverbs: when, where, how, why, how + adj/adv </li></ul><ul><li>...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/11 Would you like tea, coffee, or milk? Which ice cream would you like. Chocolate, v...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/12 <ul><ul><li>Sentences that make use of the imperative mood in the main verb, </li...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/13 Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/14 Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ <ul><ul><li>Positive: Be reasona...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/15 Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ <ul><ul><li>‘ You’ as subject </...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/16 Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ <ul><ul><li>‘ You’ as subject </...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/17 Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ <ul><ul><li>Indefinite Pronoun S...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/18 <ul><ul><li>Positive:  Let’s go out./ Let each man decide for himself. </li></ul>...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/19 Full exclamation Short exclamation Types of simple sentences Statements Questions...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/20 Full exclamation Short exclamation What an enormous crowd came! How delightful he...
Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/21 Full exclamation Short exclamation What a book! How wonderful! Types of simple se...
Let's check <ul><li>Do exercise 7.19 (handout Week 6) </li></ul>
Homework <ul><li>Exercises 107-120 (Workbook) </li></ul><ul><li>Handout week 6 </li></ul>
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Week 6 the simple sentence (p2) - edited

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Week 6 the simple sentence (p2) - edited

  1. 1. E_English Grammar Course Chapter VII The Simple Sentence (cont.)
  2. 2. Negation <ul><li>The negation of a sentence is accomplished by inserting not between the operator and the predication. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li> The attempt has succeeded. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The attempt has not succeeded. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> We may win the match. </li></ul><ul><li> We may not win the match. </li></ul>4 4/1
  3. 3. Negation <ul><li>Assertives vs. Non-assertives </li></ul><ul><li>Negative intensification </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Negative elements </li></ul><ul><li>Scope of negation </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of negation </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between scope and focus of negation </li></ul><ul><li>Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation </li></ul>4 4/2 See more in 7.33 - 7.42
  4. 4. Negation 4 4/3 <ul><li>Non-assertive forms = items </li></ul><ul><li>that do not naturally </li></ul><ul><li>occur outside negative, </li></ul><ul><li>interrogative, and </li></ul><ul><li>conditional sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>I saw him somewhere . </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t see him </li></ul><ul><li>anywhere . </li></ul><ul><li>(Quirk 7.35 p.184) </li></ul>Any Anyone Anywhere In any way At all Yet Much Either Far Very Long Some Someone Somewhere Somehow To some extent Already A great deal Too A long way Too A long time Non-assertives Assertives
  5. 5. Negation 4 4/4 Negative Intensification = ways to give emotive intensification to a negative. I found nothing at all the matter with him. I have no excuse whatever . I'll never, never go there again. I've never in all my life seen such a crowd. She has never spoken to me even a single word .
  6. 6. Negation 4 4/5 Alternative Negative Elements (Instead of the verb, another element may be negated) An honest man would not lie -> No honest man would lie. I didn't see any birds -> I saw no birds .
  7. 7. Negation 4 4/6 Scope of Negation Normally extends from the negative word itself to the end of the clause . E.g. I definitely didn’t speak to him. (It’s definite that I did not.) I didn’t definitely speak to him. (It’s not definite that I did.) = The stretch of language over which the negative meaning operates
  8. 8. Negation 4 4/7 Focus of Negation 1.' JOHN doesn’t love Mary. Somebody loves Mary but it’s not John. 2. John doesn’t ' LOVE Mary. John likes Mary but it’s not love. 3. John doesn’t love ' MARY .  John loves somebody else but it’s not Mary. The contrastive nuclear stress falling on a particular part of a clause indicates that the contrast of meaning implicit in the negation is located at that spot and the rest of the clause can be understood in a positive sense.
  9. 9. Negation 4 4/8 Scope & Focus of Negation I didn’t LISTEN all the time. (I listened none of the time.) I didn’t listen ALL the time. (I listened some of the time.) The scope must include the focus, and by the position of the focus we can realize the extent of the scope
  10. 10. Negation 4 4/10 Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation Main Verb Negation
  11. 11. Negation 4 4/11 The scope of negation includes the meaning of the auxiliary itself Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation Main Verb Negation
  12. 12. Negation 4 4/12 <ul><li>can’t (in all sense) </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t be serious. </li></ul><ul><li>(It is not possible that…) </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t go swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>(You are not allowed…) </li></ul><ul><li>She can’t ride a bicycle. </li></ul><ul><li>(She is not able to…) </li></ul>Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation Main Verb Negation
  13. 13. Negation 4 4/13 2. Needn’t You needn’t pay that fine. (You are not obliged to…) It needn’t be my fault. (it is not necessary that…) Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation Main Verb Negation
  14. 14. Negation 4 4/14 3. May not ( = permission) You may not go swimming. (You are not allowed to…) Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation Main Verb Negation
  15. 15. Negation 4 4/15 <ul><li>May not (=possibility) </li></ul><ul><li>They may not come if it’s wet. </li></ul><ul><li>(It is possible that they won’t come.) </li></ul>Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation Main Verb Negation
  16. 16. Negation 4 4/16 Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t
  17. 17. Negation 4 4/17 Don’t worry. I won’t interfere (I’m willing not to interfere.) He won’t do it (He insists on not doing it.) They won’t have arrived yet (I predict that they’ve not arrived yet.) Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t
  18. 18. Negation 4 4/18 Don’t worry, you shan’t lose your reward. (I’m willing to see that you don’t lose your reward.) Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t
  19. 19. Negation 4 4/19 I shan’t know when you return (I predict that I shall not know…) Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t
  20. 20. Negation 4 4/20 You mustn’t make noise. (It is obligatory that you don’t make noise) Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t
  21. 21. Negation 4 4/21 You oughtn’t to keep us waiting (obligation) He oughtn’t to be long (necessity) Main verb negation vs . Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t
  22. 22. Let's check <ul><li>Do exercise 105 (handout Week 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Answers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. a. I advised him not to complain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. I didn't advise him to complain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. a. I definitely don't know what's happening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. I don't know definitely what's happening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. a. I don't even try ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Even I don't try ... </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Let's check <ul><ul><li>5. a. Once, he didn't arrive on time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. He didn't once arrive on time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. a. I don't particularly like oysters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. I particularly don't like oysters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. a. I really don't understand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. I don't really understand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. a. That's simply not acceptable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. That's not simply acceptable - it's very welcome! </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/1 See more in 7.43 - 7.66 Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations
  25. 25. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/2 <ul><ul><li>Sentences in which the subject is always </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>present and generally precedes the verb. </li></ul></ul>Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations
  26. 26. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/3 Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations
  27. 27. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/4 Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions
  28. 28. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/5 General Yes – No questions Has the boat left? Yes-no questions with positive orientation: Has the boat left already? Yes-no questions with negative orientation: Has the boat left yet? Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions
  29. 29. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/6 <ul><li>Tag questions </li></ul><ul><li>Rising tone = neutral assumption </li></ul><ul><li>Falling tone: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive assumption + positive expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Negative assumption + negative expectation </li></ul>Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions
  30. 30. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/7 Declarative Questions You’ve bought a new car? He didn’t finish it? Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions
  31. 31. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/9 <ul><li>Wh- word pronouns: who, whom, which, what, whose </li></ul><ul><li>Who went there with her? (Wh-word = S) </li></ul><ul><li>Who(m) did he talk to? (Wh-word = Od) </li></ul><ul><li>Which book have you lent him? (Wh-word = premodifier) </li></ul><ul><li>Whose beautiful antiques are they? (Wh-word = determiner) </li></ul><ul><li>Who did you lend the book to? (Wh-word = Oi) </li></ul>Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions
  32. 32. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/10 <ul><li>Wh- word adverbs: when, where, how, why, how + adj/adv </li></ul><ul><li>When will you come back? (A time) </li></ul><ul><li>Where should I put these? (A place) </li></ul><ul><li>Why aren’t they coming? (A reason) </li></ul><ul><li>How did they mend it? (A manner) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions
  33. 33. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/11 Would you like tea, coffee, or milk? Which ice cream would you like. Chocolate, vanilla, or strawberry? Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions
  34. 34. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/12 <ul><ul><li>Sentences that make use of the imperative mood in the main verb, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or sometimes of questions with the initial modal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- particularly with invitations or requests. </li></ul></ul>Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations
  35. 35. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/13 Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’
  36. 36. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/14 Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ <ul><ul><li>Positive: Be reasonable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative: Don’t make noise </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/15 Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ <ul><ul><li>‘ You’ as subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indefinite pronoun S </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/16 Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ <ul><ul><li>‘ You’ as subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You there be quiet! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You come here, Jack, and you come over there, Mary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you come in and sit down? </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/17 Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ <ul><ul><li>Indefinite Pronoun S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive: Somebody open the door! Everybody shut their eyes! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative: Don’t anyone say anything! </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/18 <ul><ul><li>Positive: Let’s go out./ Let each man decide for himself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative : Let’s not open the door/ Don’t let him lose heart. </li></ul></ul>Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’
  41. 41. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/19 Full exclamation Short exclamation Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations
  42. 42. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/20 Full exclamation Short exclamation What an enormous crowd came! How delightful her manners are! Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations
  43. 43. Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/21 Full exclamation Short exclamation What a book! How wonderful! Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations
  44. 44. Let's check <ul><li>Do exercise 7.19 (handout Week 6) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Homework <ul><li>Exercises 107-120 (Workbook) </li></ul><ul><li>Handout week 6 </li></ul>

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