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Week 5 syntactic and semantic role of clause elements (with key)

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Week 5 syntactic and semantic role of clause elements (with key)

  1. 1. The simple sentence Nguyễn Hồng Diệu HULIS VNU (cont.)
  2. 2. Syntactic features of clause elements <ul><li>A SUBJECT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is normally a NP or a clause with nominal function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs before the VP in declarative clauses, and immediately after the operator in questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has number and person concord, where applicable, with the VP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An OBJECTIVE (O d or O i ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a NP or clause with nominal function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally follows the S and the VP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes the status of S by the passive transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The O i precedes the O d and is semantically equivalent to a prepositional phrase </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Syntactic features of clause elements <ul><li>A COMPLEMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a NP, and Adj phrase, or a clause with nominal function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a co-referential relation with S or O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows the S, VP, and O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does NOT become S through the passive transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An ADVERBIAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is and Adv phrase, adverbial clause, NP, or prepositional phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is generally capable of occurring in more than one position in the clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is generally optional (may be added to or removed from a sentence without affecting its acceptability), except for the obligatory adverbial or the SVA and SVOA patterns </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Semantic roles of clause elements <ul><li>Subject </li></ul><ul><li>Object </li></ul><ul><li>Complement </li></ul>
  5. 5. Can you comment on the role of the Subjects in the following sentences? <ul><li>John opened the door. </li></ul><ul><li>The wind opened the door. </li></ul><ul><li>The door opened. </li></ul><ul><li>John has a big house. </li></ul><ul><li>This hall can hold about eighty students. </li></ul><ul><li>Today is April Fool’s Day. </li></ul><ul><li>The March Melody live show was on March 28 th . </li></ul><ul><li>It is getting hotter and hotter. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Agentive (most typical) </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental </li></ul><ul><li>Affected </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient </li></ul><ul><li>Locative </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><li>Eventive </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Empty’ It </li></ul>Semantic roles of SUBJECT
  7. 7. Agentive Subject Animate causer of the happening John opened the door. (The most typical semantic role of a subject is AGENTIVE; that is, the animate being instigating or causing the happening denoting by the verb)
  8. 8. Instrumental Subject Inanimate causer of the happening The wind opened the door. The unwitting (generally inanimate) material cause of an event
  9. 9. Affected Subject One being affected by the event The door opened. This role of subject is found with: Intransitive verbs: E.g.: Jack fell down Intensive verbs: E.g.: The pen is lying on the table
  10. 10. Let’s look at the examples <ul><li>His English has been improved . </li></ul><ul><li> Transitive </li></ul><ul><li>His English has improved . </li></ul><ul><li> Intransitive </li></ul>Affected subject
  11. 11. Let’s look at the examples <ul><li>They have increased the price of shirts and decreased the price of trousers. </li></ul><ul><li>They  Agentive subject </li></ul><ul><li>The price of shirts has increased and that of trousers has decreased. </li></ul><ul><li> Affected subject </li></ul><ul><li>Increase/Decrease  transitive/intransitve </li></ul>
  12. 12. Agentive Subject Affected Subject vs. John / the wind opened the door vs. The door opened Terrorists blew up the dam vs. The dam blew up Somebody raised an arm vs. An arm rose She is improving her writing vs. Her writing is improving They narrowed the road vs. The road became narrower I am growing my roses vs. My roses are growing
  13. 13. Rephrase the sentences so that O affected becomes S affected 1. I have broken my glasses E.g.: Terrorists blew up the dam  The dam blew up 2. Her jealousy has killed my love for her 3. Someone has moved that picture 4. The driver stopped the train 5. The guard shut the gate quickly My glasses have broken My love for her has died That picture has moved The train stopped The gate shut quickly Further Practice
  14. 14. Recipient Subject One that receives the happening John has a beautiful wife This role of subject is found with such verbs as have, own, possess, benefit (from)… and more …
  15. 15. ‘ Do you love me, honey?’ ‘ Look into my eyes’ She said softly, ‘ You’ll see my answer in there?’ I looked into her big, round, blue eyes and I saw a fire burning there. Do the subjects in the two coordinate clauses have the same semantic role?
  16. 16. Answer Perceptual verbs See, Hear require a recipient subject in contrast to Look at , Listen to , which are agentive Verbs indicating cognition or emotion may also require a recipient subject. E.g: I thought you were mistaken (It seemed to me …) I liked the play (The play gave me pleasure)
  17. 17. How can you say this in English? Em có nghe thấy gió nói gì không? Can you hear what the wind is whispering? The subject of the sentence is recipient
  18. 18. Locative Subject One that denotes location E.g.: The bus can hold forty people (Forty people can sit in the bus )
  19. 19. Temporal Subject One that denotes time E.g.: Tomorrow is my birthday (It is my birthday tomorrow )
  20. 20. Eventive Subject One that denotes event E.g.: The concert is on Thursday
  21. 21. Empty “IT” Subject One that lacks semantic content E.g.: It is getting dark
  22. 22. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affected (Od) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locative (Od) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effected (Od) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recipient (Oi) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affected (Oi) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Semantic roles of OBJECT
  23. 23. Affected direct object A participant which does not cause the happening denoted by the verb but is directly involved in some other way E.g.: Many MPs criticised the Prime Minister
  24. 24. Locative direct object One that shows location and is often found after such verbs as turn, leave, reach, cross, surround, penetrate, climb ... E.g.: They climbed the mountain
  25. 25. More examples <ul><li>I crossed the street. (locative) </li></ul><ul><li>I dug the street up. (affected) </li></ul><ul><li>They climbed the mountain . (locative) </li></ul><ul><li>They destroyed the mountain . (affected) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Effected direct object <ul><li>Object that exists only by virtue </li></ul><ul><li>of the activity indicated by the verb </li></ul>E.g.: I am writing a letter Baird invented television I am burning a letter Affected
  27. 27. Effected direct object 2. Object that repeats partially or wholly the meaning of the verb E.g.: Mary sang a song We fought a good fight – and lost
  28. 28. Effected direct object 3. Object that takes the form of a verbal noun preceded by a common verb of general meaning E.g.: He did little work that day The prisoner made no comment Have, do, make, take, give, pay ....
  29. 29. Recipient indirect object An animate participant being passively implicated by the happening or state E.g.: I have found you a place He gave his son some money
  30. 30. Affected indirect object He gave the door a kick Affected = He kicked the door (Exceptional) Affected
  31. 31. Affected indirect object I paid her a visit = I visited her Affected Affected Effected
  32. 32. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current attribute </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resulting attribute </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
  33. 33. <ul><li>A current attribute denotes an already existing characteristic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My father was a teacher . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We found her attractive . </li></ul></ul>Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
  34. 34. <ul><li>A resulting attribute denotes a characteristic that comes about because of the event reported in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He became a teacher in 1963. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Her new dress made her attractive . </li></ul></ul>Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
  35. 35. HOMEWORK <ul><li>Exercise 102-104 Workbook </li></ul>