Week 4 verb phrase edited

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Week 4 verb phrase edited

  1. 1. E_English Grammar Chapter 4 The verb & its complementation
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. Different classifications of English verbs </li></ul><ul><li>2. Grammatical categories of the verb </li></ul><ul><li>3. Intensive complementation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Monotransitive complementation </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ditransitive complementation </li></ul><ul><li>6. Complextransitive complementation </li></ul>Issues
  3. 3. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verb 1/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Functions of items Complementation Structure = words or phrases indicating an action, an event, or a state E.g.: kiss, break out, have
  4. 4. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 2/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs See more in 3.3 - 3.22
  5. 5. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 3/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs Regular Irregular E.g.: book, booked, booked E.g.: teach, taught, taught
  6. 6. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 4/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary
  7. 7. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 5/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary <ul><li>include: do, have, be </li></ul><ul><li>change meaning when becoming a </li></ul><ul><li>full verb </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I am a student. vs. I am reading. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 6/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary <ul><li>include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can – could </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May – Might </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shall-should </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will-would </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ought to </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 7/1 according to classified Functions of items Lexical verbs Auxiliary verbs Primary Modal Marginal modal auxiliary <ul><li>include: used to, dare, need </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 8/1 according to classified Complementation Intensive verbs Extensive verbs
  11. 11. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 9/1 according to classified Complementation Intensive verbs Current copular Resulting copular E.g.: be, appear, feel, look, remain, seem E.g.: become, get, go, grow, turn, make <ul><li>connect S & C </li></ul><ul><li>have the pattern: </li></ul><ul><li>SVC or SVA(obli) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I feel tired. </li></ul><ul><li>He’s in the cab. </li></ul>Extensive verbs
  12. 12. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 10/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs
  13. 13. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 11/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs <ul><li>require no Object </li></ul><ul><li>have the pattern: SV </li></ul><ul><li>make complete sense </li></ul><ul><li>themselves </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: He’s singing. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby cried. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 12/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs Mono-transitive Di-transitive Complex-transitive
  15. 15. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 13/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs Mono-transitive Di-transitive Complex-transitive <ul><li>require one direct Object (Od) </li></ul><ul><li>have the pattern: SVOd </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I kissed her. </li></ul><ul><li>He caught the ball. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 14/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs Mono-transitive Di-transitive Complex-transitive <ul><li>require both direct Object (Od) & indirect Object (Oi) </li></ul><ul><li>have the pattern: SVOiOd </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I gave her such a lovely present. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 15/1 according to classified Complementation Extensive verbs Intransitive Transitive Intensive verbs Mono-transitive Di-transitive Complex-transitive <ul><li>require Object and Object Complement </li></ul><ul><li>(Co) or Obligatory Averbial (A(obli)) </li></ul><ul><li>have the pattern: SVOCo or SVOA(obli) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: He made me really crazy. </li></ul><ul><li>He sent his son to the kindergarten. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 16/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Stative verbs Dynamic verbs See more in 3.35
  19. 19. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 17/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Stative verbs Verbs of inert perception & recognition Relational verbs = verbs that show the condition or status and do not accept the progressive aspect E.g.: I am a boy. It feels thin.
  20. 20. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 18/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Stative verbs Verbs of inert perception & recognition Relational verbs <ul><li>adore, astonish, believe, hate, hear, </li></ul><ul><li>impress, know, like, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I like you </li></ul><ul><li>He said he hated cooking. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 19/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Stative verbs Verbs of inert perception & recognition Relational verbs <ul><li>apply to, equal, deserve, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, resemble, possess, </li></ul><ul><li>sound, tend, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: She resembles her mother. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 20/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activity verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs = verbs that show the action or the change of status E.g.: She learns English. He hit me. She is English. ( ‘is’ isn’t dynamic verb because it denotes a permanent status)
  23. 23. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 21/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs <ul><li>ache, hurt, itch, feel, etc. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 22/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs <ul><li>ask, eat, help, learn, say, throw, write etc. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 23/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs <ul><li>arrive, land, leave, lose, die etc. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 24/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs <ul><li>hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, tap etc. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 25/1 according to classified Possibility of admitting progressive aspect Dynamic verbs Verbs of body sensation Activities verbs Transitional event verbs Momentary verbs Process verbs <ul><li>change, deteriorate, grow, mature, slow down etc. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 26/1 according to classified Structure One-word verbs Multi-word verbs
  29. 29. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 27/1 according to classified Structure One-word verbs <ul><li>as the name suggests, these are verbs of ONE </li></ul><ul><li>WORD </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: change, kiss, make, love, etc. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 28/1 according to classified Structure Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs Phrasal-prepositional verbs See more in 12.2 - 12.6
  31. 31. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 29/1 according to classified Structure Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs Phrasal-prepositional verbs <ul><li>turn on (the light), bring up (the child), hand in (the paper), give up, take of, etc. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 30/1 according to classified Structure Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs Phrasal-prepositional verbs <ul><li>look at (the girl), take after (somebody), look after (somebody), etc. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Classifications of English verbs 1 Verbs 31/1 according to classified Structure Multi-word verbs Phrasal verbs Prepositional verbs Phrasal-prepositional verbs <ul><li>come up with, make up for, stand in for, put up with, etc. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Let's check <ul><li>Do exercise 156 (handout) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Let's check <ul><li>Answers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. fooling around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. settled down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. dropped out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. cried off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. gives up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. come on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. fell through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. ringing up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. wait up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10. taking off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11. touched down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12. own up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13. went ahead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14. beat up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15. wear off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16. Hold on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17. look back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18. stands out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19. come about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20. caught on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21. give in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22. pass away </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Grammatical categories of verbs 2 Grammatical categories of verbs Tense Aspect Mood Voice Present Past Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Active Passive Progressive Perfective Perfective-progressive Simple 1/2 See more in 3.26 - 3.46
  37. 37. Grammatical categories of verbs 2 Tense <ul><li>= the correspondence between the form of the verb and </li></ul><ul><li>our concept of time </li></ul><ul><li>language specific (while TIME: universal, non-linguistic) </li></ul><ul><li>includes PAST and PRESENT </li></ul><ul><li>no FUTURE TENSE because there’s no verb form </li></ul><ul><li>corresponding to future time. </li></ul>2/2
  38. 38. Grammatical categories of verbs 2 Aspect <ul><li>the manner in which a verbal action is experienced or regarded </li></ul><ul><li>with respect to time </li></ul><ul><li>progressive aspect: verbal action experienced as in progress </li></ul><ul><li>perfective aspect: verbal action experienced as completed </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I am writing with a special pen. (progressive aspect) </li></ul><ul><li>I have written with a special pen. (perfective aspect) </li></ul><ul><li>Tense & aspect are intermingled. </li></ul>3/2
  39. 39. Grammatical categories of verbs 2 Aspect Tense & 4/2 Past perfect progressive Past perfect Past progressive Past simple Past Present perfect progressive Present perfect Present progressive Present simple Present Perfect progressive Perfective Progressive Complex Simple Tense Aspect
  40. 40. Grammatical categories of verbs 2 Mood = a grammatical category that relates the verb action to such conditions as certainty, obligation, necessity, possibility Indicative Imperative Subjunctive = statement of the fact = command, request = non-fact, unreal E.g.: She’s nice to me. (fact - indicative) Be nice to me. (command - imperative) I suggest she be nice to me. (non-fact - subjunctive) 5/2
  41. 41. Grammatical categories of verbs 2 Subjunctive mood Mandative Formulaic Subjunctive “were” 6/2
  42. 42. Grammatical categories of verbs 2 Subjunctive mood Mandative Formulaic Subjunctive “were” <ul><li>Found in “-that clause” (verbs: recommend, demand, </li></ul><ul><li>request, insist, suggest, ask, it is necessary that) </li></ul><ul><li>Form: the base </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: to be formal </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: The chairman demands that the farmer kill all his </li></ul><ul><li>chicken. </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary that every student pay the tuition </li></ul><ul><li>fee. </li></ul>7/2
  43. 43. Grammatical categories of verbs 2 Subjunctive mood Mandative Formulaic Subjunctive “were” <ul><li>Found in clause in certain set expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Form: the base </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: May god bless you. </li></ul><ul><li>Long live the King. </li></ul><ul><li>God save the Queen. </li></ul><ul><li>Come what may, we’ll go ahead. </li></ul>8/2
  44. 44. Grammatical categories of verbs 2 Subjunctive mood Mandative Formulaic Subjunctive “were” <ul><li>Found in conditional & concessive clauses, </li></ul><ul><li>subordinate clauses after verbs like Wish and Suppose </li></ul><ul><li>Form: WERE </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning: hypothetical/unreal </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: If I were rich, I would buy you anything you wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>Just suppose everyone were to give up smoking. </li></ul>9/2
  45. 45. Grammatical categories of verbs 2 Voice <ul><li>= a grammatical category that makes it possible to view </li></ul><ul><li>the action of a sentence in either of two ways, without </li></ul><ul><li>change in the facts reported </li></ul><ul><li>include: passive and active voice </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: He ate all the apples. (active) </li></ul><ul><li>The dog was bitten by our neighbor. (passive) </li></ul>10/2
  46. 46. Intensive complementation 3 1/3 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) See more in 12.8 - 12.13
  47. 47. Intensive complementation 3 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal clause Noun phrase 2/3
  48. 48. Intensive complementation 3 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal clause Noun phrase E.g.: She is so crazy . That is ridiculous ! 3/3
  49. 49. Intensive complementation 3 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal clause Noun phrase E.g.: She isn’t a good student . It appears the only solution . 4/3
  50. 50. Intensive complementation 3 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal clause Noun phrase finite clause non-finite clause 5/3
  51. 51. Intensive complementation 3 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal clause Noun phrase finite clause non-finite clause <ul><li>“ that clause” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: The problem is that it costs a lot . </li></ul><ul><li>“ wh-interrogative clause” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: The problem is not who will go . </li></ul><ul><li>“ nominal relative clause” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Quality is what counts most . </li></ul>6/3
  52. 52. Intensive complementation 3 Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) C (complement) A (adverbial) Adjective phrase Nominal phrase Noun phrase finite clause <ul><li>“ bare-infinitive clause” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: All I did was hit him on the head . </li></ul><ul><li>“ to-infinitive clause” with(out) “Subject” (S) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: My wish is to be a pilot . (without S) </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is for us to meet at 8 . (with S) </li></ul><ul><li>“ - ing clause” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Seeing is believing . </li></ul>non-finite clause 7/3
  53. 53. <ul><li>Intensive verb complementation (SVC - SVA) </li></ul>Intensive complementation Adverbial Prepositional phrase Finite clause She is in the garden. The program is at night. Home is where your family is. 3 8/3
  54. 54. Mono-transitive complementation 4 1/4 Mono-transitive verb complementation (SVO) Noun phrase Non-finite clause Finite clause See more in 12.14 - 12.19
  55. 55. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs 2/4
  56. 56. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs E.g.: Tom caught the ball. The ball was caught by Tom. 3/4
  57. 57. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs E.g.: They passed over the question. The question was passed over . 4/4
  58. 58. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs E.g.: She has a nice house. A house is had by her. 5/4
  59. 59. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs E.g.: The management paid for his air fares. 6/4
  60. 60. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Noun phrase Direct object (O) Prepositional O With passive one-word verbs phrasal verbs Without passive Prepositional verbs Phrasal prepositional verbs E.g.: He looked down on them. 7/4
  61. 61. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause Wh- clause 8/4
  62. 62. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause Wh- clause Extraposed subject that-clause Extraposed object that-clause That- clause as object E.g.: I don’t care what you are saying . Tom doubted whether they would come to the party . I wondered who did make the bed for me . Can you confirm which flight we are taking ? I realized what a fool I had been . I know how busy you are . 9/4
  63. 63. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs 10/4
  64. 64. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs Major Minor Factual Suasive Emotive Hypothesis 11/4
  65. 65. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs Major Minor Factual Suasive Emotive Hypothesis <ul><li>introduce what one might generally describe </li></ul><ul><li>as factual or propositional information </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: They agree/admit/claim that she was </li></ul><ul><li>misled. </li></ul>12/4
  66. 66. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs Major Minor Factual Suasive Emotive Hypothesis <ul><li>imply intentions to bring about some change </li></ul><ul><li>in the future, whether or not these are verbally </li></ul><ul><li>formulated as commands, suggestions, etc </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: The are demanding that she leave. </li></ul>13/4
  67. 67. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs Major Minor Factual Suasive Emotive Hypothesis E.g.: I regret that we didn’t come. 14/4
  68. 68. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Super-ordinate verbs Subordinate verbs Major Minor Factual Suasive Emotive Hypothesis E.g.: I wish that he were here. 15/4
  69. 69. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Subordinate verbs Subjunctive verbs Putative “should” Indicative verbs Super-ordinate verbs 16/4
  70. 70. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Subordinate verbs Subjunctive verbs Putative “should” Indicative verbs Super-ordinate verbs E.g.: She admitted that she was wrong. 17/4
  71. 71. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Subordinate verbs Subjunctive verbs Putative “should” Indicative verbs Super-ordinate verbs E.g.: I insist that he shouldn’t smoke . 18/4
  72. 72. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Finite clause That- clause That- clause as object Subordinate verbs Subjunctive verbs Putative “should” Indicative verbs Super-ordinate verbs E.g.: I require that he give up smoking . 19/4
  73. 73. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause Infinitive clause Participle clause Without subject With subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause 20/4
  74. 74. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause Infinitive clause Participle clause Without subject With subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause E.g.: I don’t like the house to be left empty . I saw them cry . 21/4
  75. 75. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause To-infinitive clause Participle clause Without subject With subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause E.g.: I dislike him driving my car . I found the floor polished . 22/4
  76. 76. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause Without subject With subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause E.g.: Mary longed to leave home . 23/4
  77. 77. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause Without subject With subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause E.g.: Mary loves listening to music. 24/4
  78. 78. Mono-transitive complementation 4 Mono-transitive verb complementation by a Non-finite clause Wh-infinitive clause To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause Without subject With subject To-infinitive clause Ing-participle clause E.g.: He learned how to sail a boat as a small child . You must not forget when to keep your mouth shut . I could not decide (on) which bicycle to buy . 25/4
  79. 79. Di-transitive complementation 5 1/5 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs See more in 12.28 - 12.32
  80. 80. Di-transitive complementation 5 2/5 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs E.g.: He gave the girl a doll .
  81. 81. Di-transitive complementation 5 3/5 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs E.g.: He persuaded me to give up smoking .
  82. 82. Di-transitive complementation 5 4/5 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs E.g.: He convinced me that he was right.
  83. 83. Di-transitive complementation 5 5/5 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs <ul><li>verbs combined with certain NPs followed by prepositions </li></ul><ul><li> two passive forms of the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>these expressions include: catch sight of, make fun of, take </li></ul><ul><li>account of, give way to, etc . </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: They make best use of the garage. </li></ul><ul><li>The garage is made best use of. </li></ul><ul><li>Best use is made of the garage. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Di-transitive complementation 5 6/5 Di-transitive verb complementation (SVOO) Od & Oi = NP Oi = NP, Od = non-finite clause Oi = NP, Od = finite clause Idiomatic expressions: V + NP + Prep Di-transitive prepositional verbs <ul><li>Od introduced by a preposition </li></ul><ul><li>one passive form with Oi only </li></ul><ul><li>these verbs include: remind of, charge with, compare to, </li></ul><ul><li>rob of, refer to, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: He reminds me of the agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>I am reminded of the agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions for: explain, provide, supply, blame, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: He explained it to me. </li></ul><ul><li>It was explained to me. </li></ul><ul><li>I was explained about it. </li></ul>
  85. 85. Complex-transitive complementation 6 1/6 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOA - SVOC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause See more in 12.20 - 12.27
  86. 86. Complex-transitive complementation 6 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: He drives me crazy . 2/6
  87. 87. Complex-transitive complementation 6 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: The Queen appointed William her personal secretary . 3/6
  88. 88. Complex-transitive complementation 6 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause <ul><li>Adverbials are obligatory. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Take your hands out of your pocket . </li></ul>4/6
  89. 89. Complex-transitive complementation 6 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: John believed the stranger to be a policeman . 5/6
  90. 90. Complex-transitive complementation 6 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: You shouldn't let your family interfere with our plans . 6/6
  91. 91. Complex-transitive complementation 6 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: Tim watched Bill mending the lamp . 7/6
  92. 92. Complex-transitive complementation 6 Complex-transitive verb complementation (SVOdA - SVOdC) Adjectival Object Complement (Co) Nominal Co Adverbials To-infinitive Bare-infinitive Ing-clause Ed-clause E.g.: They found him worn out by travel and exertion . ed-clause 8/6
  93. 93. Let's check <ul><li>Do exercise 165 (handout) </li></ul><ul><li>Answers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. f </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. c </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. i </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. d </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. b </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. e </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10. h </li></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Homework <ul><li>Exercises 211-218, 225-230, 233-244 Workbook </li></ul><ul><li>Further reading: The use of modal auxiliaries (3.47-3.55) </li></ul>

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