Week 2 noun phrase (p1)

2,158 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,158
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
58
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
121
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Week 2 noun phrase (p1)

  1. 1. E_English Grammar Course Unit 2 NOUN PHRASE
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. Noun and noun classes </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reference and the articles </li></ul><ul><li>3. Grammatical categories of nouns </li></ul><ul><li>4. Pronouns </li></ul>Issues
  3. 3. <ul><li>1. Noun and noun classes </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reference and the articles </li></ul><ul><li>3. Grammatical categories of nouns </li></ul><ul><li>4. Pronouns </li></ul>Issues
  4. 4. Noun – Noun classes 1.1 Noun <ul><li>= a word used TO NAME … </li></ul><ul><li>A person </li></ul><ul><li>(E.g.: Tom, John, Bill Jones) </li></ul><ul><li>A thing </li></ul><ul><li> (E.g.: bed, chair, table, house) </li></ul><ul><li>An animal </li></ul><ul><li>(E.g.: cat, dog, tiger, lion) </li></ul><ul><li>An abstract concept </li></ul><ul><li>(E.g.: peace, war, independence) </li></ul>1/1
  5. 5. Noun – Noun classes 1.2 1/2 Noun classes Proper nouns Common nouns See more in 4.2 - 4.4
  6. 6. Noun – Noun classes 1.2 1/3 Noun classes Proper nouns Bill Clinton the Nile the UNICEF geographical names personal names names of institutions/ organizations calendar items Easter
  7. 7. Noun – Noun classes 1.2 1/4 car cars Noun classes Common nouns Count Ns Non-count Ns Singular Plural Singular salt
  8. 8. Noun – Noun classes 1.2 1/5 Common nouns Count Ns Non-count Ns Concrete Abstract chair gold activity beauty
  9. 9. Noun – Noun classes Noun classes Proper nouns Common nouns Count Ns Non-count Ns E.g. Tom, John Concrete Abstract 1.2 cat failure rice peace 1/6
  10. 10. Noun – Noun classes <ul><li>Let’s check </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To which classes does each of the following nouns belong to? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>furniture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>garden </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>serenity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friday </li></ul></ul></ul>1.2 1/7
  11. 11. Noun – Noun classes <ul><li>Let’s check </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture : Non-count, concrete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Garden : Count, concrete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serenity : Non-count, abstract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friday : Proper (calendar item) </li></ul></ul></ul>1.2 1/8
  12. 12. <ul><li>1. Noun and noun classes </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reference and the articles </li></ul><ul><li>3. Grammatical categories of nouns </li></ul><ul><li>4. Pronouns </li></ul>Issues
  13. 13. Reference – The articles 2.1 2/1 See more in 4.16 - 4.30 Reference Generic Specific Unique
  14. 14. Reference – The articles 2.1 2/2 E.g.: - John loves Mary . Reference Unique proper noun
  15. 15. Reference – The articles 2.1 2/3 C/f. (1) A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage. (2) Tigers are dangerous animals. Reference Generic Specific vs.
  16. 16. Reference – The articles <ul><li>Specific or generic? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) = SPECIFIC (referring to particular specimens of the class ‘tiger’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Tigers are dangerous animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) = GENERIC (referring to the class ‘tiger’ without specific reference to particular tigers) </li></ul></ul>2.1 2/4
  17. 17. Reference – The articles 2.1 Generic Reference & the Articles 2/5 <ul><li>A German is a good musician. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans are good musicians. </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans are good musicians. </li></ul><ul><li>The German is a good musician (not common). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reference – The articles 2.1 Specific Reference & the Articles 2/6 (some) tigers the tigers PLURAL (some) furniture a tiger the furniture the tiger SINGULAR NONCOUNT COUNT NONCOUNT COUNT DEFINITE INDEFINITE
  19. 19. Reference – The articles 2.2 2/7 The articles Definite Indefinite Zero (Ø) E.g.: - The earth goes around the sun . (definite) - He bought a new bike yesterday. (indefinite) - He has just arrived in Ø London. (zero)
  20. 20. Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article ‘ the ” 2/8 Immediate situation Larger situation Anaphoric reference Cataphoric reference Sporadic reference Logical use of THE With body parts
  21. 21. Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article ‘the’ 2/9 Anaphoric reference Cataphoric reference Sporadic reference = the uniqueness of reference of some phrase (the X) is supplied by information given earlier in the discourse The modification of the noun phrase restricts the reference of the noun E.g. The wine that France produces Reference is made to an institution which may be observed recurrently at various places and times. E.g. the theatre, the cinema, the press, etc.
  22. 22. Reference – The articles 2.2 2/10 = The same head noun has occurred in the text and a relation of co-reference exists between two NPs E.g.: Susan bought a TV and a video recorder , but she returned the video recorder because it was defective. Definite article ‘the’ Anaphoric reference Direct
  23. 23. Reference – The articles 2.2 2/11 = A reference becomes part of the hearer’s knowledge indirectly E.g.: John bought a new bicycle, but found that one of the wheels was defective. Definite article ‘the’ Anaphoric reference Indirect
  24. 24. Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article ‘the’ Immediate situation = derived from the extra-linguistic situation. E.g.: - The roses are beautiful. (said in the garden) - Have you fed the dog ? (said in the domestic context) 2/12
  25. 25. Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article ‘the’ = general knowledge which is shared or worldwide E.g.: the sun the Equator the Republic the North Pole the cosmos the Renaissance Larger situation 2/13
  26. 26. Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article ‘the’ = the unique reference explained by the logical interpretation of certain words as post-determiners and adjectives Logical use of THE 2/14
  27. 27. Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article ‘the’ <ul><li>Ordinals </li></ul><ul><li>(E.g.: first, second) </li></ul><ul><li>General ordinals </li></ul><ul><li>(E.g.: next, last, only) </li></ul><ul><li>Superlative Adjs </li></ul><ul><li>(E.g.: best, largest) </li></ul>E.g.: - When is the first flight to Chicago? - This is the only remaining copy. - Of the three newspapers we have in this city, this is the best . Logical use of THE 2/15
  28. 28. Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article ‘the’ <ul><li>= when the possessor… </li></ul><ul><li>is subject (1) </li></ul><ul><li>may be implied rather </li></ul><ul><li>than stated (2) </li></ul><ul><li>is relevant or clear (3) </li></ul>With body parts E.g.: - My mother complains of a pain in the neck. (1) - The doctor diagnosed a fracture of the collarbone. (2) - Keep the back straight when serving and your tennis will be better. (3) 2/16
  29. 29. Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an The referent: not mentioned before, and assumedly unfamiliar to the speaker or hearer. C/f: (1) A house on the corner is for sale. (2) The house on the corner is for sale. 2/17
  30. 30. Reference – The articles 2.2 2/18 Indefinite articles a/an Non-referring uses Substitution uses for ONE
  31. 31. Reference – The articles 2.2 2/19 Indefinite articles a/an Non-referring uses = with complement function , and a descriptive role rather than a referring role E.g.: - What a miserable day it is! = sometimes not referring to anything in reality E.g.: - Bob wants to marry a princess who speaks five languages .
  32. 32. Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an 2/19 Substitution uses for ONE substitute and generic function numerical or quantifying function
  33. 33. Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an Substitution uses for ONE numerical or quantifying function 2/20 In expression: a dozen, a hundred… In quantifiers: a few, a great many… In measure phrase: ten dollars a day…
  34. 34. Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an Substitution uses for ONE substitute and generic function 2/21 = any representative of the class E.g.: - A woman needs love and support from a man.
  35. 35. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases in a copular relation Noun phrases with sporadic reference Parallel structures Fixed phrases 2/22
  36. 36. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases in a copular relation = where the complement means a unique role or task E.g.: - John F. Kennedy was (the) President of the United States in 1961. 2/23 = When the appositional N.P indicating a unique role or task is placed first = When the complement of turn is used (even when there is no implication of uniqueness) E.g.: - Chelsea centre-forward Milton Smith E.g.: - Jenny started out as a music student before she turned linguist .
  37. 37. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference 2/24 Means of transport and communication Institutions Times of day and night Seasons Meals Illnesses
  38. 38. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Institutions 2/25 = nouns do not refer to actual buildings or places, but to institutions associated with them E.g.: - “to be in prison ” means to be a prisoner
  39. 39. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Means of transportation 2/26 bicycle bus radio post by travel leave communicate E.g.:
  40. 40. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Times of day and night 2/27 = take a zero article particularly after at, by, after and before E.g.: at/ before dawn by day and night when day breaks after nightfall
  41. 41. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Meals 2/28 = as an institution recurring day by day (for specific meals: THE/ A(N)) E.g.: - She’s having lunch with her client. - That day, the lunch was served on the terrace.
  42. 42. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Seasons 2/29 = as seasons generally, or a particular part of a particular year (for a particular season: THE/ A(N)) E.g.: - Winter is coming. - The spring of last year was cold.
  43. 43. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Illnesses 2/30 Note : for well-known infectious diseases: THE/ A(N) E.g.: diabetes influenza pneumonia (the) flu (the) mumps (the) measles a fever a temperature a cold
  44. 44. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Parallel structures one noun balanced against another noun of contrasting meaning the same noun repeated after a preposition E.g.: day by day eye to eye E.g.: from father to son husband and wife 2/31
  45. 45. Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Fixed phrases Idioms = nouns with prepositions before/after E.g.: in turn on foot E.g.: set fire to get word of Idioms = verbs with nouns and prepositions 2/32
  46. 46. <ul><li>1. Noun and noun classes </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reference and the articles </li></ul><ul><li>3. Grammatical categories of nouns </li></ul><ul><li>4. Pronouns </li></ul>Issues
  47. 47. Grammatical categories of Ns 3 2/33 Grammatical Categories Number Gender Case E.g.: mouse - mice box – boxes fish - fish E.g.: my sister’s car a fall of 10% E.g.: she-wolf desk mother-in-law
  48. 48. Grammatical categories of Ns 3 2/34 Grammatical Categories Number Invariables Variables = nouns that do not vary = nouns that do vary See more in 4.31 - 4.57
  49. 49. Grammatical categories of Ns 3 2/35 Invariables Singular only Plural only Non-count Ns N-ending in “s” Substantive Adj Ns with plural meaning Pluralia tantums Collective Ns Substantive Adj material water, oil abstract freedom news physics (abstract) the true the ugly scissors pants arms customs people cattle (concrete) the poor the blind
  50. 50. Grammatical categories of Ns 3 2/36 Variables Regular plural Irregular plural Zero plural (N + s) - /s/ books, stops - /z/ beds, stars - /iz/ boxes, brushes - voicing /f/  /vz/ leaf – leaves - “en” ending ox – oxen - change of the root vowel tooth - teeth - foreign plural medium - media (same form for both plural & singular) sheep, deer, tout
  51. 51. Grammatical categories of Ns 3 3/1 Case “ of” genitive “ s” genitive double genitive E.g.: her mom’s car E.g.: the paint of the room = “of” and “’s” genitives used together E.g.: a friend of her father’s = with the nouns of lower gender class = with the nouns of higher gender class See more in 4.66 - 4.77
  52. 52. Grammatical categories of Ns 3 3/2 Case – Genitive meaning Genitive meaning Examples Equivalents Possessive My father’s hat My father has a hat. Human relation Her sister’s nephew Her sister has a nephew. Subjective (+ original) My father’s permission The arrival of the bus My father permits. The bus arrived. Objective The criminal’s arrest Someone arrested the criminal. Descriptive Two days’ visit A visit lasts 2 days. Appositive The town of Vinh Yen Vinh Yen is a town.
  53. 53. Grammatical categories of Ns 3 3/3 Gender = In English, there is not any further morphological feature that helps distinguish gender (unlike Russian or French) See more in 4.58 - 4.65 Gender Sex (semantic concept) Masculine: man (male) Feminine: woman (female) Common: teacher (both male and female) Neuter: table Ø
  54. 54. <ul><li>1. Noun and noun classes </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reference and the articles </li></ul><ul><li>3. Grammatical categories of nouns </li></ul><ul><li>4. Pronouns </li></ul>Issues
  55. 55. Pronouns 4 3/4 Pronouns Features Types See more in 4.78 - 4.95
  56. 56. Pronouns 4.1 4/1 Pronouns Features Person Case Gender Number Main features
  57. 57. Pronouns 4.1 4/2 Pronouns Features Main features <ul><li>without determiners </li></ul><ul><li>with an objective case </li></ul><ul><li>with person distinction (1 st – I/ we; 2 nd – you; 3 rd – he/she/it/they) </li></ul><ul><li>with overt gender contrast (masculine, feminine & non-personal) </li></ul><ul><li>singular and plural form: </li></ul><ul><li>not often morphologically </li></ul><ul><li>related </li></ul>
  58. 58. Pronouns 4.1 4/3 Pronouns Features <ul><li>first person: the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>(and one or more other) </li></ul><ul><li>second person: the </li></ul><ul><li>interlocutor(s) </li></ul><ul><li>third person: one/more other </li></ul><ul><li>persons other than the </li></ul><ul><li>interlocutor(s) </li></ul>Person Case Genitive Number Main features
  59. 59. Pronouns 4.1 4/4 Pronouns Features <ul><li>Most pronouns: two-case </li></ul><ul><li>system (subjective & genitive) </li></ul><ul><li>Other 6 pronouns: three- </li></ul><ul><li>case system (subjective, </li></ul><ul><li>objective, genitive) </li></ul><ul><li>(I, we, he, she, they, who) </li></ul><ul><li>(me, us, him, her, them, whom) </li></ul><ul><li>(my, our, his, her, their, whose) </li></ul>Person Case Genitive Number Main features
  60. 60. Pronouns 4.1 4/5 Pronouns Features <ul><li>with a distinction </li></ul><ul><li>between masculine and </li></ul><ul><li>feminine in 3rd person </li></ul><ul><li>singulars: personal, </li></ul><ul><li>reflexive, and possessive. </li></ul><ul><li>(he - she; himself - herself; </li></ul><ul><li>her - his ) </li></ul>Person Case Gender Number Main features
  61. 61. Pronouns 4.1 4/6 Pronouns Features <ul><li>The 2nd person: a common </li></ul><ul><li>form for singular & plural in </li></ul><ul><li>the personal & possessive </li></ul><ul><li>series, but a separate form for </li></ul><ul><li>plural in the reflexive </li></ul><ul><li>( you – your but </li></ul><ul><li>yourself - yourselves) </li></ul>Person Case Genitive Number Main features
  62. 62. Pronouns 4.2 4/7 Pronouns Types Personal Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Reciprocal Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Relative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Quantifying Pronouns Universal ProNs & determiners Partitive Pronouns
  63. 63. Pronouns 4.2 4/8 Pronouns Types Personal Pronouns <ul><li>Subjective forms: (I, you, we, they, he, she, it) as </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects and Subject complements </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: He is a student at this university. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective forms: (me, you, us, them, him, her, it) </li></ul><ul><li>as Objects and prepositional complements </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I saw him with her yesterday in the park. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Pronouns 4.2 4/9 Pronouns Types Reflexive Pronouns <ul><li>Include : myself, yourself(ves), ourselves, </li></ul><ul><li>themselves, himself, herself, itself </li></ul><ul><li>Objective function </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: He looked after himself after his wife left. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphatic function </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I myself would never love such a girl. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Pronouns 4.2 4/10 Pronouns Types Reciprocal Pronouns <ul><li>include : each other, one another </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: - Mary likes Mike and Mike likes Mary. </li></ul><ul><li> They like each other . </li></ul><ul><li>- I have 3 friends. They don’t like one </li></ul><ul><li>another . </li></ul>
  66. 66. Pronouns 4.2 4/11 Pronouns Types Possessive Pronouns <ul><li>Determiner function </li></ul><ul><li>(my, your, our, their, his, her, its) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: This is my friend. </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal function </li></ul><ul><li>(mine, yours, ours, theirs, his, hers, its) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: This friend is mine . </li></ul>
  67. 67. Pronouns 4.2 4/12 Pronouns Types Relative Pronouns <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>(who (ever), whom, whose, that) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Whoever comes here needs an ID card. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-personal </li></ul><ul><li>(which(ever), whose, that, what(ever)) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Whose is this book? </li></ul>
  68. 68. Pronouns 4.2 4/13 Pronouns Types Interrogative Pronouns <ul><li>Interrogative determiners </li></ul><ul><li>- personal: whose </li></ul><ul><li>- personal/non-personal: which, that </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>- personal: who, whom, whose </li></ul><ul><li>- non-personal: what </li></ul><ul><li>- personal/non-personal: which </li></ul>
  69. 69. Pronouns 4.2 4/14 Pronouns Types Demonstrative Pronouns <ul><li>Singular </li></ul><ul><li>(this, that) </li></ul><ul><li>Plural </li></ul><ul><li>(these, those) </li></ul>
  70. 70. Pronouns 4.2 4/15 Pronouns Types Quantifying Pronouns <ul><li>Numeral “ one ” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: One went this way, the other that way. </li></ul><ul><li>Replacive “ one ” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: I’d like a drink, but just a small one . </li></ul><ul><li>Indefinite “ one ” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: One can’t be too careful, can one /you? </li></ul><ul><li>Cardinals/ordinals </li></ul><ul><li>(one, two, three, etc.; first, second, third, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: He has two wives. The first is so ugly. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Pronouns 4.2 4/16 Pronouns Types Universal ProNs & determiners <ul><li>Include: each, all, every, and “every” </li></ul><ul><li>compounds (everything, everyone, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Each of the students should have his </li></ul><ul><li>own books. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Pronouns 4.2 4/17 Pronouns Types Partitive Pronouns <ul><li>Assertive ProNs: someone/body, something, </li></ul><ul><li>somewhere, some (pronoun or determiner) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Somebody has turned on the light. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-assertive ProNs: anyone, anybody, anything, </li></ul><ul><li>anywhere, either, any (pronoun or determiner) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: - Have you got anything to eat now? </li></ul><ul><li>- Have you got any paper? I need some . </li></ul><ul><li>Negative ProNs: no one/body, nowhere, neither, </li></ul><ul><li>none, no (pronoun or determiner) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: None of them were absent. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Homework <ul><li>Workbook exercises 45, 48-65 </li></ul>

×