Advanced piping design


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Code and standard for piping design

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Advanced piping design

  1. 1. PROCESS PIPING DESIGN HANDBOOKVolume One: The Fundamentals of piping Design Volume Two: Ailvanced piping Design PROCESS PIPING DESIGN HANDBOOK Volume Two Advanced Piping Design Rutger Botermans and Peter Smith Gulf ?ubllshing (ompany Houston, Texas
  2. 2. Proccss Pplng Dcslgn Hondbook From Thc Family Smith Volumc Two: Advonced Piping Des,gn Copyright O 2008 by Gulf publishing Company, Houston, Texas. All rigms reserved. No pan of this publication may be reproduced or transmifteo In any form without the prior written permission of the publisher, This book is dedicated to my son Stewart, who is a constant source of inspiratbn and motivation to me He is sadly missed by hk family and ftiends, Gulf Publishing Company but he is never fat away. 2 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1020 Houston, TX 77046 Stewart Smith, Musician 10987654321 March 11, 1972, to October 21,zOOs ISBN- l0: l-933762- t8-7 ISBN-13: 978- l-933762- t8-0 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-publication DataSmith, Peter. Process piping design handbook. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: 1. The fundamentals of piping design / pelerSmith -- 2. Advanced piping design / Rutger Boiermans andPeter Smith. ISBN-13: 978-7-933762-04-3 (v. 1 : acid_free paper) ISBN-10: I-933762-04-7 (v. 1 : acid_fr"" o"o.l)- tSBN-I3: g78-L-9337621A.O k. 2 , acia tree paper) rSBN-10: 7-933762-1-8-j (v. 2 : acid_free paper) 1. Pipelines*Design and construction. 2. eiping_oesignand conetruction. 3. piping_Computer aided desiqn. 4.Petroleum refineries-Equipment and supplies. f. Botermans,Rutger. II. Title. TA660. P55S65 2007 521 . At 672-dc22 2006038256Printed in the United States of AmerrcaPrinted on acid-free paper. mText design and composition by TlpS Technical publishing, Inc.
  3. 3. ii List of Figures xi List of Thbles xix Foreword xxi Preface xxiii Basic Plant layout............ .........,...,.,., 1 1.1 Introduction 1 L.2 Guidelines for Laying out the Plant 9 Pumps............ ..........23 2.1 Infoductton 23 2.2 lffes of Plrmps 23 2.3 Types ofDrivers 26 2.4 Applicable International Codes 26 2.5 Piping---Specific Guidelines to Layout 43 2.6 A1rnllary Piping 54 2.7 Piping Support and Stress Issues 55 Compressors... ..........57. 3.1 Intrcduction 57 3.2 Tlpes of Compressors 57
  4. 4. vlll ll tl tl (lutltnls lx :t.,l l)rlv(,rs :t,4 S8 Al)l)lical)lc llr((,nlational Codes 5g Cooling Towers ........... ..................177 11..5 l,iping-Specific Cuidelines to Layout 65 tl. I Introduction 177 19.2 Types of Cooling Towers 177 [t.3 lnlet and Outlet Piping 178 Exchangers..... .......... g3 u.4 Piping Support and Stress Issues 182 4.1 Introduction 83 4.2 Types of Exchangers g4 4.3 Applicable International Codes 85 Relief Systems. ........ 183 4.4 Piping-Specific Guidelines to LayoLrt 92 9.1 Introduction 183 4.5 Piping Support and Stress Issues 109 9.2 T)?es of Relief Devices 184 9.3 Applicable International Codes 184 9.4 Inlet and Outlet Piping 188 Fired Heaters .......... I 11 9.5 Piping Support and Stress Issues 195 5.1 Introduction 111 5.2 Types of Heaters 11 1 5.3 Applicable International Codes 116 10 Pipe Ways....... ........197 5.4 Piping-Specific cuidelines to Layofi 10.1 Intloduction 197 124 5 . 5 Operation and Maintenance Influencing piping 10.2 Types of Pipe Ways 198 Design 131 10.3 Piping and Support 199 5.6 Piping Support and Stress Issues 134 10.4 Trenched Piping 215 10.5 Safety Precautions 216 10.6 Underground Piping 217 Tanks.............. ........ ,l35 6.1 Introduction 135 6.2 Types of Tanks 135 fndex.............. ........219 6.3 Applicable International Codes 136 6.4 Piping-Specific Guidelines to Layout 148 Columns......... ........ 165 7.1 Introduction 165 7.2 Internals 165 7.3 Applicable International Code 166 7.4 Piping-specific cuidelines to Layofi 167
  5. 5. F List of Figures Ilgure 2-1 (A) Pump types: (B) centritugal pump, (C) multiplunger reciprocating pump, (D) rotary pump (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc., and 2.18, BHP Pumps; 2.1C, FlowseNe; 2.1D, Waukesha). 24 l;lgwe 2-2 Net positive suction head (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 44 Iigure 2-3 Suction and discharge piping clearances (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 46 l;igrfie 2-4 Horizontal pump reducer positions (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 48 |igure 2-5 Reducer and conical-basket strainer positions (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 50 lfigure 2-6 Vertical pump piping anangements (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 52 lrigure 3-1 A single cylinder machine (angle type). It will operate at low speed and may be single or double acting (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 67 Figure 3-2 A balanced horizontally opposed multicylinder machine. It will operate at low speed and may be single or double acting; it also can be multistage (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 67
  6. 6. ii i i/,//i lJrr.r List of Figures xiii Figure 3-3 A gas-fueled angle-type engine. All the compresslon ligrrte 3-13 Typical section through a closed-air-circulation, cylinders are on one side of the frame and cylinder water-cooled machine (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley diameters and lengths vary according to the Systems, Inc.). 78 composition, pressure, and volume of gas to be compressed. Dimensions from frame center line to lrigrrre 3-14 Typical section through a closed-air circulation, air- rylinder nozzles vary with compression forces. cooled machine. Note: On the CACA enclosure, a top- (Courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.) Note: cas mounted air-to-air heat exchanger is used. The extemal engine may take aY fotm. 67 air is circulated by means of a shaft-mounted fan in the case of cage machines and separate motor-fan units Figure 3-4 Single-acting cylinder having one suction, mounted in the ducting for wound rotor motors. compression, and discharge area per cylinder (Courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.) 79 (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 68 lrigure 3-15 Typical section through a condensing turbine setFigure 3-5 Double-acting cylinder having two suction, (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 80 compression, and discharge areas per cylinder (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 68 lrigure 3-16 Typical layout for free-draining utility lines (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, inc.). 82Figure 3-6 Typical layout of compressor house and suction knockout drum (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, lriSure 4-1 Minimum clearances for heat exchangers (courtesy of Inc.).69 Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 93Figure 3-7 Centrifugal radial compressor (courtesy of Red lrigure 4-2 Better piping arrangements (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 73 Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 94Figure 3-8 Radial impeller (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, lrigure 4-3 Nozzle arrangement for better piping (courtesy of Red Inc.). 73 Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 95Figure 3-9 Centrifugal axial compressor (courtesy of Red Typical exchangers with possible alterations for better Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 74 piping (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 96Figure 3-10 Typical layout for compressorsi one turbine driven lrigure 4-5 T?ical exchanger groupings (courtesy of Red and one electric motor driven (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 101 Bag/Ben tley Systems, Inc.J. 75 Exchanger piping arrangement (courtesy of RedFigure 3-11 Typical section through a compressor house (courtesy Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 102 of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, lnc.). 76 lriBure 4-7 Types of airfin exchangers (courtesy of RedFigure 3-12 The nozzle orientation for a horizontally split Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 104 compressor casing (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, lnc.). 76 lrigu rc 4-8 Plot of crane access to air fin and section of air fin on rack (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 106
  7. 7. xlv l.l.s/ (,/ i,i,!r/11r List ofFigwes xv Irigure 4-9 Air fin manifold layout (courtesy of Red BagBentley only if reverse burning is required. While pass 1 is Systems, Inc.). 107 being decoked, steam is iniected into pass 2 to keep the tubes cool. 132Figure 4-10 Header mountings for air fins (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 108 lrigure 6-1 Tanks A, B, and C are fixed or floating roof small tanks (less than 10 m diameter) with a total capacity of lessFigure 5-1 Box heater plan (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, than 8000 m3; no intertank spacing requirements Inc.). i12 other than for conslruction, operation. and maintenance convenience. Tanks D1 and D2 haveFigure 5-2 Processpiping box heater (courtesy of Red diameters greater than 10 m, with the diameter of D2 Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 113 greater than D1. Intertank spacing between smaller and larger tanks. The photos are of a tank farm and aFigure 5-3 Vertical heater with radiant convection section spherical LPG storage tank. (Courtesy of Red (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 115 Bag/Bentley Syst€ms, Inc.) 149Figure 5*4 Vertical heater with radiant section (courtesy of Red liigure 6-2 Tank and compound wall distances from t)?ical features Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 115 (coufesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 157Figure 5-5 Plan process piping at vertical heater (courtesy of Red lrigure 6-3 Floating roof tanks of diameter DL, DZ, and D3 are Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 116 greater than 10 m within the same compound; D1 is greatel than D2, and D2 is greater than D3. (CourtesyFigure 5-6 Snuffing steam station (courtesy ofRed Bag/Bentley of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.) 157 Systems, Inc.). 125 lrigure 6-4 Intertank spacing for floating roof tanks (greater thanFigure 5-7 Inlet and outlet piping (coutesy of Red Bag/Bentley 10 m diameter). Fixed and floating roof tanks are Systems, Inc.). 127 within the same compound; D1 is greater than D2, D2 is equal to D3. (Courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems,Figure 5*8 Piping manifold to heater (courtesy of Red Inc.) 158 Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 128 lrigure 6-5 Lap joint flange detail for tank settlement (courtesy ofFigure 5-9 Natural draft burner for fuel oil and fuel gas (courtesy Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 158 of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, lnc.). 129 |igure 6-6 Foundation for vertical tank, based on BS2654Figure 5-10 Burner piping (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 159 Inc.). 130 lrigure 7-1 Section (vertical) through column (courtesy of RedFigure 5-11 Piping and decoking of the heater (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 169 Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). After tubes become headed, steam is iniected at the convection inlets, |igure 7-2 Section (horizontal) through column (courtesy of Red valves 1, 2, 4, and 5 are closed; 3 is open. To start Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 169 burning, steam flow is reduced and air is introduced by opening valve 4. For reverse floW valves 2, ::i, 4, lrigrr lc 7 i3 View of column. The photos show tanks and spheres all(l a) arc closed; 1 and 5 are open. Valvc 2 is opcrrctl with distillation columns in the backsround and an
  8. 8. List of Figures xvil, FCC distillation column. (Courtesy of Red lriBure 9-6 Recommended typical relief valve installation on Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.) 170 pulsating compressor discharge (based on API Recommended Practice 520). 190 Figure 7-4 Top platform (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 1.72 Iigure 9-7 Recommended typical installation to avoid excessive turbulence at the entrance to the pressure relief valve Figure 7-5 Second platform (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley lateral when mounted on a line @ased on API Systems, brc.). 772 Recommended Practice 520). 191Figure 7-6 Third platform (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, liigure 9-8 Recommended typical relief valve installation (based Inc.). 173 on API Recommended Practice 520). 191Figure 7 -7 Fourth platform (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, lri!lure 9-9 Recommended typical thermal relief valve installation Inc.). 773 (based on API Recommended Practice 5ZO). 194Figure 7-8 Bottom platform (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley liigure 9-10 Rupture disc installed to protect relief valve; reverse- Systems, Inc.). 1,7 4 buckling disc with the pressure loading on the convex side of the disc (based on API Recommended PracticeFigure 8-1 TlTlical section and plan of a cooling tower pump basin s2o). r94 (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 181 Ii!ir.rre 9-11 Rupture disc installed as a sole relief device; pressureFigure 9-1 Recommended typical relief valve installation with load on the concave side of the disc (based on API and without stop valve (based on ApI Recommended Recommended Practice 520). 195 Practice 520). 188 I igrrre 9-12 Typical pressure and vacuum breathing valve (basedFigure 9-2 Recommended typical relief valve installation when on API Recommended Practice 520). 796 mounted on the overhead vapor line (based on Apl Recommended Practice 520). 189 liBrlre 10-1 Typical pip€ rank bents (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 2O2Figure 9-3 Recommended typical relief valve installation when mounted on the process vapor line (based on ApI liigrrre 10-2 Typical pipe rank intersection (courtesy of Red Recommended Practice 520). 189 Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 203Figure 9-4 Recommended typical relief valve installation when liigLrre 10-3 Single-tier rack turning 90 (courtesy of Red mounted on long inlet piping (based on ApI Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 205 Recommended Practice 520). 189 lrigrrtc 10 4 Cross section of a singleJevel pipe rack (courtesy ofFigure 9-5 Recommended typical installation to avoid process Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 205 laterals connected to pressure relief valve inlet piping (based on API Recommended practice 520). 190 I igrr tc I 0-.5 Expansion loops (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems,Inc.). 206
  9. 9. Figure 10-6 Pipe rack layouts (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). Note: It is obvious ftom these examDles that a complex piping arrangement can be broken into a combination of simple arrangements. 207Figure 10-7 Pipe rack layout brokeninto simple arrangements List of Tables (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 208Figure 10-8 Spacing pipe track sleepers (courtesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 214Figure 10*9 Trenched piping (coutesy of Red Bag/Bentley Systems, Inc.). 276 lirl)le 1-1 lirble 1-2 llrble 1-3 Valve Access lirl)le 1-4 Maintenance Facilities..................................................... 11 lIl)le 1-5 Devices Fitted to Equipment..... ..........1-7 lirble 1-6 In-Line Instrument Elements.......................................... 19 llrble 6-1 API Tank Size, for Layout Purpose................................. 150 llrble 6-2 Institute of Petroleum Classifications of Crude Oil and Its Dedvatives......................................................... 151 lrrble 6-3 Spacing of Tanks for LPG Stocks of Class 0................... 153 lirl)le 6-4 Spacing of Tanks for Low-Pressure Refrigerated LPG Storage Class 0... ................................. 154 lll)le 6-5 Spacing of Tanks for Petroleum Stocks of Classes I, II, and III(2)............ ................................. 156 llblc 6-6 Tank Capacity in a Single Bunded Area........................ 159 llrblc 10-1 Pipe-Rack Space. ................................203 lirlrlc I 0-2 Linear Thermal Expansion between 70"F (21C) and Indicated Temperature in in./100 ft (mm/30.48m)...... 209
  10. 10. Foreword Irr Volume One of the Process Piping Design Handbook, Peter Smith(l(livers a comprehensive and in depth instruction in the practice of lil)ing design. He covers many important topics in exhaustive detail, lforn codes and standards to piping components to design practices,t|r(l processes to mechanical equipment to piping materials. Volume( )|]c addresses the fundamentals of each topic exhaustive detail, cre-,r ling a very strong foundation to build upon. Armed with the funda- rrtrrtals, we are ready to move on to the next level. And so it is with Vr)lume Two: Advanced Piping Design-Rutger Botermans, with the lr|lp of Peter Smith, takes us to that next level by integrating the rrrrrrty detailed fundamentals covered in Volume One into a broaderVslem view of plant layout and piping design. Ilutger and Peter focus on the practice of piping design, not the lools.fhe volume begins with the best practices for overall plantl,rvout, covering location of critical process equipment and its inter-r orrnecting piping systems. The best practices incorporate the manyr onsiclerations required to arive at a suitable plant layout. These con-i(lerations include process function, safety, accessibiliry construction,rrrirlntenance, economics, and even aesthetics. In the subsequent( lrirl)t€rs, Rutger and Peter walk us through every type of plant equip-rr(llt pumps, heat exchangers, tanks, and columns-explaining the,|| i()us types and functions of each equipment category, the appli-, ,rlrlc codes and standards, guidelines for the design of the connectingl,il)ir)9, and many other design considerations. They also provide sim-rl,r l)est practices for the design of cooling towers, pipeways, and reliefrl(l)lS. lror nrost piping dcsign professionals, the fundamentals and bestpr,rclitcs lirrpipinl; tlcsign wcre lcarncd thlough years of experience.
  11. 11. xxii ForewordHowever, as anyone currently engaged in the process plant industrycan attest, experienced piping design professionals are becomingharder and harder to find. Rutger Botermans and Peter Smith performa valuable service to the piping design profession through their com-prehensive, professional, and pragmatic guide to piping design. Preface B. Cleveland Jr. -A. Senior Vice President Bentley Systems, Incorporated ln Volume 1, The Fundamentals of Piping Design, the objective was l() arm the reader with the basic "rules" for the design, fabrication, irrstallation, and testing of process and utility piping systems for oil ,rrrtl gas refineries, chemical complexes, and production facilities at lroth offshore and onshore locations. The objective of Volume 2, Advanced Piping Design, on the same ul)ject, is to look into more detail at the design of process piping sys- l(.rns in specific locations around the various items of process equip- rrcnt that would be typically found in a petrochemical or oil and gas lrfocessing facility. for Volume 2, I enlisted the direction and support of Rutger Bot- t,rrrrans, from Delft in The Netherlands, who is the author of this title. llc wrote the text in a very direct style to avoid any misinterpretation. I l)c bullet point/checklist format allows the reader so see quickly if he lr she has considered the point when laying out the piping system. l{utger and his compant Red-Bag, have a great deal to offer the r tlustry; and I look forward to working with him again on other t)r ( )teCtS. t)cter Alspaugh, from Bentley Systems Incorporated, was respon- il)le for the CAD-generated drawings and worked under a very tight tinlc frame over the Christmas period. During this particularly busy lx.riod, Peter also became a proud father; and I am sure that we all rlish Alspaugh iunior health and happiness. lrinally, my thanks go to Paul Bowers and Richard Beale, Canadian lj rrllcmen who, at very short notice, also during Christmas 2OO7, car r i((l out a peer reading exercise of the original manuscript. Both gen- llr.rrrcrr a rc vcry cxpcricnccd "pipers," and their comments were quite ( ()|]slftlctivc anrl, wlrcrc possiblc, incorporatecl into the book. At this XXIII
  12. 12. vcry late stage, during the peer reading phase, it was not possible to CHAPTER I include some of their ideas. They made some very interesting sugges_ tions that would be ideally suited to a ,.stand-alone,, book on the topics that they think need addressing on the subiect of piping design. I look forward to the opportunity to work with them again. Volume 2 is not intended to be the finale on the subiect of piping Basic Plant Layout design; and because of the nature of the subject, a practitioner never stops learning about the many facets of design, fabiication, erecuon, inspection, and the testing of piping systems. A process facility is made up of numerous items of equipment,which are used to efficiently change the characteristics of the processflow and change the feedstock initially introduced into the iacility.The result is a final product that can be dispatched for distributlon toan end user for consumption or further refining. , For a process plant to operate effectively and efficiently and there_ 1.1 lntroductionfore maximize the commercial returns, it is very importint that the | .1.1 Generalsize, routing, and the valving of process and utility piping systems areoptimized to allow them to work efficiently. No two oil and gas processing facilities are exactly the same; however, I lr(y share similar types of process equipment, which perform specific _As with Volume 1, we target the young and intermediate designersand engineers, individuals with a fundamental knowledse of the sub_ lrr)ctions. The following are significant items of equipment that areject of piping systems who are interesting in expanding their set of rliscussed in more detail in this book:technical skills to the next level. This volume covers the various maior types of equipment that . Pumps for the transportation of liquids.make up an integrated process facility: . Compressors for the transportation of compressible fluids. . Exchangers for the transfer (exchange) of heat from a heating Pumps, to move process liquids. medium to a fluid. Compressors, to move process gases. . Fired heaters. Heat exchangers, to transfer heat from one product to another. . Columns. Fired heaters, for direct heating of a product. . Tanks for the storage of compressible and noncompressible Tanks, to store process and utility fluids. fluids. Columns towers, for distillation of products. . Pipe racks and pipe ways for the routing of process and utility Relief systems, to protect the piping system from over pipework between equipment. pressurization. Pipe racks and tracks, to route and support the piping systems. li) allow the facility to function safely and efficiently, to maximize rr (ornmercial profitability, and to result in the optimum layout, the r I r l(rrclationships among the various types of process equipment must This second volume is not intended to be a conclusion on thesubicct of piping, and the reader is recommended to continue to read l,r r llcfully considered. As the layout is developed, compromises oftenand research the subiect in the future, because the subject is so diverse rlllst l)c macle, and the preference generally is the safer option.i||l(l sltlf(rs n,) shortage of Lrpinions. All operators of process plants have the same obiectives, which is tr r Plorlucc a stahlc product that meets the end users specification and lk,lcI Sn] it lt Ir) r)irxinlizc tl)c cornnlcrcial rx)tential of the feeclstock for the life of l,t,irltrr 2(X)lJ
  13. 13. 2 Chapter l-Basic Plant Layout 1.1 hltrotluction 3the plant. Even with this common goal operators have subtle differ- llant layout requires input from the following discipline engineers;ences in the way they have thet facilities designed; therefore, theword generally is used liberally in these pages. Generally means that it . HSE (health, safety, and environment).is common practice, but it is not a mandatory requirement. . Process. Listed next are the considerations that have to be reviewed whenpositioning the equipment during the development of the plant . Piping.layout. They have not been listed in an order of priority; however, . Mechanical (rotating and vessels).safety is listed at the top as the most significant issue. . Civil and structural. . . Instrumentation. Safety: fire, explosion, spillage, escape routes for personnel, and access for firefighters. . Electrical. . Process flow requirements that result in an efficient plant. . once the relevant information has been sourced, several meetings Constructability. . lrobably will take place between engineers of these disciplines to Segegation of areas for hazardous and nonhazardous materials. rhvelop a plant layout that will satisfy the proiects requirements. . Operabilityandmaintainability. As mentioned previously, no two operating companies have exactly . Available plot area, geographical limitations. tlr( same philosophies; however, they share the same basic common o Relationship to adiacent units or other facilities within the ,Irjcctive, which is to design, construct, and operate a plant that is both plant. ,rl( and economic for the duration of the facilitys operating life. . Ihe following lists of points should be considered when evalu- Economics. . .rtirrg the layout of a plant and the relationships among the various Futureexpandability. rt{ |lrs of equipment. They are not necessarily mandatory and could be . Security: control of access by unauthorized personnel. ,lr;rrrgcd, based on aesthetics, economics, safety, maintenance, or the . Meteorological information: climate, prevailing and , rl )(rators experience. significant wind direction. . Seismic data. | .l .2 Pumps . Locate pumps close to the equipment from which they take Equipment should be laid out in a logical sequence to suit the suction. This is an important consideration.process flow. Fluid flow requirements (for example, gravity flow sys-tems, pump suction heads, and thermosyphonic systems) often dic- . Consideration should be made to locate pumps undertate relative elevations and necessitate the need for structures to structures or with their motor ends under a pipe rack,achieve the different elevations. Limitations of pressure or tempera- allowing an access aisle for mobile handling equipment.ture drop in transfer lines decide the proximity of pumps, compres- . Pump suction lines generally are larger than discharge lines,sors, furnaces, reactors, exchangers, and the like. to avoid problems adsing from a low net positive suction Equipment piping should be arranged to provide specified access, head (NPSH).llcadroom, and clearances for operation and maintenance. Provision . F,nd suction with top discharge is the preferable option forslloLrlcl be made to minimize the disturbance to piping when disman- pumps, when taking suction directly from tanks or vesselsllilrll or rcmoving equipment (for example, without removing block locatcd at grade.virlvcs), inclucling the use of and free access for mobile lifting equip-nr(.n1. l)Unll)s slrOulcl bc located in rows adjacent to their pipe ways . Iunll)s should be arranged in rows with the center line ofirntl rr|irr llr(.(,(luil)lncnt lrorn which they take suction. lhe top noz- rlischa|gcs on a common linc.zlr.s ol prrrrrps slrorrltl lrt lotalctl irr tltc vicinity oI ovclltc:rrl stecl, such . ( ll(arancc:i l)clwce n l)urnl)s or PunrPs and piping gcncrally are,rs;r lrr;r|lr irl llr(.i(l(ol llr(l)ilxfir( k, lo litcilililt(, l)il)inl.l slll)lx)tl. ir rttittilrUtr ()t ()(X) rtlrll
  14. 14. 1.1 Introduction 51 .1 .3 Compressors . Where a rear shell cover is provided with a davit, allow . It is important to locate reciprocating compressors, anchors, clearance for the full swing of the head. Set overhead vapor and restraints for pipes belonging to the compressor system exchangers ot condensers at such elevation that the on foundations that are independent of any building, exchanger is self-draining. structure, or pipe track or rack. This independence gives the . Arrange outlets to a liquid hold pot or trap, so that the associated piping stability and minimizes unnecessary fatigue underside of the exchanger tubes is above the liquid level in and possible failure. the trap. . Spacing between compressors and other equipment varies . Arrange exchangers so that the fixed end is at the channel with the type of machine and its duty. end. . Particular attention must be paid to withdrawal of engine and . Vertical exchangers should be set td allow lifting or lowering compressor pistons, cam shaft, crank shaft, and lube oil cooler of the tube bundle. bundle; cylinder valve maintenance clearance with the least . Consult the Vessel Department as to the feasibility of possible obstruction from piping supports. supporting vertical exchangers from associated towers. . Compressors generally are provided a degree of shelter, that is, . Space should be left free for tube or bundle withdrawal, with a sheets building. Keep the sides up to 8 feet above grade and the exchanger channels preferably pointing toward an access open and vent the ridge to allow for escape of flammable gas, area or road. which might leak from the machines. . If an exchanger is situated well within the plot, leave a free . Certain types of compressors, owing to the height of the mass area and approach for mobile lifting equipment. foundation above grade level, require a mezzanine floor of a . Air fin exchangers, preferably, should be located in a separate grid construction to avoid trapping any gas and for operation row outside the main equipment row, remote from the central and maintenance, pipe way. . Consider locating air fin exchangers over the central pipe way1.1.4 Exchangers if plot space if very limited. . Tubular exchangers usually have standard length tubes of 2.5, 4, 5, and 6 m. l. 1.5 Fired Heaters . Whenever possible locate exchangers at grade to facilitate . Fired heaters should be located at least 15 m away from other maintenance and tube withdrawal. equipment that could be a source of liquid spillage or gas . Two or more shells forming one unit can be stacked or leakage. otherwise arranged as indicated on the exchanger . To avoid accumulation of flammable liquids, no pits or specification sheet, which is delineated by the manufacturer. trenches should be permitted to extend under furnaces or any . Exchangers with dissimilar service can be stacked, but rarely fired equipment, and if possible, they are to be avoided in more than three high, except for fin-tube-type units. furnace areas. . Horizontal clearance of at least 900 mm should be left . Ensure ample room at the firing ftont of the fired heater for between exchangers or between exchangers and piping. operation and removal of the burners and for the burner . Where space is limited, clearance may be reduced between control panel, if required. alternate exchangers, providing sufficient space is left for . Ilottom-floor fired furnaces require adequate headroom lnaintcnance and inspection access. runderneath the furnace. Wall fired furnaces require an . lill)c bunclle rcmoval distance should be a minimum of a rur)e ldc.quatc platform width with escape routes at each end of lcngllr l)lus 9(X) rnnl. Minimum removal distancc ltlus I lrc lrr ntacc. {)(X) n l) :il)()lti(l lrc lcll llelrirrd tlrc rcar sltcll (.{)v(,r ol lloalin1I . Al)irlt lr)nr ln l(lc(luatc l)laf[o .l1 and acccss to the firing lrtirt I trt lrilrtttts. l r()nl, ()l lr(r slnr( lufirl ll;r( llnrcnls iln(l l)lillli)rtns alotltt(l
  15. 15. 6 Chapter 1 Basic Platlt Layout 1.1 Introduction 7 furnaces should be kept to a minimum. Peepholes should be . Platforms for access to level gauges and controllers should not provided only where absolutely necessary. Access by means of be provided if underside of supporting steelwork is less than a stepladder is sufficient. normal headroom clearance from grade. . Arrange fired heaters on a common center line, wherever . Adjacent columns should be checked, so that platforms do possible. not overlap. For layout, 2.0-2.5 m between shells, depending . Provide unobstructed space for withdrawal. on insulation, should suffice. . Operation and maintenance platforms should be wide . Allow a 900 mm minimum clearance between column enough to permit a l-m clear walkway. foundation and the adiacent plinth. . Escape ladders should be provided on large heaters. . Provide clearance for the removal of intemal parts and . attachments and for davits at top of columns, if relevant. Vertical heaters usually are supplied with stub supporting feet; ensure drawings show adequate supports elevated to the . The center line of manholes should be 900 mm above any required height. platform. . Headroom elevation from the floor level to the underside of . Horizontal vessels should be located at grade, with the heater should be 2.3 m, to provide good firing control longitudinal axis at a right angle to the pipe way, if possible. operation. . Consider saving plot space by changing vessels from the horizontal to the vertical, if possible, and combining vessels1 .1 .6 Columns together with an internal head (subject to proiect or process r Columns usually are self-supporting with no external approval). sructures. . The size and number of access platforms on horizontal vessels . Circular or segmental platforms with ladders are supported should be kept to a minimum and are not to be provided on from the shell. horizontal vessels or drums when the top of the vessel is 2.5 m or less from the grade. o The maximum allowable straight run of a ladder before a break platform should not exceed 9 m. . The channel end of vessels provided with internal tubular . heaters should face toward an open space. The withdrawal The factors influencing column elevation are the provision of area must be indicated on studies, general arrangements a gravity flow system and installation of thermosyphon (GAs), and plot plans. reboilers. . . Internal agitators or mixers are to be provided with adequate Depending on the plant arrangement, columns may have to clearance for removal. Removal area must be indicated on be elevated to a height in excess of the normal requirements to allow for headroom clearance from lower-level piping off- studies, GAs, and plot plans takes. . The skirt height of all columns or vessels providing suction to l. 1.7 Tanks pumps, particularly if handling hot or boiling liquids, should . lhe layout of tanks, as distinct ftom their spacing, should be adequate for the pump NPSH requirements. always take into consideration the accessibility needed for . Access platforms should be provided on columns for all valves fircfighting and the potential value of a storage tank farm in 3" and above, instrument controllers and transmitters, relief providing a buffer area between process plant and, for valves, manholes and blinds or spades, and other components cxample, public roads and houses, for safety and that require periodic attention. cllvifonrllcnteil feasons. . lj()r ac(cs:i to valves 2" alrrl srnallcr., ilt(licatin,.l inslrutltcllts, . ll)c l()c tion ol. lankagc rclative to process units must be such itnrl llttlikc, a latltltr is;tlrlt. irs lo (nriur( rnirx ilttt|ltt salttv Irtttn tx):i:iil)lc i ncidcnts.
  16. 16. 8 Chapter l-Basic Plqnt Layout 1.2 Guidelines for Laying out the Plant 91 .1.8 Pipe Racks and Pipe Ways buried underground is acceptable, provided the pipe is . Ideally, all piping within a process area should be run above adequately protected and below the frost line. grade; however, for many reasons this is not possible. . The sizing and arrangement of underground piping should be Trenched or buried piping should be avoided but, sometimes, fixed early to ensure that installation is simultaneous with is unavoidable. Pipe racks at higher elevations, using foundation work. (Many drains, sewers, and cableways, which supports, are preferred. do not require attention, are run underground below the frost . Pipe racks may contain one, two, or more layers of pipework; line.) however, triple-layer pipe racks should be limited to very . Leave space for draw boxes on cableways, anchors on short runs. underground cooling water pipes, and manholes on sewers. . Run piping external to the process area at grade on sleepers Fire mains should be located between the Derimeter road and generally 300 mm high. Pipe ways at grade are cheaper but the Dlant. more liable to interfere with access. Locate the largest bore and the heaviest piping as close to 1.2 Guidelines for Laying out the Plant stanchions as possible. | .2.1 General Lines requiring a constant fall (relief headers) can be run on All elevations in Tables 1-1 through 1-4 refer to a nominal 100 m. cantilevers from pipe-rack stanchions or on vertical llrc point 100 elevation is taken as the high point of paving in the extensions to pipe-track stanchions. p;rvcd areas. This should be common throughout the plant. Equip- Run the hot line requiring expansion loops on the outside l|r(nt elevations referdng to grade elevations of 100 m are as shown edge of pipe way to permit loops to have greatest width over trr lable 1-2. the pipe way and facilitate nesting. Takeoff elevations from pipe ways should be at a constant lable 1-l Access Clearances elevation, consistent with the range of pipe sizes involved. Change elevation whenever banks of pipes, either on pipe ways at grade or at higher elevations on pipe racks, change direction. Elevations to the underside of pipe racks should be the lrinrary access roads 10.5, inside r( ir ffying maior equipment) corner radius minimum for operation and mobile maintenance equipment and consistent with allowable clearances. ( rr)ndary roads 5.1 4.4 4.5 inside Open pipe trenches may be used between plants where there corner radius is no risk of flammable vapors collecting. Nliror access roads 5.1 3.6 It sometimes is convenient to run open trenches alongside roadways. (Soil from the trench can be used to build up the ,r(l l)iping road.) ll,rll()fm, walkways, 2.7 1 working ,, sirllcways, working areas, platforms Where a pipe way or road changes from a parallel direction, I | ,l.rif woys the pipe generally is run beneath the road. Occasionally, it is permissible to run pipes in trenches to t ll,irrarrccfiom face of 2.1. Manhole center overcome a difficult piping problem. Such trenches should be ||r, ln()tc approx. I m of concrete, drained, and covered. above platform Altltough ttcnched piping is to be avoided, dtrc to thc ll,|| lwir ys li) suit txPtrtstatttl llaziuds its:iociatc(l with ol)cn tlr.rrcltts, JriPirrl; krcal rrxlcs
  17. 17. lll l:lulkr l*ll.]si( Iltutt Loyout 1.2 Guidelines fot Laying out the Plant 11,Table l-2 Elevation Iable l-3 Valve Access (contd) Open-air paved arca high point of paving Construction to determine Underside of baseplates for structural steel Construction to determine Stair and ladde$ pads Construction to determine Underside of baseplates vessel and column Construction to determine plinths l.( vel controllers Top of pump ptinths Construction to determine lrr)cess blinds and padesTable 1-3 Valve Access W lkways Alt llirndholes All X Nozzles All No access provided Vcssel vents All I ine drains and vents No access providedExchanger heads AU lible 1-4 Maintenance Fa€ilitiesOperational valves 2 and under It(.irctors, vessels and Manhole cove$ Davits or hinges forOperational valves Over 2 olrtmns. r swinging openMotor operated valves Alt Intemal, requidng Trolley beams or davitsControl valves Alt regular rcmoval or for lowering from holes servicing to gradeRelief valves (process) 2 ard X ovel Fixed bed reactors, Provided as specially catalyst change, etc. specified to enableBlock valves Accessible by portable ladder catalyst to be offloadedBattery limit valves and loaded All Edge of platform access where clients spe-etc. cifically requests; otherwise, no access I l(,.r1ing head Tube bundles Al1 such provided withPressure instruments All i ( lr ngers iackbolts to brcak joints; bundles assumed to beIemp. instruments handled by mobile equrpmentSample points AllIiy Exchanger heads, No special provision cocks All channel cover, bonnets( ;;|lrl.l( glitsc ( l exchangcrs llclnovablc tube Overhead trolley beam l)un(ilcs or (lavit
  18. 18. 1,2 Chapter l-Basic Plant Layout 1.2 Guidelines for Laying out the Plant 73Table 1-4 Maintenance Facilities (contd) . When railway facilities are required, avoid boxing in the plant by branch lines. . Hazardous areas from other existing plants or equipment mayPump Any part None extend over the plant limit. This could effectively reduce plot size and thus influence the plant layout philosophy.Centrifugalcompressors Rotatingparts overhead trolley beams or cranes 1.2.3 Hazardous and Toxic AreasPiping Relief valves, 2 nominal Hitching point or davit bore and larger for lowedng to grade liluipment items considered a possible source of hazard should be lilouped and located separatel, if possible and economic. Examples are Blanks, blank flanges, Overhead hitching Iurnaces, flare stacks, or other direct-fired equipment containing an and swing elbow point or davit only oPcn flame and rotating or mechanical equipment handling flam- weiShing more than when subiect to nrable or volatile liquids that could easily leak or spill. Equipment han- 300 lbs (12s kg) frequent removal for rlling acids or other toxic materials that could cause damage or danger malntenance lry spillage should be grouped and contained within a bunded area. Ascertain soil-loading considerations and site contours before Location of Control Roomsfixing the final layout. Considerable variations occur in allowable soilloads throughout site areas. It may be advantageous to locate hea,y l,ocate control rooms 15 m or more from equipment that, in opera-equipment in the best soil-loading area. Use existing contours, so that ll{)n or during maintenance, can create a hazard. (If not practicable,the quantity of earth movement due to cut and fill may be reduced |rcssurize.) Ensure the maximum length of a cable run to any instru-substantially by intelligent positioning of the equipment. nre nt is no more than 90 m.1.2.2 Safety l ocation of Buildings . Provide a sufficient clear area between critical or high- . Locate, for example, offices, first-aid rooms, cafetedas, temperature items of equipment. Clear routes for operatols garages, fire station, warehouses, gas holders, and workshops, with two or more escape ladders or exits at extremities. at a minimum of 30 m from any hazard. . Clear routes for access by firefighting equipment. . Unpressurized substations and switchrooms should be a . Do not allow areas classified as hazardous to overlap the plot minimum of 15 m from any hazard. limits or extend over railways where open firebox engines are . The determination of dang€rous areas and thet safety likely to be employed. requirements should be in accordance with the Institute of . Stacks should be located so that prevailing winds do not blow Petroleum Safety Codes or, where this is not recognized, the smoke over the plant. Try not to locate the plant where it will applicable national code(s). receive dust, smoke, spray, or effluent from a neighbodng . Local bylaws and fire codes, whose requirements may be more plant. stringent or specific than the preceding codes, take . Avoid using locations polluted by continuous drift of dust, precedence. smoke, and the like. . If the plant is to be located in an existing refinery or factory 1.2.4 Constructability, Access, and Maintenance site, line up with existing roads, columns, and stacks. . l-he overall plant arrangement must be reviewed for . Ihc location of external railways, pipe ways, cableways, constructabilitt operation, safett and maintenance. Large scwcrs ancl drains, ancl so forth, also may influencc the final itcms of cquipment or towers that require special lifting gear ori(n tirt ion ()f t l)c r)lln I nec(l a(icquatc access to lift these into place.
  19. 19. 1.2 Guidelines for Laying out the Plant 75 . Large equipment positioned close to boundary limits may Irrsulation require erection from the outside. . Insulation may be applied to vessel supports or stanchions of . Ascertain whether sufficient space will be available at the structures for fire protection, thus decreasing the available construction phase. free space for access and siting of pipework, instruments, or . Operation and maintenance should be reviewed by the electrical equipment. eventual operating company. Give consideration to . In particular, note the thickness of insulation of very high- or maintenance access to air fins and the like above pipe tracks. low-temperature piping, which may considerably increase the . effective outside dimension of pipe to be routed. Consider the location of equipment requiring frequent attendance by operating personnel and the relative position . For low-temperafure insulation, additional clearance must be of the control room to obtain shortest, most direct routes for provided around control valves, inshumentation, and the like. operators when on routine operation. Consider the additional weight of insulation and reduced centers of supports necessary to support heavily insulated pipe.€learances lrrrtrumentationAs in Table 1-1, access clearances between adiacent plants should at . All operating valves 3" and larger are to be accessible eitherleast equal those for primary access roads. The space between edge of from grade or a suitable platform with a maximum 2.0 many road and nearest equipment must be no less than 1.5 m. above working level to center of handwheel. . Adequate road access with properly formed roads must be . Small operating valves can be reached from a ladder. Valves provided for known maintenance purposes; for example, the installed for maintenance and shutdown purposes (other than operating) can be reached by portable ladder. compressor house, large machinery areas, reactors, or converters requiring catalyst removal and replacement. . Otherwise, extension spindles or suitable remote operating gear should be provided but not on valves 172" and smaller. . Equipment requiring infrequent maintenance, such as The minimum access to be Drovided is as shown in Table 1-3. exchanger tube bundles and tower internals, need adequate level clear space for access and removal purposes. lk.lief Valve Systems . The ground need not be specifically built up to take loads t losed relief valve systems should be aranged to be self-draining and other than a surfacing of granite chips or similar, as ,lr rrrld not contain pockets where liquids may condense and collect duckboards, gratings, or other temporary material can be laid t, r Provide any back pressure. at the time when the plant is under maintenance. 1.2.5 EconomicsPaving . . Apart from process restrictions, position the equipment for Within the process area, minimal concrete paving should be maximum economy of pipework and supporting steel. As supplied for walkways interconnecting maior items of compact a layout as possible with all equipment at grade is equipment, platforms, stairways, and buildings. the first obiective, consistent with standard clearances, . Paving should be supplied around pumps or other machinery construction, and safety requirements. located in the open, underneath furnaces, and any other areas . Minimize runs of alloy pipework and large-bore pipe without where spillage is likely to occur during normal operation. the introduction of expensive expansion devices. . Arcas containing alkalis, acids, or other chemicals or toxrc . ()ptimize the use of supporting structures in concrete or steel nrittcfials slroultl bc pavttl and bundcd to prcvcnt sl)illlgc l)y (lLrl)licating thcir application to more than one item of slrItlrrliDg. ()lltcI afcits ()l lltc l)li[lt itrc lo l)c !lrit(l((l i|ll(l c( arrd trrsrrrinl.l tllat acccss ways, I)latforms, and the srrrlrrrltl willr gfi[]il(.( ltil)s or sirrrilirr l itl(riitl. liht, lrirvc rrtotr lltitrt ()u( lln( li{)rt.
  20. 20. 16 Chapter 1-Basic Plant Layout . Space can be saved by locating equipment over the pipe rack. L2.7 Instruments to Assist Initial Layout Pumps in general should be located with their motors l:rble 1-5 lists some likely devices, the probable number fitted to var- underneath the main pipe rack. lotls types of equipment, and the design points affected. ]n-line I I rstrument elements-flow elements (orifice, plates, venturi, turbine,I .2.6 Aesthetics plcssure differential, etc.), control valves (globe, butterfly, ball, etc.),Attention should be paid to the general appearance of the plant. An xlief valves, thermowells-are listed in Table 1-6.attractively laid-out plant with equipment in straight lines usually is Table l-5 Devices Fitted to Equipmenteconomical. Preference should be given to use of a single, central pipe way with a minimum number of side branches and equipment llistillation tower PSV (pressure safety valve), 1 laid out in rows on either side. Buildings, structures, and groups of equipment should form a PIC (pressure indicating controller), 1 neat, slrnmetrical, balanced layout, consistent with keeping FRC (flow recording controller), 3 pipe runs to a minimum. multipoint, TR (temperature recorder), Arrange towers and large vertical vessels in rows with a 6 channel, 1 common center line if of similar size but lined up with a TI (temperature indicator), 6 common face if diameters vary greatly. If adiacent to a PI (pressure indicator), 6 structure, the common face should be on the structure side. The center lines of exchanger channel nozzles and pump Analyzer (single stream), 1 discharge nozzles should be lined up. LG (level gauge), 2 Piping around pumps, exchangers, and similar groundJevel LI (level indicator), 1 equipment should be run at set elevations, one for north- south and another for east-west elevations wherever possible LIC (level indicating controller), 1 (similarly, racked pipework). These elevations being to the It(.llux drum surge drum buffer LG (level gauge), 3 bottom of the pipe or the underside of the shoe for insulated t()rage feed tank product tank lines. This also should help achieve a common elevation for LIT (level indicating transmitter), 1 off-takes from pipe ways. PI (pressure indicator), 1 If possible, duplicated streams should be made identical. TI (temperature indicator), 1 Where possible, handed arrangements should be the second choice. PSV (pressure safety valve), 1 Follow this principle for this similar equipment sequences PIC (pressure indicating controller), I within the process stream; for example, a fractionators tower l((irrtor PI (pressure indicator), 6 with overhead condensers, reflux drum pumps, and a reboiler TI (temperature indicator), 6 is a system that could be repeated almost identically for different towers having a diff€rent process duty. The PSV (pressure safety valve), 1 advantages are design and construction economy, improved lR (tcmperature recorder), multipoint, nr:r in l(,r) ncc, iln(l ol)crilt ing cllicicncy. 50 challncls, I
  21. 21. I s Ic I, hvl: Lsyout 1.2 Guidelines for LayinS out the Plant 79 -Iltt Table 1-5 Devices Fitted to Equipment (cont,d) Table 1-5 Devices Fitted to Equipment (contd) IIC (flow indicating controller), 2 TRC (temperaturc recording controller), 1 LIC (level indicating controller), 1 PIC (pressure indicating contoller), 1 Analyze 1 Flame detector (2) PIC (pressure indicating controller), 1 Local panel (1) TIC (temperature indicating controller), 1 PI (pressure indicator), 12 Compressor (axial flow) PI C)ressure indicator), 4 TI (temperature indicator), 6 DPC (differcntial pressure controller), 1 Multichannel temperature indicator, 1 PIC (pressure indicating controller), 1 O" analyzel only where BFw or steam is circulating, 1 FR (flow recorder), 1 pH analyzer, 1 TT (temperature indicator), mull tpoint, 12 channels, 1 Conductivity monitor Vibration indicator, 2 LG (level gauge), 3 NRV, programmer and logic system, LIC (level indicating contrcller), 1 damped to prevent reve$e floW 1 PSV (pressure safety valve), 3 Shutdown system, 1 PCV (pressue control valve), 3Compressor driver (steam turbine) pI G)ressure indicator), 4 FRC (flow recording controller), 1 Table 1-6 ln-Line Instrument Elements TI (tempemtule indicator), 4 Shutdo$n valve, 1 llowExchanger TRC (temperaturc recolding contoller), 1 l(I Pipe section with Flange ratin& size, overall length, sensing element orientation TI (temperature indicator), 6 ltr2 Pitot tube Location, straight length, connection PI (pressure indicator), 2 size and type LG (level gauge), 1 l(.i Orifice, nozzle, Location, straiSht length, odentation; venture tube flange size and rating; position, size, tt?e PSV (pressure safety valve), 1 of instrument tappingsr,utnaccs FRC (flow rccording controller), 4 li,4 Elbow tube Size, end connections, orientation, straight length
  22. 22. 1.2 Guidelines for Laying out the Plant 27Table l-6 In-Line Instrument Elements (cont,d) Table 1-6 In-Line Instrument Elements (contd) Target meter Odentation, stuaight length; flange Flame Failure transmitter ratin& connections, face-to-face insertion Fe6 Vortex meter lic Photo electdcal, Location of instrument and window Orientation, straight length, flange color rating, face-to-face insetion Fe7 Hot wire Consult instrumentation sDecialist Analyzer FeB Vadable arca Vertical onlt upward flow only; An Diverse methods Usuatly with bypass line to drain on back meter orientation of connections, sizes, and g?e including specific to process, only occasionally in line; gravity and sometimes coaxial spool piece; face to Fe9 Magnetic Ovemll length, size, connections vertical face, flanges flowmeter or horizontal, no straight lengths Level Measurement Fe 10 Turbine meter Straight length, with or without pipe section, usually hodzontal end Capacitance Similar to temperature Te 1 connection and size (common to use upstream filter and sometimes degassing) Irobe Conductivity Sometimes coaxial in spool pieceFe 11 Positive Odentation one way only, weight, no l)roximity Switch displacement straight lengths; connecting as per vendor literature Feromagnetic) Nonintrusive, location and mountingFe 72 Sonicflowmeter ConsultinstrumentationsDecialist Magnetic NonintrusiveFe 13 Weight rate Consult instrumentation sDecialist Inductive Instrusive, t)?e Te 1Fe 14 Radioactive Consult instrumentation specialist lressureFe 15 Photo electric Consult instrumentation sDecialist l)ifferential Bourdontubes Small tapping, location, connections,Fe 16 Channels and Mostly civil engineedng l)fcssure capsulesstrain size and t),?e flumes SaugeFe 17 Vane t?e Spool piece = face-to-face end connecnons (,auge Glass LevelTemperature lcvcl gauge All types Vertical only, nozzle spacin& connectlonsTE1 Thermocouple || rterface Level (Gauge-Class)TEZ Resistance bulb Location, increase in pipe diameter and elbows; connection size and type I r(luid gas All t?es Vertical only, nozzle spacing critical, connectionsTE3 Filled systemTE4 Thermistor lx.ed Measurementlti 5 Radiation Location of window, heat protection Magnetic Consult instrumentation specialist