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Numerical and experimental investigation on existing structures: two seminars

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1 - Advanced 3D modelling and analysis of masonry structures
Dr Lorenzo Macorini
CSM Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Imperial College London

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Numerical and experimental investigation on existing structures: two seminars

  1. 1. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Dr Lorenzo Macorini CSM Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Imperial College London Rome, 30 January 2018
  2. 2. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Outline • Modelling strategies for masonry • The proposed mesoscale model for brick-masonry • Nonlinear analysis of brick-masonry components • Mesh tying for representing heterogeneous systems and enhancing computational efficiency • Mesoscale Partitioned Modelling • Numerical examples • Conclusions
  3. 3. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Structural masonry • Most structures built before the second half of the 19th century are masonry structures. • At present masonry is mainly used for housing developments, cladding and partition walls. • Research on masonry is essential to: - assess the behaviour of existing structures; - develop effective strengthening measures; - explore the response under extreme loading; - investigate new construction products.
  4. 4. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Masonry under extreme loading
  5. 5. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Assessment of Masonry Bridges Arch bonding patterns (McKibbins et al., 2006) Backfill Load test to collapse on an arch bridge at Preston, Staffordshire (Page, 1987)
  6. 6. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling strategies for masonry structures FE modelling Macro-modelling Equivalent material approach Micro-modelling Two-material approach Material model Lourenço, 1996 Lourenço, 1996
  7. 7. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Macroscale model Equivalent material approach Mesoscale model Two-material approach Structural scale Mesoscale scale Microscale scale Scale of representation Anisotropy Chemical - Environmental actions Modelling strategies for masonry structures Massart, 2003
  8. 8. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling strategies for masonry structures Macroscale models A.W. Page (1983), The strength of brick masonry under biaxial tension‐compression, Int. J. Masonry Constr., 3(1). • Specific phenomenological nonlinear models should be used • Damage induced anisotropy cannot be effectively represented • Problematic identification of material parameters for existing structures
  9. 9. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling strategies for masonry structures Macroscale models • Specific phenomenological nonlinear models should be used • Damage induced anisotropy cannot be effectively represented • Problematic identification of material parameters for existing structures Initial orthotropy and periodicity Damage- induced orthotropic state Damage-induced non-orthotropic state Massart, 2003
  10. 10. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling strategies for masonry structures • Specific phenomenological nonlinear models should be used • Damage induced anisotropy cannot be effectively represented • Problematic identification of material parameters for existing structures Macroscale models
  11. 11. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling strategies for masonry structures • Material behaviour is associated with the scale of constituents • Masonry bond is explicitly taken into account • Mesoscale models can represent damage induced anisotropy Tests on brick and mortar Material identification: Mesoscale models
  12. 12. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Masonry nonlinear behaviour depends upon the composition, the in- plane stacking mode and the through-thickness geometry Through-thickness geometry In-plane stacking mode 3D mesoscale modelling for masonry
  13. 13. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group 3D mesoscale modelling for masonry Shieh-Beygi & Pietruszczak, Computer & Structures 2008 Milani, Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2008 • 3D mesoscale models are used mainly in static simulations of small components, often neglecting large displacement contribution • High computational cost
  14. 14. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group The proposed 3D mesoscale model Solid and interface elements account for large displacements, while only interface elements represent cracks in mortar and bricks Blocks are modelled using continuum elements, while mortar and brick- mortar interfaces are modelled by means of nonlinear interface elements (Lourenço & Rots, 1996)
  15. 15. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group 2D nonlinear interface elements A co-rotational approach is employed to allow for large displacements • The local co-rotational system follows the element current deformed configuration • The effects of geometric nonlinearity are established through transformation between global and local entities
  16. 16. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group 2D nonlinear interface elements Material model Multi-surface non-associated plasticity Elastic response 0σ = k u 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 t t n k k k          0kElastic stiffness Mortar joints 0 m t j G k h  0 m n j E k h      2 22 2 1 tan tan 0x y tF C C                2 22 2 2 tan tan 0x y cF D D            2 2Q F     2 22 2 1 tan tan 0x y Q Q Q t QQ C C            Yield functions F1 - F2 Plastic potentials Q1 - Q2
  17. 17. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesoscale modelling of masonry walls Vermeltfoort & Raijmakers, 1993 J4D J5D Wpl1 pv=0.3 MPa In-plane behaviour
  18. 18. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Chee Liang, 1996 Wpl1Wpl1 Mesoscale modelling of masonry walls Out-of-plane behaviour
  19. 19. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Bean Popehn et al., Engineering Structures, 2008 Mesoscale modelling of masonry walls Out-of-plane behaviour
  20. 20. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Earthquake tests 66% El Centro (ag=0.23g) • Out-of-plane failure is governed by geometric instability Mesoscale modelling of masonry walls Griffith et al., JSE ASCE, 2004 Out-of-plane behaviour
  21. 21. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesoscale modelling of masonry arches Brick-masonry skew arch Wang, 2004 Zhang, Macorini & Izzuddin, Engineering Structures, 2016
  22. 22. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Improved material description for NL interfaces • Enhanced efficiency and robustness • It describes the response under cyclic loading Plasticity damage formulation Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, Meccanica 2017 Cyclic behaviour in the normal direction Yield functions  1 2 3    p p pK        I D  Cyclic behaviour in the tangential direction
  23. 23. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesoscale modelling of masonry walls Anthoine et al., 1995 Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, Meccanica, 2017
  24. 24. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesoscale modelling of masonry walls Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, Meccanica, 2017 Anthoine et al., 1995
  25. 25. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesoscale modelling of masonry walls Griffith et al., EESD, 2007 Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, Meccanica, 2017
  26. 26. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesoscale Partitioned Approach Structural scale Solid elements and 2D nonlinear interfaces The advanced 3D mesoscale model is combined with a partitioning approach allowing for parallel computation (HPC) • Partitioning approach with super-elements • Parallel computing enhancing efficiency Jokhio & Izzuddin, 2015
  27. 27. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Domain Partitioned Approach Macorini & Izzuddin, AES, 2013
  28. 28. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Domain Partitioned Approach Communication between parent structure and partitions
  29. 29. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Domain Partitioned Approach 0 20 40 60 80 Processing elements - n 0 4 8 12 16 20 Speed-up-S m P2 P4 P8 P16 P32 P64 m P2 P4 P8 P16 P32 P64 Parent Structure 46080 23040 11530 5760 2880 1440 720 Partition - 384 756 1500 2232 3672 4996 Number of nodes for the parent structure and for each partition m i Pi T S T  • Elastic analysis of a large URM wall (48  48 20-noded solid elements) Prescribed top vertical displacements in 1 step and top horizontal displacements in 10 steps uz ux
  30. 30. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Domain Partitioned Approach 0 20 40 60 80 Processing elements - n 0 4 8 12 16 20 Speed-up-S m P2 P4 P8 P16 P32 P64m i Pi T S T  Monolitic model Model with super-elements Accuracy of the method • Elastic analysis of a large URM wall (48  48 20-noded solid elements)
  31. 31. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Enhancements to improve efficiency • Modelling with hierarchic partitioning (Jokhio, 2012)
  32. 32. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Enhancements to improve efficiency • Modelling with partitions and master-slave coupling (Jokhio, 2012)
  33. 33. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Enhancements to improve efficiency Elastic analysis of a large URM wall (48  48 20-noded solid elements) Standard (flat) Partitioning Approach Enhanced Partitioning Approach (hierarchic partitioning) P-L1 P-L2
  34. 34. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Enhancements to improve efficiency • Numerical performance – Speed-up Elastic analysis of a large URM wall (48  48 20-noded solid elements) model N. processors Parent Struct. DOFs Part. L1 DOFs Part. L2 DOFs S m 1 142848 - - - P4 5 2304 36864 - 4.60 P16 17 6912 9792 - 6.96 P64 65 16128 2736 - 3.24 P4 mslc 5 576 36864 - 3.73 P16 mslc 17 1728 9792 - 12.43 P64 mslc 65 4032 2736 - 116.39 P44 20 768 2304 9792 14.40 P416 69 768 2304 2736 28.65 P44 mslc 20 96 576 9792 17.63 P4x16 mslc 69 96 576 2736 205.50 Si= Tm/TSi Tm = 13152 s flat partitioning
  35. 35. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Enhancements to improve efficiency Elastic analysis of a large URM wall (48  48 20-noded solid elements) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Speed-upS N. of processors P‐L1 Si= Tm/TSi Tm = 13152 s Flat partitioning • Numerical performance – Speed-up
  36. 36. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Enhancements to improve efficiency • Numerical performance – Speed-up Elastic analysis of a large URM wall (48  48 20-noded solid elements) model N. processo rs Parent Struct. DOFs Part. L1 DOFs Part. L2 DOFs S m 1 142848 - - - P4 5 2304 36864 - 4.60 P16 17 6912 9792 - 6.96 P64 65 16128 2736 - 3.24 P4 mslc 5 576 36864 - 3.73 P16 mslc 17 1728 9792 - 12.43 P64 mslc 65 4032 2736 - 116.39 P44 20 768 2304 9792 14.40 P416 69 768 2304 2736 28.65 P44 mslc 20 96 576 9792 17.63 P4x16 mslc 69 96 576 2736 205.50 Si= Tm/TSi Tm = 13152 s hierarchic partitioning with mixed-dimensional coupling
  37. 37. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Enhancements to improve efficiency • Numerical performance – Speed-up Elastic analysis of a large URM wall (48  48 20-noded solid elements) Si= Tm/TSi Tm = 13152 s
  38. 38. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Enhancements to improve efficiency • Solution accuracy: partitioned vs. monolithic model Normal stresses after the application of the vertical displacement
  39. 39. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Enhancements to improve efficiency • Solution accuracy: partitioned vs. monolithic model Normal stresses at the end of the analysis
  40. 40. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesoscale Partitioned Approach 162840 nodes – 62 partitions Magenes et al., 1995 Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, Meccanica 2017
  41. 41. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesoscale Partitioned Approach Magenes et al., 1995 162840 nodes – 62 partitions Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, Meccanica, 2017
  42. 42. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling heterogeneous structures Infilled frames Elasto-plastic beam elements are used for modelling beams and columns of the frame, while the detailed mesoscale description is utilised for URM panels Macorini & Izzuddin, JSE ASCE, 2014
  43. 43. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling heterogeneous structures • Analysis of heterogeneous structures under extreme loading
  44. 44. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling heterogeneous structures • Analysis of heterogeneous structures under extreme loading Blast pressure in time Model validation under blast loading Macorini & Izzuddin, JSE ASCE, 2014
  45. 45. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling heterogeneous structures • Analysis of heterogeneous structures under extreme loading
  46. 46. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling heterogeneous structures • BASIS PROJECT Experimental tests on cavity wall specimens under blast loading (INERIS, France) Numerical modelling and nonlinear analysis of cavity walls under blast loading -20 70 160 0 1 2 3 4 mbar Time (s) Deflagration
  47. 47. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesh tying for non-conforming interfaces • Modelling heterogeneous masonry components and structures (e.g. multi-leaf walls, masonry bridges) • Enhancing computational efficiency (mesh optimisation for non-uniform domains) Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, IJNME 2017 New mesh tying element Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, IJNME 2017
  48. 48. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesh tying for non-conforming interfaces • Modelling heterogeneous masonry components and structures (e.g. multi-leaf walls, masonry bridges etc) • Enhancing computational efficiency (mesh optimisation for non-uniform domains) Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, IJNME 2017
  49. 49. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Modelling heterogeneous structures • Modelling arch bridges Parent structure corresponding to partitioned boundary Communication partition-parent structureBrick-masonry arch Continuum domain Backfill 15-noded elasto-plastic elements Mescale masonry model Plastic model for backfill (Zhang, 2015)
  50. 50. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group • Interaction between arch and backfill Mesh tying for non-conforming meshes at backfill-arch interface Mesoscale modelling of arch bridges
  51. 51. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group • Interaction between arch and backfill Mesh tying for non-conforming meshes at backfill-arch interface Mesoscale modelling of arch bridges Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, IJNME 2017 Increased Speed-up
  52. 52. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesoscale modelling of arch bridges Minga, Macorini & Izzuddin, IJNME 2017 Melbourne & Gilbert, Structural Engineer, 1995
  53. 53. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Mesoscale modelling of masonry buildings • Mesoscale partitioned approach (hierarchic partitioning) • Mesh tying to connect perpendicular walls and floor slabs • Nonlinear dynamic simulations to investigate the seismic response
  54. 54. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group Conclusions • The proposed nonlinear FE description provides accurate response predictions of masonry components subjected to different loading conditions. • The partitioning approach allows for computational efficiency and enables the analysis of realistic structures using detailed 3D modelling. • The developed computational strategy can be used for high-fidelity simulations to investigate failure modes of complex systems with masonry and to calibrate more efficient representations for practical assessment and design. The proposed models for masonry have been implemented in ADAPTIC*, an advanced FE code developed at Imperial College London for nonlinear simulations of structures subjected to extreme loading. * B.A. Izzuddin, Nonlinear dynamic analysis of framed structures, PhD. Imperial College London (University of London), 1991.
  55. 55. Advanced 3D Modelling and Analysis of Masonry Structures Lorenzo Macorini, CSM Group References • L. Macorini, B.A. Izzuddin, A non-linear interface element for 3D mesoscale analysis of brick-masonry structures, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 85(2011) 1584-608. • L. Macorini, B.A. Izzuddin, Nonlinear analysis of masonry structures using mesoscale partitioned modelling, Advances in Engineering Software, 60 (2013), 58-69. • L. Macorini, B.A. Izzuddin, Nonlinear Analysis of Unreinforced Masonry Walls under Blast Loading Using Mesoscale Partitioned Modeling, Journal of Structural Engineering, 140, 8(2014). • G.A. Jokhio, B.A. Izzuddin, A dual super-element domain decomposition approach for parallel nonlinear finite element analysis. International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics 16(2015) 188-212. • Y. Zhang, L. Macorini, B.A. Izzuddin, Mesoscale partitioned analysis of brick-masonry arches, Engineering Structures, 124 (2016) 142–166. • E. Minga, L. Macorini, B.A. Izzuddin. A 3D mesoscale damage-plasticity approach for masonry structures under cyclic loading. Meccanica (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11012-017-0793-z. • E. Minga, L. Macorini, B.A. Izzuddin. Enhanced Mesoscale Partitioned Modelling of Heterogeneous Masonry Structures. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2017), doi:10.1002/nme.5728.

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