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PhD career link report on the value of a PhD in the Swedish job market 2015

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A report from PhD Career Link giving information and opinions on everything relevant to PhD career development in Sweden, in 2015.
This is interesting to read if you are, or have been, in academia, a recruiter, in goverment, a career advisor or a journalist.
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#careers

www.phdcareerlink.se

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PhD career link report on the value of a PhD in the Swedish job market 2015

  1. 1. Milica Putnik & Barry O’Brien www.phdcareerlink.se @PhDCareerLink The Value of a PhD Degree in the Swedish Job Market
  2. 2. The Project................................................................................................................3 Project Masterminds............................................................................................4 Project Outline.....................................................................................................5 Background: A PhD in Sweden ..................................................................................6 PhD numbers in Sweden......................................................................................8 PhD disciplines at Swedish universities................................................................9 Doctoral titles in Sweden....................................................................................10 The survey: ”You and Your PhD in Sweden”..............................................................11 University/college affiliations.............................................................................12 Current positions...............................................................................................13 Discipline affiliations..........................................................................................13 Demographics....................................................................................................14 Gender..................................................................................................14 Age........................................................................................................14 Ethnicity and language...........................................................................15 PhD career.........................................................................................................16 Career planning ....................................................................................17 Career support ......................................................................................18 University career support.......................................................................20 Career development courses & seminars................................................22 Careers and Social media.......................................................................23 Unemployment.......................................................................................24 Job prospects for PhDs...........................................................................26 Future prospects ...................................................................................27 PhD Future...............................................................................................................28 PhD skills...........................................................................................................29 PhD skills and industry.......................................................................................30 PhD skills and university.....................................................................................32 Future Trends.....................................................................................................33 PhD career solutions................................................................................................35 Sources and References............................................................................................36 Contact....................................................................................................................37
  3. 3. THE PROJECT
  4. 4. 4 Project Masterminds Barry O’Brien is a career coaching professional and owner of NGSM Development. He has nearly 20 years’ experience in coaching, recruiting and managing for some of the world’s major corporations. Recently, his business led him to work with several Swedish universities and students on PhD programs, as well as with Swedish corporations as possible future graduate employers. Milica Putnik is a PhD graduate from Karolinska Institutet (KI). She started working on the project as part of an internship organized by KI Career Office. Networking, market research and creative output are her main driving forces, and they happened to be perfectly suited for this task.
  5. 5. The team starts a project investigating the value of a PhD degree in the Swedish job market. 2014 September 650 survey answers More than 20 interviews Career offices and career course organizers Recruiters, consultants PhDs (students, postdocs, alumni) The goal was to reach out to all 28, by contacting PhD student and postdoc associations, career offices and alumni, using a short career-oriented questionnaire. In addition, we carried out interviews and short surveys with company recruiters, career course organizers, consultants, union representatives and PhDs themselves. 28 out of 37 universities and colleges in Sweden award a PhD title 5 Project Outline
  6. 6. BACKGROUND A PhD in Sweden
  7. 7. In Sweden, most PhD students are employees – with taxable income and insurance benefits. This is not the case for those on stipends, including many postdocs. PhD phylosophiae doctor “teacher of philosophy” docere (lat. v.) - to learn phylosophia (lat. n.) - love of wisdom Graduate/doctoral/PhD student Sv. Doktorand Student who performs complex and thorough research intended to lead to a PhD degree. Eligibility According to Högskoleförordningen (Higher Education Office), as of July 1st 2007, a candidate eligible for PhD studies needs to hold a basic education degree of at least 240 credits, including 60 credits at advanced level. Courses A PhD student is usually required to take a certain number of relevant study courses. Requirements for course credits can vary from one university to another. Research studies The most important part of PhD studies. The candidate is required to perform at least one original study and publish it in a journal renowned in the field. Thesis defense The candidate defends his thesis to an opponent, an experienced researcher in the field with no previous collaborations with the candidate, and a thesis committee, usually consisting of three well-qualified researchers (professors or associate professors). PhD Only grades “passed" and “failed" are used. Doctoral Degree Ceremony (sv. Promovering) is an academic ceremony where the PhD insignia is awarded: diploma, doctoral hat or laurel wreath. The ceremony confers the newly honored doctors (Doctores Juvenes), jubilee doctors and occasionally honorary doctorates (honoris causa doctors). 7 Half-time, where a PhD student presents the development of his/her research. At certain universities, a PhD student may choose to resume the studies at this point, in which case the candidate obtains the ”licentiate” degree. ½ or licentiate ½ !
  8. 8. 242 24 143 25 625 84 1639 275 1881 252 1590 212 87 11 264 49 23 29 1 17 499 73 1080 163 2155 294 134 13 1200 159 20 202 11 455 67 1162 163 19098 2632 8 50 58 158 39 29 2 2879 369 173 9 2306 337 Total number of registered PhD students Total number of PhD thesis defenses 8 Swedish population 1% has a PhD degree PhD numbers in Sweden* *for 2013
  9. 9. Technology Social studies and humanities Natural sciences Medical science Business and economy Law studies 9 PhD disciplines at Swedish universities
  10. 10. Doctorates in Sweden are awarded in titles related to the faculty affiliation, though the general term PhD is used equally frequently. Agronomie doktor (agr.dr, AgrD) Doctor of agronomy Ekonomie doktor (ekon.dr, ED) Doctor of Economic Sciences Farmacie doktor (farm.dr, FarmD) Doctor of Pharmacy Filosofie doktor (fil.dr, FD) Doctor of Philosophy Juris doktor (jur.dr, JD) Doctor of Law Medicine doktor (med.dr, MD) Doctor of Medicine Doktor i medicinsk vetenskap (dr med.vet.) Doctor of Medical Science Odontologie doktor (odont.dr, OD) Doctor of Dentistry Skoglig doktor (skog.dr, SkogD) Doctor of Forestry Teknologie doktor (tekn.dr, TeknD) Doctor of Technology Teologie doktor (teol.dr, TD) Doctor of Theology Veterinärmedicine doktor (vet.med.dr, VMD) Doctor of Veterinary Medicine The faculty affiliation refers to the field of the undergraduate degree. For example, a doctorate in medicine can be awarded at a technical college. In some cases, the student may also choose the name of the degree he/she wants; for example, a grad student in economy may choose between a doctorate in economics and a more general social science PhD. 10 Doctoral titles in Sweden
  11. 11. THE SURVEY You and Your PhD in Sweden
  12. 12. 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 142 81 73 61 53 40 36 23 16 15 15 11 8 8 6 5 4 3 3 1 1 20 21 out of 28 universities and colleges were represented in our survey. ”Other” in most cases signifies that those respondents were affiliated with two or more universities. Other University/college affiliations !
  13. 13. 13 PhD student Employed PhD graduate - academia 23% Employed PhD graduate - outside academia 17% Unemployed PhD graduate 3% Other 2% 34% 22% 22% 11% 4% 1% 6% Medical science Technology Natural sciences Social studies and humanities Business and economy Law studies Other More than half of respondents are PhD students. ”Other” in most cases signifies that those respondents hold multiple positions, or that they are employed part-time. The majority of respondents are affiliated with medical, natural and technical sciences, the disciplines in which most PhD degrees are awarded in general. ”Other” in most cases signifies that those respondents do, or did, a PhD in multidisciplinary studies – for example, material science falls both under ’natural sciences’ and ’technology’. 55% Current position Discipline affiliations
  14. 14. 14 53% 47% 22-29 23% 30-37 46% 38-45 22% 46-54 7% 55+ 2% Gender distribution of our survey responses has been balanced, corresponding to the gender balance among active PhD students, which in Sweden has been more or less even since 2003. Demographics The majority of respondents are in the 30-37 age group, which is in concordance with the recent statistics showing that around 60% of entry-level PhD students are around 29 years of age. Age Gender !
  15. 15. None 17% Basic 32% Elementary 21% Professional 28% Other 2% 15 90.4% of respondents currently reside in Sweden. Other locations include the USA, China, Pakistan, India, Iran, Norway, Bangladesh, Belgium, Great Britain, Brazil, Germany, Switzerland, Vietnam, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, France, Indonesia, Japan, Nigeria, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Zambia. 1 15 1 6 24 2 1 2 1 32 1 36 7 3 5 1 31 6 5 3 7 1 1 4 2 3 1 1 118 2 1 2 14 3 12 2 32 6 Iran (36), Germany and India (32), China (24), Pakistan (18), USA (15), Bangladesh (12), Egypt and Italy (7), UK, Poland and Russia (6), Norway and Vietnam (5), Colombia and Turkey (4), Ethiopia, Finland, France, Netherlands, Spain and Venezuela (3), Austria, Belarus, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech republic, Denmark, Greece, Mexico, Nigeria, Romania, Rwanda and Ukraine (2), Argentina, Belgium, Bolivia, Iceland, Indonesia, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, Mauritius, Moldova, Nepal, Panama, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia, South Africa, Switzerland, Taiwan, Uganda, Uzbekistan and Zambia (1). 56 more nations are represented. Numbers of some of them are indicated on the map. 53,92% (337) respondents are Swedish. Among the non-Swedes, Swedish language proficiency varies in almost equal rates, from none to professional. ”Other” in most cases signifies a certain intermediate level. Ethnicity & Language
  16. 16. 16 32% 37% 6% 2% 14%9% Official job ad Network recommendation Via recruitment/employment agency Via social media Continuation of the previous position (MSc, PhD) Other The majority of respondents refer to network recommendations (once again proving the proverb “people hire people”) and official job ads. Only 2% refers to social media as a means of finding a position – a low score considering the current expansion and impact, especially in the career domain. However, under “other”, many describe “own initiative” – such as mailing the employer of interest directly. Some employed in academia pinpoint that they have secured the position themselves, by obtaining a research grant. PhD Career How did you find your current position?
  17. 17. 17 only 30% 70% said that they had a clear career path planned at the beginning of their PhD studies . of which have not changed it. •Described as ”too specific”, the respondents have shared the view that career development courses are needed during PhD studies. PhD studies • Somewhat criticized by the respondents, due to lack of security, fierce competition, low pay and lack of expertise. Academic research •Those who decided to change their career path, refer to moving from academia to industry, emphasising that developing certain skills during PhD studies is of the essence. Industry Career planning
  18. 18. 18 Yes 20% Somewhat 17% Other 1% 15% 28% 17% 24% 16% At the beginning of PhD studies Midway through PhD studies At the end of PhD studies After PhD studies Other If you have received any professional career advice, would you say it has been successful? 62% Yes 21% No 35% Somewhat 38% Other 6% Those who had, received it at various stages of their careers. And the success of that career advice has been variable. Career support According to Högskoleförordning (Swedish government ordinance for higher education), Chapter 6, § 3, all students have the right to study- and career support, i.e. even graduate students. This feature exists for students at the undergraduate and master levels, but not centrally for graduate students. It is important that PhD students get the career guidance both inside and outside academia. The supervisors have a responsibility, but there is certainly room for improvement!” A very valuable comment from one of the respondents. ”
  19. 19. 19 Career support Friends who have done internships in companies have advised me to do an internship. I'm currently exploring these options.” Depending on where the advice comes from, the advice is very different. I am working with industry, academia, teaching, medical and technology disciplines, German, Swedish and international societies, and all have different opinions. So I guess that things will change anyway, and that I do best if I follow my own way and do what I can. The highest risk ever is to lose motivation, so I focus on keeping my motivation as high as possible, counterwork conflicts or strange systems, and focus on those things which I like most. “ Mostly it was about how to write a CV/cover letter, and to mine they replied 'this is an excellent CV, why doesn't this person have a job already?‘ “ Even though a large number of respondents did not receive any professional career advice or support, those who have, described their experience. Here are some comments. ” ” ” Either it is common sense information, or it is unspecific advice.... ("Stand out from the rest", ....)”” Usually the career advice does not take into account the difference between being: Swedish/being fluent in Swedish/other and there is very little competence for helping foreign people with a research background that want to take a turn in their career on the Swedish market.” ” !
  20. 20. 20 Yes 35% No 9% Other 2% Yes 40% No 11% Other 3% do not know whether their university has any Career Support Office/Career Centre 54% do not know whether their university has any PhD student/postdoc associations that organize and support career events 46% University career support Out of 28 universities who offer PhD programs, one half has at least a Doctoral Student Board. Career events are organized by these junior bodies from time to time, specifically at Stockholm, Lund, Gothenburg, Linköping and Umeå Universities, KI, SLU and LTU. 1/2 out of 28 universities which offer PhD programs have a Career office and/or a junior body that organizes career events. At least However, they are mostly focused on giving career support to bachelor and master students, not PhDs, except for Stockholm University, Lund University, Karolinska Institutet and to some degree Uppsala University, Luleå and Umeå Universities. !
  21. 21. 21 Yes 26% Somewhat 26% Other 3% Yes 15% Somewhat 24% Other 2% of respondents did not have support from the university in their career development 59% of respondents did not have support from the supervisor(s) in their career development 45% University career support Even though a large number of respondents did not receive any career advice or support at their universities, those who have, described their experience. See some comments below. The head of my group basically gave us a timeline of an academic career and briefly mentioned alternative choices other than research.” My boss gave me several pieces of advice during my PhD: how to continue with an academic career or how to become an editor. He even recommended me to start to study medicine. These were all careers that I was not interested in. He was nice but since he knew only the academic world, he could not help me with advice regarding a non-academic job. “ Most career advice from more senior coworkers are not valid. The competition today is a lot worse. “ ” ” ” !
  22. 22. 22 only 35% 24% had taken career skills development courses or seminars of which were a part of the official PhD training Career development courses & seminars Career seminars are organized by various groups at most universities we surveyed, but they are rarely a part of the official PhD training, and they rarely include networking with organizations outside of academia. Every course or seminar has a potential to be skill-developing.” ”... one of the responders commented. Though this is true, it depends largely on the field of the studies. Furthermore, regular PhD courses foster networking and communication, but within the limits of the university itself. ”Career Skills for Scientists”, Karolinska Institutet, 1.5 pt ”The Science of Your Future”, Karolinska Institutet, 1.5 pt An official career course initiated by PhD students and postdocs in 2011, originally had a purpose to foster networking within KI. Over the years, it became a platform for personal branding and interactions with the industry. An official career course organized jointly by KI’s Career Service and the Unit for Bioentrepreneurship. !
  23. 23. 23 No 44% Other 3% No 35% Somewhat 29% Other 1% are active social media users (more than 1h per day) 53% uses social media in career planning/job search 35% In general, only about 30% of Swedes look for jobs via the internet - however, among the unemployed, 94% used the Internet at least once in search of work, 86% do so at least once per week and 49% do so daily. 7 /10 Swedes use social media 1/2 of the population does it daily ~2mil Swedes are using LinkedIn Careers & Social media !
  24. 24. 24 3 months or less 20% 4-6 months 19%7-12 months 12%13-18 months 3% more than 18 months 23% Other 23% Yes 14% Somewhat 12% Other 17% Unemployment Arbetsförmedligen is the largest provider of job opportunities. Their main task is to bring together employers and job seekers. Their services are free of charge. OBS/NB! Financial support during unemployment comes from A-kassa, not from Arbetsförmedlingen. One has to be a member for a least 1 year in a relevant A-kassa (Akademikernas A-kassa) in order to get the support. Arbetsförmedlingen (Swedish Public Employment Service) If you are/were unemployed, how long has it been? of respondents did not receive any support from Arbetsförmedlingen. 57% 15% in total describe their experiences with unemployment in Sweden 3% of respondents are currently unemployed Most respondents who have had experience with Arbetsförmedlingen, describe it in a negative way. It is an overall opinion that this institution lacks the understanding of PhD degree skills and academic world, and focuses more on the unemployed with lower levels of education. only 30% of jobs are officially announced. ! ! !
  25. 25. 25 Yes 29% Somewhat 1% Other 9% Yes 14% Other 6% Trygghetsstiftelsen (Swedish Security Foundation) Private career coaches of respondents did not receive any support from Trygghetsstiftelsen. 61% of respondents did not receive any support from private career coaches. 80% A career coach/ adviser can be definitely helpful. In my case we’ve discussed interviewing skills, identifying career goals, and targeting companies. Also I have learned how to prepare better for my interview and prepare specific CV's. The hours with my career coaches helped me isolate my strengths and understand where I had areas for improvement.” ” Even though most respondents have never received any support from private career coaches (or it came through Trygghetsstiftelsen), those who have, described it as a great experience. When an employee of a governmental institution (as most universities and colleges in Sweden are) is dismissed due to redundancy or fixed term contracts (as is the case with most researchers), Trygghetsstiftelsen (TSN) offers further career help and support. The support is individualized and based on the line of work; it includes courses and career development sessions with a professional career coach. The support also includes financial aid, reaching up to 80% of the salary. OBS/NB! Researchers on fixed term contracts can get the support from TSN only if s/he has been employed for the last three years. Even though many respondents could/did not receive support from TSN, those who did, describe the experience as very positive. ! !
  26. 26. 26 Poor 12% Limited 34% Average 24% Good 18% Excellent 2% I don't know 5% Other 5% In Sweden Job prospects for PhDs In country of origin Regardless of the country, most respondents describe job prospects for PhDs on the scale from ‘poor’ to ‘average’. Poor 21% Limited 24% Average 22% Good 18% Excellent 7% I don't know 4% Other 4% Interestingly, more respondents claim that the job prospects in their country of origin are ‘excellent’ (7%) in comparison to Sweden (2%) – however, these numbers are still low.
  27. 27. 27 No 23% Yes 39% Somewhat 32% Other 6% About 70% of respondents at least somewhat agree that PhDs lack education in certain areas, that could improve the chances of employment. Do PhDs lack education in certain areas, that could improve their chances of employment? These are the areas most frequently mentioned by the respondents as “lacking”: Future prospects
  28. 28. PhD FUTURE
  29. 29. Researcher PhD Developer manager editor writer liaison advisorenterpreneur consultant strategist coordinator 29 PhD skills It was mainly about recognizing the broad skill set that I had obtained during my PhD and about the resulting possibilities on the job market that I found very empowering. I came to realize that a PhD gives you both the opportunity and the responsibility to lead your professional life in whichever direction you want.“ ” During the PhD studies, skills that are developed the most are those of research and development. Beyond them, a PhD student does a lot of detailed and high-quality writing, management, coordination etc. But how are these skills recognized beyond the academic world?
  30. 30. 30 Companies do not often recruit PhDs for managerial positions - they seek younger candidates with the actual degree in management. The additional problem could be that we are too numerous yet too specialized. Behbood Borghei, PhD student in technology - environmental innovation at Linköping University I think businesses are unsure of the skills that those with PhDs possess and how to integrate them into their workflow. PhDs don't understand how business works in terms of economics and workflow. I think educating PhDs to gain some skills associated with business and businesses to understand the benefits of employing PhDs will help businesses and academia to grow and thrive.” ” I lived and worked in the UK for five years on a managerial position in a biotech company. Generally, in the UK a degree, regardless of level is more appreciated than in Sweden and it is also seen more as a "driving license" giving ability to gather and process information to solve a task. In Sweden, it is generally more common to believe that a persons abilities are limited by the subject of their degree. This is a disadvantage for Sweden.” ” I think that employers ( at least in private sector) also need to be educated in what a PhD-degree contains. Few understand that it involves project management at a high level.” ” In Sweden the 5 years of PhD studies are often not seen as working experience in the private industry. The problem is having a lot of education, but limited experience, when you finish your studies. I was not aware of this during my studies, otherwise I would have tried to work part time also outside academia during my studies.” ” PhD Skills & Industry !
  31. 31. 31 PhD skills valued the most by industry recruiters dedication and analytical skills.” ” Independence, drive, getting things done quickly and efficiently, ease to learn new things.” ”Specialist knowledge, methodology.” ” Analytical skills, critical thinking, accuracy, personality.” ”Presentation skills, the ability to obtain information.” ” In addition to their knowledge, including personal characteristics, PhDs are professional, efficient and understand what is required of them to work in a commercial enterprise.” ” I think there is a general belief that as a graduate student, you are automatically over-qualified, if it is not a job in science or similar where the right doctoral degree is a requirement or qualification. I think that it is easy to confuse a person's qualifications / experience / knowledge (in level as a graduate student) with a person's motivations and drive. Just because you are a PhD student does not necessarily mean that you are overqualified if you have the right drive and motivation for the job.” ” It is not the level of education that is crucial, but the training and personality behind knowledge!” ”
  32. 32. 32 It is likely that the Swedish market is saturated with PhDs. To make matters worse for the job prospects in industry, it seems that the idea of companies coming, recruiting and interacting with the students, is not in the Swedish culture… Michael Gralla, PhD student at Karolinska Institutet, one of the co-organizers of ”The Science of Your Future” career course The placement offices in the Universities are not precise and on the target. Students at the PhD/post graduate level do not require resume writing skills or interview skills. Placement cells should create a full process model recruitment facility at the university, rather than just some vague job fairs which will never be successful. If you have no prejudice, see the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras placement cell http://placement.iitm.ac.in/. They are on target and facilitate the platform for quick recruitment process. Major companies like Google, Microsoft, Skype complete the recruitment process on campus within a couple of days and hand in the offer. In Sweden, job fairs at Universities are off target and are just to publicize the companies. They do not come to fill a fixed number of vacancies out of the universities. Students end up waiting months to get an initial response. It is a burden on the students and on the unemployment benefits. I guess a faster process can be adopted from other places.” ” The time as a PhD Student (I am speaking here for Humanities) needs to be more intimately connected to the coming work opportunities. The PhD Student needs tools and preparation for the working market. He/she needs advice from well informed people with an academic career. It is important to make this an obligatory part of the PhD.” ” PhD Skills & University !
  33. 33. 33 What can PhDs do to improve their job prospects? There is a huge gap between industry and academia, mostly in terms of thinking, but producing as well. The Swedish market is too small for the number of PhDs awarded. Unfortunately, PhDs lack training for real world situations, which is only partially the universities’ fault. Therefore, PhDs should focus more on: 1. Time keeping: mark goals and milestones 2. Building work-real life attitude 3. Building managerial skills: e.g. take responsibility for budget planning of PhD projects 4. Social media (especially LinkedIn and Twitter), because the industry is also moving in that direction. Mary-Rose Hoja, PhD, marketing and business communication consultant. It is extremely difficult to motivate and guide PhD students and postdocs towards their future careers, because the (post)doctoral studies are demanding and most of them simply don’t have time to even think about the future. However, if they do not wish to continue with the academic research they can start by identifying and communicating with companies they see themselves working for one day. Additionally, being used to working on their own projects, PhDs make excellent entrepreneurs and start-up managers, and that is something to always keep in mind! Jennifer Polk, PhD, career coach, http://fromphdtolife.com/ ! !
  34. 34. 34 Future Trends Flexibility PhD Broad skills communications regulations business and entrepreneurship leadership project management data analysis (IT, mathematics, statistics) The report on the trends for the job market for scientists, presented by Naturvetarna (The Association of Professional Scientists), summarizes some future trends that are in fact applicable to PhDs in general too. Overall, multiple skills are highly valued, apart from the expertise obtained during PhD studies, such as communication skills, leadership and management. These skills are required in most sectors but PhDs have to emphasize, and convince future employers, that they have them, as they are not part of the basic education in most cases.
  35. 35. PhD career solutions success Internships Internships for PhD students and postdocs in companies and agencies are occasionally organized by Career Centers at some universities, as well as by Trygghetsstiftelsen. This activity should be more encouraged and supported at the universities, as well as in the industry. It provides excellent ground for gaining and developing broader skills, while making the CV more interesting and appealing and creating more job opportunities. Social Media & networking Workshops Attend them! Many universities often organize them – How to write a CV, How to write a cover letter, How to use LinkedIn... If you are interested in something more specific, such as business and management, check e.g. Stockholm School of Entrepreneurship. Also, use social media to reach your goals – for example Meetup.com, where you can find many interesting groups of knowledgeable people with different skills. 35
  36. 36. Higher education in Sweden, 2013 status report, Universitetskanslersämbetet (Swedish Higher Education Authority) http://www.uk- ambetet.se/download/18.1c251de913ecebc40e780003405/1403093 616367/annual-report-2013-ny.pdf Statistiska Centralbyråns register Befolkningens utbildning 2013 http://www.scb.se/statistik/_publikationer/UF0524_2012A01_BR_0 0_UF01BR1201.pdf Svenskarna och internet 2014, Olle Findahl, .SE Stiftelsen för internetinfrastruktur (The Internet Infrastructure Foundation) https://www.iis.se/docs/SOI2014.pdf Rekrytering via sociala medier - bra eller bara hype?, Stepstone http://www.stepstone.se/rekrytera- online/rekryteringsexpertis/undersokningar/images/infografik- SE.png Marknadsundersökning av karriärverksamhet för studenter nationellt och internationellt, Charlotte Bäckström, Karolinska Institute Career Service Trygghetsstiftelsen www.tsn.se Visa dig från din bästa sida: tips om hur du skriver en jobbansökan, Arbetsförmedligen, http://www.arbetsformedlingen.se/download/18.306228a513d6386 d3d85c4c/1401114499726/Visa+dig+fr%C3%A5n+din+b%C3%A4sta+s ida_Broschyr.pdf Naturvetares arbetsmarknad & trender 2014, Nya möjligheter i en föränderlig omvärld, Naturvetarna http://www.naturvetarna.se/Global/Naturvetarna_tycker/Rapporter /AM-rapporten_20141020_slutversion_low.pdf Icons made by FreePik www.flaticon.com Social media Logos created by Tony Thomas http://medialoot.com/item/round-social-media-icons/ Photography by Milica Putnik 36 References and Sources
  37. 37. 37 Contact For further information about inviting PhD Career Link to speak at your institution, please contact Barry O'Brien - barry@phdcareerlink.se For more information about the contents of this report please email Milica Putnik – milica@phdcareerlink.se Also please visit www.phdcareerlink.se

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