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How Do OECD Forum Attendees Compare With General Publics Around the World on Views About the Future Economy and Democracy

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At the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s annual Economic Forum on May 21, 2019, Director of Global Attitudes Research Richard Wike presented findings from a Pew Research Center survey of forum attendees.

Published in: Economy & Finance
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How Do OECD Forum Attendees Compare With General Publics Around the World on Views About the Future Economy and Democracy

  1. 1. How Do OECD Forum Attendees Compare With General Publics Around the World on Views About the Future Economy and Democracy? Richard Wike Director, Global Attitudes Research May, 2019
  2. 2. 2 Pew Research Center • Established 1996 • Funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts, foundations • Non-profit, non-partisan fact tank in Washington • Since 2001, we have surveyed in 108 countries • www.pewresearch.org • @pewresearch
  3. 3. 3 Methodology • Results of online survey of 358 registered OECD Forum attendees conducted from April 18 to May 13, 2019 • General public surveys: 2018 Global Attitudes Survey of 27 countries Survey of eight Western European countries conducted Oct. 30-Dec. 20, 2017 2017 Global Attitudes Survey of 38 countries 2015 Global Attitudes Survey of 38 countries Additional results from surveys of U.S. adults conducted May 2017 and December 2018 • In each country, samples are representative of the adult (18+) population
  4. 4. VIEWS ABOUT THE ECONOMIC FUTURE 4
  5. 5. 5 Pessimism for the Next Generation’s Economic Prospects Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey. % who say when children today in their country grow up, they will be __ financially than their parents 53% 54 46% 36 OECD Forum attendees 27-country median Worse off Better off % who say the average working person in this country will have __ job security by the year 2050 65% 22% 12%OECD Forum attendees Less About the same More
  6. 6. ATTITUDES TOWARDS AUTOMATION 6
  7. 7. 7 Thought Leaders and Average Citizens Agree Automation Will Increase Note: 9-country median includes data from Canada, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Japan, South Africa, Argentina and Brazil. Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey. 38% 28 47% 48 OECD Forum attendees 9-country median Definitely will happen Probably will happen How likely do you think it is that in the next 50 years, robots and computers will do much of the work currently done by humans?
  8. 8. % who say their country is __ for a future where robots and computers are doing much of the work currently done by humans 76% 21% Not prepared Prepared 13% 69 85% 31 Bad thing Good thing 8 OECD Attendees and U.S. Public Disagree About Impact of Automation Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and survey of U.S. adults conducted Dec. 11-23, 2018. Among those who say robots and computers doing much of the work currently being done by humans definitely will happen or probably will happen, % who say robots and computers doing much of the work currently done by humans is a __ for your country OECD Forum attendees U.S. public OECD Forum attendees
  9. 9. 73% 80 71% 79 OECD Forum attendees OECD Forum attendees 9-country median 9-country median 9 Many See Negative Impacts from Automation Note: 9-country median includes data from Canada, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Japan, South Africa, Argentina and Brazil. Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey. % who say if robots and computers were able to do much of the work currently being done by humans, the following is likely to happen Inequality between rich and poor would be much worse than it is today Ordinary people would have a hard time finding jobs
  10. 10. 71% 45% 65 63 32 58 OECD Forum attendees OECD Forum attendees OECD Forum attendees OECD Forum attendees 9-country median 9-country median * * 10 OECD Attendees See More Positive Impacts from Automation * No median data available. Note: 9-country median includes data from Canada, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Japan, South Africa, Argentina and Brazil. Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey. % who say if robots and computers were able to do much of the work currently being done by humans, the following is likely to happen There would be new, better- paying jobs People would find their jobs more meaningful and fulfilling since machines would mostly be doing things that people find unappealing The economy would be much more efficient People would be able to focus less on work and more on the things that really matter to them in life
  11. 11. 85% 65% 74 72 72 64 60 55 11% 23% 21 18 22 26 34 29 A lot Some OECD Forum attendees 9-country median 11 Who Has Responsibility for Training the Workforce? Note: 9-country median includes data from Canada, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Japan, South Africa, Argentina and Brazil. Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and Spring 2018 Global Attitudes Survey. % who say __ have a lot of responsibility to make sure their nation’s workforce has the right skills and education to be successful in the future Schools Governments Individuals themselves Employers
  12. 12. 65% 77 50 42 53 36 30 20 12 OECD and U.S. Public Views of Jobs Threatened by Automation Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and survey of U.S. adults conducted May 1-15, 2017 86% 82 67 59 56 29 28 22 Insurance claims processor Fast food worker Legal clerk Construction worker Software engineer Teacher Your own job or profession Nurse Your own job or profession OECD Forum attendees U.S. adults % who say it is likely that the following jobs will be replaced by robots or computers in their lifetimes Insurance claims processor
  13. 13. OECD Forum attendees U.S. adults 69% 67 13 OECD Attendees and U.S. Public More Concerned than Enthusiastic About Job Hiring Algorithms Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and survey of U.S. adults conducted May 1-15, 2017. OECD Forum attendees U.S. adults 35% 22 Somewhat Very EnthusiasticWorried % who say they are __ about the development of algorithms that can evaluate and hire job candidates Very Somewhat
  14. 14. OECD Forum attendees U.S. adults 51% 47 OECD Forum attendees U.S. adults 48% 44 Somewhat Very 14 OECD Attendees and U.S. Public Share Similar Views of Robot Caregivers Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and survey of U.S. adults conducted May 1-15, 2017. Somewhat Very EnthusiasticWorried % who say they are __ about the development of robot caregivers for older adults
  15. 15. 15 Recommendations to Prepare for Automation Note: Quotations may have been edited for grammar, spelling and clarity. Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees. Thinking about a future where robots and computers do much of the work currently done by humans, what’s the most important thing that governments need to do to prepare for this future? “(1) Demand decision-making by humans, not computers (2) Laws requiring access to algorithms (so the people affected by the system can have insight in the working of the algorithm) (3) Right to bias-free algorithms.” “I worry that some people will have no purpose - just giving money to those without jobs is not enough, people need a purpose and to feel useful.” “In theory, I believe that automation would be a great thing for humanity because it would free up space for everyone to develop their hobbies and creative sides, but in practice I know that it will probably end up being used by billionaires to get even richer and not rely on people while millions starve.” “They would be two things: … to create a legal system in which humans increasingly work less and gain more, and are able to spend more time to do things they like … And on the other hand prepare young people to have the skills and competencies for their proper adaptation to the labor market of the future.”
  16. 16. VIEWS OF DEMOCRACY 16
  17. 17. 17 Who Would Do Better Job of Solving Country’s Problems: Elected Officials or Ordinary Citizens? Note: 8-country median includes data from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and survey of eight Western European countries conducted Oct. 30-Dec. 20, 2017. % who say __ comes closer to their view OECD Forum attendees 8-country median 67% 52 33% 44 OECD Forum attendees 8-country median Ordinary people would do a better job solving the country's problems than elected officials Ordinary people would do no better solving the country's problems than elected officials
  18. 18. 94% 52 48 11 78% 49 66 26 Representative democracy Rule by experts Direct democracy Rule by a strong leader 18 Broad Support for Representative Democracy, Differences Over Direct Democracy Note: Full question wordings for political systems: Representative democracy, “A democratic system where representatives elected by citizens decide what becomes law”; Direct democracy, “A democratic system where citizens, not elected officials, vote directly on major national issues to decide what becomes law”; Rule by experts, “Experts, not elected officials, make decisions according to what they think is best for the country”; Rule by a strong leader, “A system in which a strong leader can make decisions without interference from parliament or the courts”. Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and Spring 2017 Global Attitudes Survey. % who say __ would be a good way of governing their country OECD Forum attendees 38-country median
  19. 19. 19 Views of Democratic Rights Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and Spring 2015 Global Attitudes Survey. % who say it is important for their country to have the following things OECD Forum attendees 38-country median 93% 65% 89 61 69 74 6% 21% 9 24 25 22 Women have the same rights as men Honest elections are held regularly with a choice of at least two political parties People can practice their religion freely Somewhat important Very important Women have the same rights as men People can practice their religion freely Honest elections are held regularly with a choice of at least two political parties OECD Forum attendees 38-country median
  20. 20. 20 Views of Government Censorship Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and Spring 2015 Global Attitudes Survey. % who say it is important for their country to have the following things OECD Forum attendees 38-country median 90% 55% 80 56 76 50 9% 29% 18 31 21 29 The media can report the news without government censorship People can say what they want without government censorship People can use the internet without government censorship Somewhat important Very important The media can report the news without government censorship People can say what they want without government censorship People can use the internet without government censorship OECD Forum attendees 38-country median
  21. 21. 21 OECD Attendees Are Generally More Likely than General Public to Support Some Types of Free Speech Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees and Spring 2015 Global Attitudes Survey. % who say people should be able to say __ publicly 98% 51 48 37 21 80% 35 26 35 25 Statements that criticize the government's policies Statements that are offensive to your religion or beliefs Statements that are sexually explicit Statements that are offensive to minority groups Statements that call for violent protests OECD Forum attendees 38-country median
  22. 22. 22 Recommendations to Improve Democracy Note: Quotations may have been edited for grammar, spelling and clarity. Source: 2019 Pew Research Center survey of OECD Forum attendees. Thinking about our political system, what’s the most important thing that our country can do to improve the way democracy works? “Implementing real open government policies: open data, wider transparency, participation mechanisms, collaborative design of public policies.” “It is crucial for elected officials to represent people accurately in terms of gender, ethnicity and social background.” “Change voting from opt-in to opt-out, where everyone is automatically registered to vote, unless they purposefully decide to remove their own right to vote.” “Western ‘democracies’ are increasingly plutocracies. The most important things are to: (1) give power back to politics, (2) free politics from the power of economic elites.”
  23. 23. 23 All Pew Research Center reports are available online at www.pewresearch.org Richard Wike Director, Global Attitudes Research @RichardWike

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