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2. Research Plus Africa Presentation


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Keynote presentation for Pew Research Center's Methodological Workshop on Public Opinion Research in Sub-Saharan Africa

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2. Research Plus Africa Presentation

  1. 1. Nokia Internal Use Only Dixie Avugwi, Director of Research
  2. 2. Nokia Internal Use OnlyNokia Internal Use Only METHODOLOGY WORKSHOP November 30th, 2017 Key Methodological Challenges in Africa
  3. 3. Nokia Internal Use Only SAMPLING Key Methodological Challenges in Africa
  4. 4. Nokia Internal Use Only SAMPLING CHALLENGES • Drawing a true random representative sample • Census data at times not detailed enough – smallest sampling unit • Latest/recent census data at times not available • When a Sampling Frame is provide by the Country Statistics Body [KNBS] • Not updated; a listing exercise is required • The frame is often overused: • Everyone uses the same frame • Meet other teams within the same sampling points • Over-researched respondents - bias [expert respondents] • House/structure numbers sampled not easy to locate: • Get erased hence rely on a local guide who may not be doing the correct thing • Tedious bureaucracy – timelines • Expensive
  5. 5. Nokia Internal Use Only Census Cartographic Mapping, which is a process of dividing the whole country into smaller units called enumeration areas
  6. 6. Nokia Internal Use Only SAMPLING CHALLENGES • Using the random route technique: • Infrastructure design challenge • Streets not labeled • Streets not there – Rural • Houses not numbered • Selecting starting points – landmarks • Selecting direction from starting point • Longitudinal studies challenge • Locating respondents previously surveyed – physical address • Locating respondents previously surveyed – using telephone contacts • What has helped track respondents: • CAPI • GPS • Regular follow up of respondents over phone where possible (stay in touch)
  7. 7. Nokia Internal Use Only Informal settlements with temporary structures pose sampling challenges
  8. 8. Nokia Internal Use Only Kenya is largely a rural country and the under developed infrastructure also poses sampling challenges – no labeled streets / roads, difficulty in findings reliable landmarks, etc.
  9. 9. Nokia Internal Use Only LANGUAGE Key Methodological Challenges in Africa
  10. 10. Nokia Internal Use Only LANGUAGE CHALLENGES • Large number of ethnic groups that require translations • Some oral languages for which written translation is not possible • Lose ‘pure’ respondents • Respondents who cannot speak the translated languages may have to be replaced with those who can thus biasing the research • Simultaneous translations – cannot guarantee standard • Changes meaning of questions • Translators start answering the questions posed on behalf of the respondent instead of strictly translating • Innovations to address oral languages challenge: • Standardize simultaneous translations • Enumerators who speak the language go through the questionnaire together and agree how each question translates into the given oral language
  11. 11. Nokia Internal Use Only 42 Ethnic Groups = 1 Nation
  12. 12. Nokia Internal Use Only The Maasai well-known globally are actually a minority ethnic group in Kenya making up one of the 42 ethnic tribes
  13. 13. Nokia Internal Use Only Methodological Research for the Public Good
  14. 14. Nokia Internal Use Only METHODOLOGICAL RESEARCH • Census data • Access of census data for sampling – to smallest unit • Statistics Office sampling frame: accessible to public and affordable • Categorization/ classification of population [SEC/LSM] • Need a system to update criteria • An index to be used to measure – checking out some things Benchmarks
  15. 15. Nokia Internal Use Only Going the extra mile.