A Big Data approachto measuring civic engagement, gender differences  and usage in social media among young people        ...
The amount of data in our world has been      exploding, and analyzing large data sets—so-       called big data—will beco...
Big Data90% of the data in the world today has beencreated in the last two years alone (Source, IBM:http://www-01.ibm.com/...
The research questionHow can we use "big data" to understand genderdifferences, and cross-country differences amongyoung p...
Why measuring civic engagement        on Facebook?                                 5
delTA   6
‖We use Facebook to           schedule the        protests, Twitter to     coordinate, and YouTube         to tell the wor...
Social media - a new and promising arena                     for civic engagement Social media has been increasingly recog...
Informal types of engagement                  within social mediaYoung people to day report to distance themselvesfrom asp...
NGO – Non-Governmental org. or               civic org. => increasing presence                           on Facebook•   Am...
Why young people?• Young people are crucial  agents with regard to peace  processes and political  stability on a local an...
All young people are on Facebook“It’s just that everyone else is onFacebook so you join up yourself"(boy, 17 years)Brandtz...
Why gender differences?• UNESCO recognizes that the gender  divide is the most significant form of  inequality, amplified ...
Why "big data"?•   The biggest technology trend today is big    data, due to its great potential:     – Its more data than...
The "Big Data" in this studyWisdom – a tool to aggregate data from Facebook.Intelligent tool for data mining supporting de...
What, who, when What: Demographic pattern assessment of civic engagement in  Facebook Who: Facebook users (N = 19,370,44...
Overview of organizations covered in this study and their number of “likes"                                               ...
ResultsSome examples                18
Males are more politically andinformation oriented than females
Females are more focused onenvironmental and humanitarian child aid
21
Cross-country comparison• This study used Wisdom to compare young people in  different countries on the basis of their cou...
Gender differences across countries                                      23
Critiques of Big Data executionDanah Boyd has raised concernsabout the use of big data in scienceneglecting principles suc...
Conclusion•   This study has shown that there is a great potential using Big Data to reveal    general patterns of gender ...
Thanks to• The VERDIKT-programme in the  Norwegian Research Council – for  supporting the delTA-project and our  partners:...
Questions ?              27
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Presentation on big data in Madrid 18.04.2013

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  • Many journalists and democracy activists believe that without the Internet, Twitter and Facebook nothing revolutionary would have happened in Egypt or Tunisia earlier this year. A lot of people even think these technologies caused those revolts. The new technologies were of course important tools for getting people onto the streets. But social media were not an underlying cause of the protests – let alone of the civil war in Libya. To suggest that they are is to ignore what fueled popular anger in the first place: pervasive government corruption and repression, chronic unemployment (especially among the educated young), economic hopelessness and rising food prices.The regimes in Tunisia and Egypt suffered from deep legitimation deficits for decades, experiencing periodic displays of mass protests earlier. This time social media created a tipping point in Tunisia; the success of the Tunisian revolt inspired those in Egypt who had prepared a resistance strategy for months. Protest leaders in both countries had been absorbing key ideas from an American activist’s manual, “From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework” –
  • Presentation on big data in Madrid 18.04.2013

    1. 1. A Big Data approachto measuring civic engagement, gender differences and usage in social media among young people Petter Bae Brandtzaeg, SINTEF, pbb@sintef.no El Congreso Online Comunicación y Sociedad Digital Universidad Internacional de La Rioja MADRID, 18.04.2013
    2. 2. The amount of data in our world has been exploding, and analyzing large data sets—so- called big data—will become a key basis to understand our society – digital society in the futurePhoto source: http://www.bizjournals.com/seattle/blog/techflash/2013/03/is-big-data-the-next-big-thing-two.html 2
    3. 3. Big Data90% of the data in the world today has beencreated in the last two years alone (Source, IBM:http://www-01.ibm.com/software/data/bigdata/) 3
    4. 4. The research questionHow can we use "big data" to understand genderdifferences, and cross-country differences amongyoung people and their civic engagement onFacebook? 4
    5. 5. Why measuring civic engagement on Facebook? 5
    6. 6. delTA 6
    7. 7. ‖We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world.‖Source: The Cascading Effects of the Arab Springhttp://www.miller-mccune.com/politics/the-cascading-effects-of-the-arab-spring-28575/
    8. 8. Social media - a new and promising arena for civic engagement Social media has been increasingly recognized as a rising force that plays a key role insocial, democratic, and political issues (Golbeck, 2012).
    9. 9. Informal types of engagement within social mediaYoung people to day report to distance themselvesfrom aspects of formal citizenship, such as politicalparties and involvement in local governmentalpolitical issues, and prefer informal types ofengagement within social media which often havehigher relatedness and, thus, often are associatedwith causes initiated by young people themselves.(Brandtzæg, Følstad, Mainsah, 2012) 9
    10. 10. NGO – Non-Governmental org. or civic org. => increasing presence on Facebook• Amnesty, WWF, Plan International, and Save the Children, are all using Facebook actively• These organizations, their presence on Facebook, and the differentiated patterns of fans (likes) between males and females are discussed in this article. 10
    11. 11. Why young people?• Young people are crucial agents with regard to peace processes and political stability on a local and global scale (Tufte & Enghel, 2009)• Youth is regarded as being at the forefront of new media uptake (e.g. Christensen, 2011; Jenkins et al., 2006). delTA 11
    12. 12. All young people are on Facebook“It’s just that everyone else is onFacebook so you join up yourself"(boy, 17 years)Brandtzæg et al., (2010) 12
    13. 13. Why gender differences?• UNESCO recognizes that the gender divide is the most significant form of inequality, amplified by the digital revolution (Primo, 2003).• However, current research points towards a paradigm shift, in the realm of new media technologies (Pavlik, 2013).• We are entering a new social era as a result of SNSs such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, which may alter the gender divide. 13
    14. 14. Why "big data"?• The biggest technology trend today is big data, due to its great potential: – Its more data than ever (e.g. digitalization) on the web and particularly on social network 3,2 billion "likes" every day sites like Facebook, due to the increasing possibility for user generated content – Young people’s self-disclosure (digital foot- prints) in social media to both other users and organizations, has revealed not only new questions about their usage but also new ways to harvest data (―big data‖) about their engagement – Large pools can be brought together and analysed to reveal patterns about young peoples civic engagement online – We know that presidential campaigns in US relied heavily on huge data sets to identify donors to potential supporters. 14
    15. 15. The "Big Data" in this studyWisdom – a tool to aggregate data from Facebook.Intelligent tool for data mining supporting demographicpattern assessment of Facebook "likes" 15
    16. 16. What, who, when What: Demographic pattern assessment of civic engagement in Facebook Who: Facebook users (N = 19,370,443, average= 32 years, min.13 max.71+ years) This number corresponds with those people who have opted-in to contribute their data anonymously to the Wisdom Network as well as their friends When: March, 2013 16
    17. 17. Overview of organizations covered in this study and their number of “likes" 17
    18. 18. ResultsSome examples 18
    19. 19. Males are more politically andinformation oriented than females
    20. 20. Females are more focused onenvironmental and humanitarian child aid
    21. 21. 21
    22. 22. Cross-country comparison• This study used Wisdom to compare young people in different countries on the basis of their country information in Facebook and psychographic profile in relation to two psychographic segments associated with civic engagement: ―Social Activist‖ and ―Environmentally Aware.‖• Psychographic segmentations are based on check-ins and page likes (e.g. "Social Activists" = Fans whove liked a significant number of pages related to causes, non-profits, and non-governmental organizations). 22
    23. 23. Gender differences across countries 23
    24. 24. Critiques of Big Data executionDanah Boyd has raised concernsabout the use of big data in scienceneglecting principles such aschoosing a representative sample bybeing too concerned about actuallyhandling the huge amounts of data.This approach may lead to resultsbias in one way or another• Source, Wikipedia, Big Data, 2013: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_data• Photo:http://dialogicalcoffeehouse.wordpress.com/2011/0 3/29/danah-boyd-new-media-and-discourse/ 24
    25. 25. Conclusion• This study has shown that there is a great potential using Big Data to reveal general patterns of gender difference and cross-country differences in regard to civic engagement on Facebook among young people. – Young males are more supportive than their female counterparts in politically driven Facebook pages and are more interested in sites that focus on political information and facts, including Wikipedia. – Young females are somewhat more supportive toward environmental and humanitarian organizations and causes than their male counterparts. These differences might slightly support old gender stereotypes. Cooper (2006). – In general - young females from Western countries (e.g., Spain, Norway, and the US) seem to be more active in civic engagement on Facebook than their male counterparts. While young females (as well as females in general) in India and Iran has very low civic presence on Facebook. 25
    26. 26. Thanks to• The VERDIKT-programme in the Norwegian Research Council – for supporting the delTA-project and our partners: – Opinion Perduco – Plan Norway – NRK – Norwegian Broadcasting – Amedia, Glomdalen (newspaper) – Kongsvinger kommune (muncipal) – AHO - Oslo School of Architecture and Design 26
    27. 27. Questions ? 27

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