Land resource in kenya case for agriculture


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Land resource in kenya case for agriculture

  2. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.   INTRODUCTION Land in Kenya means different things to different people. To farmers and pastoralists land is property to be owned and a source of livelihood, and access to land and controlling it are key concerns. Agricultural land (also agricultural area) denotes the land suitable for agricultural production, both crops and livestock. The elite consider land as a marketable commodity from which to make windfall profits through market speculation mechanisms. Agriculture is derived from Latin words Ager and Cultura. Ager means land or field and Cultura means cultivation. Therefore the term agriculture means cultivation of land. Agriculture is defined as the art, the science and the business of producing crops and the livestock for economic purposes. As an art, it embraces knowledge of the way to perform the operations of the farm in a skillful manner. As a science: It utilizes all modern technologies developed on scientific principles such as crop improvement/breeding, crop production, crop protection to maximize the yield and profit.
  3. 3. OPERATING TERMS • Agribusiness-is the business of agricultural production. • Agronomy-is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and reclamation. • Sustainable agriculture -is the act of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. • Urban agriculture -is the practice of cultivating, processing, and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city. • Agricultural land -refers to plots that may be used for agricultural activities CLASSIFICATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND (F.A.O) • Arable land -land under annual crops, such as cereals, cotton. • Permanent Crops-Orchards and vineyards (e.g., fruit plantations). • Permanent Pastures -areas for natural grasses and grazing of livestock, such as Meadows and pastures. • Cultivable land-arable land and land in permanent crops
  4. 4. CURRENT AGRICULTURE SITUATION IN KENYA • Currently (15-17) % of Kenya’s total land area has sufficient fertility and rainfall to be farmed. Of this, only (7-8) % can be classified as the first class land. • About 50% of Kenya’s total agricultural output is non-marketed subsistence production. • Agriculture is the largest contributor of Kenya’s Gross Domestic product i.e. about 51% serving a population of about 41million. The poverty level in Kenya stands at 46% with agricultural sector providing up to 75% of the Kenya’s labor force. • Only 21% of Kenya’s land is arable, yet maximum yield haven’t been reached yet in these areas, leaving considerable potential for income productivity. • Most farmers in Kenya work without basic agriculture input or updated technology and lack of adequate financial or extension services.
  5. 5. • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. FUTURE OF AGRICULTURE IN KENYA The future of agriculture in Kenya has both the positive and negative sides and they include: Continuous depletion of ocean resources as various fish is harvested to near extinction. Depletion of arable land. In Kenya the arable land is only about 20%. This land can be depleted through development or wrong agricultural practices. Depletion of ground water used for irrigation. The ground water has been harvested for irrigation in some parts of the country to the extent of depletion. Development of technology is also a threat to agricultural resource. Population increase in Kenya is also likely to impact on future demand for agricultural products. Practicing “precision agriculture” i.e. involving the integration of satellite observations on the ground instruments and sophisticated farm machines to apply the appropriate amount of seed, water, fertilizer and so on.
  6. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURE IN KENYA Rural urban balancing-Through creation of employment in rural areas it discourages rural to urban migration Promotes and creates various off farm activitiestransportation for example feeder roads in sugar cane growing areas there by improving accessibility. Foreign exchange earner-Agriculture accounts for70% of total export earnings (excluding refined oil.) Establishes industrialization framework-Agriculture supplies raw materials for industries e.g. timber for the paper manufacturing industry, skin and hide for leather industry. Employment-Agriculture accounts for two thirds of Kenya’s employment. Economic development-According to the central bureau of statistics; 75% of working Kenyans made their living by farming by 2006 compared to 80% in the 80s. About half of Kenya’s total agricultural output is non –marketed subsistence production, that is, for food. Food production-Agriculture ensures that the work force is fed with energy to supply labor to industries and other economic sector.
  7. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. THE MAJOR CHALLENGES FACING AGRICULTURE Poor infrastructure-Poor rural roads and other key physical infrastructure have led to high transportation costs for agricultural inputs and products. Lack of farm inputs- - Most farmers lack information on the right type of farm inputs to use and the appropriate time of application of the same. Infection from Pest and Diseases-caused by lack of information by the farmers on how to control these diseases. Use of outdated technology -- Although Kenya has a welldeveloped agricultural research system, use of modern science and technology in agricultural production is still limited .Inadequate extension services-plays a key role in disseminating knowledge, technologies and agricultural information, and in linking farmers with other actors in the economy. Soil nutrient deterioration-The rising population density has contributed to the subdivision of land to uneconomically small units. Climate change -The effects of climate change has been felt mostly by the farmers especially due to dependence on rain-fed agriculture.
  8. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. RECOMMENDATIONS ON AGRICULTURE A holistic approach and partnership are required to build the capacity and services needed to integrate small farmers into commercial value chains. Value chain analysis is an important part of understanding chains and relationships and how to best target work in them, especially for rural farmers. Farmers have to be trained to understand commercial agriculture, take necessary measures to meet buyer specifications. Skill and capacity building addressing needs of small farmers in a collaborative and efficient manner is required. Producers, extension agents and crop advisers need to determine more accurately fertilizer rates to optimize crop yield and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The middle men should be done away with to avoid exploitation of farmers and the government to provide direct market to farmers.