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FINAL REPORT                         Department of TransportFEBRUARY 2011   2112902A                           RAIL CORRID...
Rail Corridors and the                          Principal Bicycle Network                          Final Report           ...
Revision        Details                                                                                     Date          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
PACs                                              MACsMelbourne CBD                                 Melbourne             ...
PACs                                                 MACs                                                 Melbourne       ...
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PACs                                                                                                                      ...
PACs                                                                                                                      ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network                                                                          ...
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50
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Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50

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Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Report by Parsons Brinckerhoff).

Commissioned by Department of Transport, State Government of Victoria.

February 2012. Pages 1-50

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Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network (Parsons Brinckerhoff) p01-50

  1. 1. FINAL REPORT Department of TransportFEBRUARY 2011 2112902A RAIL CORRIDORS AND THE PRINCIPAL BICYCLE NETWORK
  2. 2. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report February 2011 Department of Transport Parsons Brinckerhoff Aus tralia Pty Limited ABN 80 078 004 798 Level 15 28 Freshwater Place SOUTHBANK VIC 3006 PO Box 19016 SOUTHBANK VIC 3006 Australia Telephone +61 3 9861 1111 Facsimile +61 3 9861 1144 Email melbourne@pb.com.au Certified to ISO 9001, ISO 14001, AS/NZS 480121129 02A-RPT-0 03-B-CN A+ GRI Rating: Sustainability Report 2009
  3. 3. Revision Details Date Am ended By 00 Original 01 Final Version incorporating Client comments 11 January 2011 ©Parsons Brinckerhoff Australia Pty Limited (PB) [2011]. Copyright in the drawings, information and data recorded in this document (the information) is the property of PB. This document and the information are solely for the use of the authorised recipient and this document may not be used, copied or reproduced in whole or part for any purpose other than that for which it was supplied by PB. PB makes no representation, undertakes no duty and accepts no responsibility to any third party who may use or rely upon this document or the information. Author: ............................................................ Signed: ........................................... Reviewer: .................................................................................. Signed: .............................................. Approved by: .................................................................................. Signed: ............................................... Date: 17 February 2011 ........................................................................... Distribution: PB, Department of Transport ........................... 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN33(1)
  4. 4. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final ReportContents Page numberGlossary viExecutive summary viii Methodology viii Consultation ix Initial assessment f ramework ix Baseline review ix Corridor assessments ix Study findings xii Study recommendations xiii1. Introduction 1 1.1 Purpose 1 1.2 Objectiv es 1 1.3 Background 2 1.4 Methodology 2 1.5 Consultation 3 1.6 Study area 42. Stakeholder consultation 10 2.1 One-on-one meetings 10 2.2 Stakeholder workshop 11 2.3 Consultation outcomes 113. Requirements for shared path development 12 3.1 Indicative cross section design 124. Establishing the baseline 14 4.1 Development of a GIS 14 4.2 Spatial analysis 14 4.3 Major constraint identification 165. Development of preliminary options 18 5.1 Initial costs 25PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page ii
  5. 5. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report6. Assessment of options 27 6.1 Multi-criteria assessment 27 6.2 Demand forecasting 27 6.2.1 Existing 2007 base case matrices 28 6.2.2 Forecast demand matrices 31 6.2.3 Distance and time base matrices 31 6.2.4 Scheme based demand matrices 32 6.2.5 Scheme based distance and time matrices 33 6.3 Analysis of existing VISTA07 demands 33 6.3.1 Craigieburn corridor 34 6.3.2 Dandenong existing levels of demand 34 6.3.3 Box Hill to Ringwood existing levels of demand Box Hill to Ringwood 36 6.3.4 Werribee existing levels of demand 37 6.4 Northbank corridor demand forecasting 38 6.4.1 Existing levels of demand 38 6.4.2 Future demand matrices 397. Cost Benefit Analysis 40 7.1 Safety application in CBA 45 7.1.1 Background 45 7.1.2 Development of Safety inputs 46 7.2 CBA assessment and results 48 7.2.1 Northbank corridor 48 7.2.2 Craigieburn corridor 51 7.2.3 Dandenong corridor 52 7.2.4 Werribee corridor 54 7.2.5 Box Hill to Ringwood corridor 56 7.3 Summary CBA findings 578. Review of design and planning considerations 59 8.1 New at grade level crossings prohibited 59 8.2 Careful design of access in vicinity of rail stations 59 8.3 Other bridge / underpass infrastructure requirements 60 8.4 Solutions and remedial measures for crossing facilities 60 8.5 Provision of cycle routes along local roads 62 8.6 Cycle route signage 63 8.7 Timescales for development 63 8.8 Longer term considerations 63 8.9 Land acquisition 659. Review of assessment framework 66 9.1 Introduction 66PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page iii
  6. 6. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report 9.2 Phase 1 – Initial corridor assessment 69 9.3 Phase 2 – Route dev elopment 70 9.3.1 Route identification and development 70 9.3.2 Stakeholder consultation 71 9.3.3 In principle approval 71 9.4 Phase 3 – Design and feasibility study 72 9.5 Phase 4 – Secure funding and project deliv ery 7310. Conclusions and recommendations 75 10.1 Opportunities for shared path development 75 10.2 Assessment framework 75 10.3 Assessment of corridors 76 10.4 Design requirements 77 10.5 Land acquisition 78 10.6 Funding 78 10.7 Wider promotion of cycling and synergies with other projects 7811. References 79List of tables Page numberTable 1.1 Summary of CBA recommendations xiiTable 2.1 Key stakeholder consultation 10Table 2.2 Key stakeholder consultation 11Table 3.1 Summary of key relevant guidelines 12Table 4.1 GIS inputs 14Table 4.2 Preliminary identification of major constraints 17Table 5.1 Northbank corridor key constraints and solutions 18Table 5.2 Craigieburn corridor key constraints and solutions 19Table 5.3 Dandenong corridor key constraints and solutions 20Table 5.4 Werribee corridor key constraints and solutions 22Table 5.5 Box Hill to Ringwood corridor key constraints and solutions 23Table 5.6 Summary of high level indicative option costs 26Table 6.1 Cycling catchments 29Table 6.2 MITM Outputs 31Table 6.3 Assumptions for walking and cycling 31Table 6.4 Growth and mode share assumptions for cycling trips 32Table 6.5 2010 total two way weekday cycling trips – Northbank corridor 38Table 7.1 Identification of costs and benefits for rapid appraisal 40Table 7.2 Summary of safety CBA inputs 47Table 7.3 CBA summary Northbank corridor 49Table 7.4 CBA Result Summary Craigieburn corridor 51PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page iv
  7. 7. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final ReportTable 7.5 CBA Result Summary Dandenong corridor 53Table 7.6 CBA Result Summary Werribee corridor 55Table 7.7 CBA Result Summary Box Hill to Ringwood corridor 56Table 7.8 Summary of CBA recommendations 58Table 9.1 Example information, assessment criteria and design targets 69Table 10.1 Summary of CBA recommendations 77List of figures Page numberFigure 1.1 Study methodology 3Figure 1.2 Northbank corridor 5Figure 1.4 Dandenong corridor 7Figure 1.5 Werribee corridor 8Figure 1.6 Box Hill to Ringwood corridor 9Figure 3.1 Indicative shared path cross section minimum distances 13Figure 4.1 Example Rail Reserv e Horizontal Clearance Plan 15Figure 4.2 Example Rail Reserv e Clearances 16Figure 6.1 Summary of demand matrix development 28Figure 6.2 Box Hill to Ringwood MITM zone catchment 30Figure 9.1 Refined assessment framework 68AppendicesAppendix A Stakeholder consultationAppendix B Rail Reserve PlansAppendix C Preliminary Option PlansAppendix D Indicative Option CostsAppendix E Multi Criteria AssessmentAppendix F Analysis of VISTA07Appendix G Forecast Demand EstimationAppendix H CBA ResultsPARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page v
  8. 8. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final ReportGlossary ARTC Australian Rail Track Corporation - currently has responsibility for the management of over 10,000 route kilometres of standard gauge interstate track, in South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia, and New South Wales. Assessment framework The assessment framework is to provide a considered and consistent basis on which to produce information, develop proposals and assess requests for shared/separated cycle and pedestrian paths. BCR Benefit Cost Ratio is a discounted measure of the value of the project, where the present worth of the discounted benefits is divided by the discounted costs. Projects or programs should be selected if the BCR is more than an agreed hurdle rate. The default hurdle rate is a BCR greater than 1; however, DOT often sets the rate higher than this. BV Bicycle Victoria is an independent, not-for-profit organisation. They work with supporters to get More People Cycling More Often and measurably grow the bike riding world. CBA Cost Benefit Analysis is a form of analysis that brings together all available information to estimate and compare the community wide costs and benefits of an investment decision. It is used to assess the social worth of project options for delivering specific outcomes1. DOT The Department of Transport, along with VicRoads and other transport agencies, is responsible for public transport, roads and ports across Victoria. The DOT Director of Public Transport leases land and infrastructure from VicTrack and sub-leases it to private rail or tram operators. Grant ‘in principle’ Grant ‘in principle’ approval is the official agreement from the reviewer/decision maker approval supporting the principles and rationale behind the proposal. However, this is subject to more detailed planning associated with design, cost estimates and feasibility which must be undertaken and submitted following ‘in principle’ approval to gain final approvals, finalisation of contracts, licenses etc. NPV Net Present Value or worth of a stream of costs and benefits is a number generated from discounting the values of the stream at a given discount rate. It is derived from the following expression: where the discount rate is r, the benefit in year t is Bt the cost in year t is Ct, and n is the time horizon. The net present value of a stream is equivalent to the amount that would have to be invested today in order to obtain a compounded return of r per cent over n years. MCA Multi-Criteria Analysis is a loose collection of tools to assist decision-making where the aim is to promote a number of different objectives or criteria.2 Metro Metro Trains Melbourne (Metro) is Melbournes new metropolitan passenger rail operator which sub-leases land and infrastructure in the rail reserve from the Director of Public Transport. MITM Melbourne Integrated Transport Model (MITM) is the strategic transport modelling tool for the Melbourne Metropolitan region and is able to predict future travel patterns consistent with the changing future demographics and land use associated with the ‘Melbourne@5million’ review of Melbourne 2030.1 Guidelines for Cost Benefit Analysis (DOT, June 2010) pp372 http://www.atcouncil.gov.au/documents/pubs/National_Guidelines_Volume_3.pdf pp 108PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page vi
  9. 9. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report PBN Principal Bike Network is a network of routes that provides access to key cycling destinations within the Melbourne metropolitan area. The purpose of the PBN is to guide investment in cycling infrastructure in Melbourne and increase the numbers of people riding bicycles for transport.3 Spatial analysis Spatial analysis is a desktop process, using computer based Geographic Information Systems, to analyse topological, geometric, or geographic properties. Analysis is based on a set of pre-identified criteria, such as minimum horizontal and vertical clearances from rail lines, infrastructure and buildings. VicTrack VicTrack owns the land in rail reserves and leases land and infrastructure to the Director of Public Transport, who sub-leases it to private rail or tram operators.3 Draft PBN Report (VicRoads, Feb 2010) pp 1PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page vii
  10. 10. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report Executive summary Parsons Brinckerhoff has been commissioned by the Department of Transport (DOT) to undertake the Rail Corridors and the Principal Bike Network study. The purpose of the study is to inf orm strategic thinking and policy for addressing future cases where rail corridors may be considered f or cycling infrastructure. The Principal Bicycle Network (P BN) is a strategic network of routes which provide access to key cycling destinations within the Melbourne metropolitan area. The purpose of the PBN is to guide investment in cycling infrastructure. This investment aims to increase the numbers of people riding bicycles for transport. A number of rail corridors have been proposed in the PBN recently reviewed by VicRoads, some of which have been included in the proposed PBN for some time without gaining successful approvals. The objectives of the study, as set out in the project brief, are to dev elop an assessment framework to simplify the application process for providing shared paths within rail corridors on land owned and managed by VicTrack. Five rail corridors, included within the PBN review, have been selected as illustrative examples to test the performance of the initial assessment framework which involves a pre- feasibility study for the construction of bicycle paths. To inform the study, the corridors represent a div erse history, range of conditions and characteristics and include: Northbank (between Flinders Street and Docklands) Craigieburn corridor (between Pascoe Vale and Glenroy) Dandenong corridor (between Caulfield and Dandenong) Werribee corridor (between Laverton and W erribee) Box Hill to Ringwood corridor. The study is to provide an assessment framework, informed by high-level analysis of the five rail different corridors, to allow prov ide DOT with advice on the additional steps required to dev elop this cycling infrastructure via future detailed designs or further feasibility studies when appropriate. Methodology The project methodology included the following stages: Policy, previous studies review and current conditions and characteristics survey Consultation with DOT and key stakeholders Development of an initial assessment framework Corridor assessments Review of assessment framework.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page viii
  11. 11. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report Consultation The consultation process, as part of the baseline review and development of the assessment framework included the f ollowing: one on one meetings with key stakeholders stakeholder workshop. Initial assessment framework An initial assessment framework was developed with an aim to simplify the application process for providing shared paths within rail corridors on land owned and managed by VicTrack. This framework was then adopted for this study in undertaking the five corridor assessments. Baseline review The baseline review identified key constraints, opportunities and options developed for each rail corridor: Geographical Information System (GIS) was established to undertake a desktop baseline study collating spatial data from a range of sources, including VicMap key relevant guidelines and standards were used to develop indicative cross section design minimum widths in the rail corridor spatial analysis of the GIS was undertaken to identify potential sections of adequate clearance and sections/isolated bottlenecks where there is insufficient clearance from tracks in the rail reserve (or other adjacent public owned land) major constraints identification using spatial analysis of the GIS: embankments / grade changes rail infrastructure Victrack leases buildings bridges / underpasses drainage channels road crossings. Corridor assessments Preliminary option development Preliminary options for shared paths in the five corridors were based upon information gleaned from the consultation and spatial analysis. Supplementary data sheets documentPARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page ix
  12. 12. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report the key constraints and solutions in detail, and options are illustrated in the preliminary option plans. Initial high level pre-feasibility capital costs were developed for the preliminary options based on an assessment of current market value and do not include any costs associated with land and other costs. A range of packages of options have been developed for assessment to aid in prioritising corridor options and assess the impact of higher cost/engineering solutions against lower cost solutions: Option 1: A more realistic mid range option within the rail reserv e where possible which includes some more necessary infrastructure. Option 2: As Option 1 but without improvements to existing road crossing facilities. This option is considered as existing shared paths in rail corridors in Melbourne have not been developed to include such improvements. Option 3: Lower cost alternative which diverts to the road network to av oid the need for key infrastructure such as new bridges. Also does not include any costs for improvements to existing road crossing facilities. Option 4: Fully grade separated option within the rail reserve. Demand forecasting for outer corridors Demand forecasting of cycling proved a challenge particularly for the rail corridors outside of the centre of Melbourne (Craigieburn, Dandenong, Werribee and Box Hill to Ringwood corridors) due to potentially low existing volumes and limited sources of bicycle count data. For these corridors demand forecasting used a combination of data sources including: Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel & Activity (VISTA) 2007-08 which provides daily people based origin – destination travel patterns by mode and activity. ABS Census travel to work data detailing existing travel to work mode splits. Melbourne Integrated Transport model (MITM) which provides travel based growth assumptions for origin-destination travel patterns into the future. Existing multi-modal people based matrices were developed for each corridor from the VISTA07 data set which was formatted consistently with the Melbourne Integrated Transport Model (MITM) zone boundaries by origin and destination zone by mode and activity: due to limitations with the application of the VISTA07 data, bicycle demand matrices were deriv ed by factoring the VISTA07 total person trips for the corridor by the ABS Census travel to work by bicycle mode split f or the local LGAs catchment principles, consistent with the Draft PBN, were applied to the people trip movements in the four rail corridors. Forecast demand matrices were calculated via: analysis of the 2006 ‘base’ and 2031 forecast MITM assignments provided the growth in future trips by total persons, mode and origin-destination zones to 2031PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page x
  13. 13. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report 2007 base matrices were f actored to generate base 2010, 2020 and 2030 matrices a range of mode split assumptions were applied to base matrices to provide a robust range of potential cycling demand in each corridor. Demand forecasting for the Northbank corridor Demand forecasting of the Northbank corridor was dealt with diff erently to the other corridors described abov e due to a number of different circumstances: the presence of existing on and off road bicycle facilities (via Collins St, Flinders St, existing Northbank shared path and Southbank shared path) and the short corridor length located adjacent to Melbourne CBD leads to the assumption that Northbank options will supplement existing bicycle facilities but not be the direct cause of mode shift to cycling from other modes bicycle count data for the area is available via the 2008 Melbourne Bicycle Account (MCC, 2008) which includes 2008 Super Tuesday count data. Initial 2010 Super Tuesday count data is also available via Bicycle Victoria which allows calculation of the growth of 2008 bicycle flows to the existing base 2010. The scheme base demand forecasting has been dealt with in a consistent manner to the other four corridors using MITM predicted growth in person trips but also using local bicycle count growth factors. Scenarios developed provided a robust range of potential cycling demand. Cost Benefit Analysis The demand forecasting and CBA has proven a valuable tool in identif ying effective economic outcomes for the five rail corridors. The CBA approach has been developed for this study to include travel cost, travel time, saf ety, health, environment and decongestion and crowing impacts. The assessment has also been developed to include parking and induced trip impacts as well as diff erential saf ety impacts, particularly relev ant to this study, incorporating different crash rates for links and intersections on public roads and shared pathways. This application has prov en useful in unpicking and isolating the specific safety risks posed with the dev elopment of off road shared paths, raising a number of issues to highlight the importance of careful design to ensure that the realistic impacts of a scheme are identified and addressed. The table on the following page summarises the recommendations from the CBA for the dev elopment of options in f our corridors. Note that whilst Option 3 in the Werribee corridor provided a positive and cost effective CBA result, no recommendations have been adopted due to safety concerns associated with the lack of intersection crossing facilities. A major notable consequence is the justification of more expensive grade separated options f or the Dandenong (only for a 30 year assessment period), Craigieburn and Northbank corridors.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page xi
  14. 14. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report Table 1.1 Summary of CBA recommendations Study findings The dev elopment and implementation of shared paths in rail corridors is a complex process which should not be undertaken if there are alternative viable route options. Due to rail operations and safety requirements, high standards of design are required which can prove costly and due to the numerous stakeholders involved the approv als process can be time and resource consuming. This study has found there is a strong case to dev elop shared paths only on a temporary basis if it can be identified with stakeholders that changes to rail operation (and requirement for the remaining rail reserve) are unlikely to occur in the next 10-15 years or more. The available land can be effectively utilised whilst not contributing to rail operations and in the meantime it is important to make provision for future changes such as route diversion/infrastructure requirements in order to accommodate both rail upgrade and the shared path where ev er possible. Review of assessment framework Through the consultation process stakeholders have expressed their desire to work closely with local councils and other developers of shared paths to gain continual buy in and agreement from all parties in the design of the shared paths. The assessment f ramework developed is unlikely to deliver any significant reductions to the approval timeframes due to the need for all stakeholders to review and approve proposals. However, the initial phases 1 and 2 should aid in the successful preliminary targeting of viable schemes and early refinement to problems which should reduce the review work required by all parties during the later phases. The assessment f ramework is designed to require minimal resource and planning investment during the preliminary route development stages leaving more significant resource and planning requirements until VicTrack (and DOT Public Transport Division and Property and Commercial Development) has granted ‘approval in principle’ indicating that the provision of shared paths has strong potential and there is a commitment between all stakeholders to work together. PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page xii30(1)
  15. 15. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report Design requirements Longer term, consultation with stakeholders has identified an interest in continuing to ex pand the grade separation of rail lev el crossings in Melbourne. VicRoads, in conjunction with DOT, need to be consulted regarding the inclusion of shared paths in future rail grade separation or station works designs. In the more distant future there may be further opportunities to develop synergies with the dev elopment of the rail network. Should there be increasing levels of rail grade separation implemented in the future it may be possible to integrate these developments with a two level rail corridor; rail operations running below a light weight cantilever shared path structure above. Whilst this is certainly more a vision than a reality at this stage it is recommended that DOT continues to evaluate f uture opportunities for PBN development as they arise. This study has identified the importance of good design in developing and implementing successful shared paths in rail corridors. Road intersection crossings with off road shared paths present a significant saf ety risk associated with the design, implementation and operation of shared paths within rail corridors. Great care and consideration should be placed in the design and treatment of such crossing facilities. Findings strongly encourage the development of grade separated crossing facilities on shared paths, particularly at key road intersections. The findings also present some key challenges in securing the approval and development, which include the high costs and technical engineering solutions associated with grade separated facilities, as well as acceptance of the local community of intruding structures. Eff ective and safe design in the vicinity of rail stations also presents challenges. Advice should be sought from urban planners to achieve a desirable outcome f or all although to some extent this may need to be on a case by case basis due to the variety of rail station layouts. It is recommended that these issues be considered for the development of new rail stations in order to develop an inclusive design from the outset which if necessary can be retrofitted at a later date to include shared path access. Study recommendations Assessment framework process It is recommended that the demand f orecasting and CBA approach adopted for this study is reviewed and refined, if necessary, f or application in wider analysis. The CBA approach has been developed to include parking and induced trip impacts which would benefit from further investigation. In particular, it is highly recommended that further inv estigation be taken to review the safety costs and optimise safe design at off road shared path road intersection crossings, which could aid in the economic justification of cheaper at grade solutions, as well as conduct further research into the impacts of grade separated infrastructure, funding availability and community impacts. Consultation with the DOT identified a potentially usef ul existing internal process which deals rd with 3 party access applications within rail reserves via an e mail submission to a specific e DOT 3 rd party access application mail account. The process is able to monitor timescales and actions/staff involved. It is recommended that this process is considered further forPARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page xiii
  16. 16. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report application with the development of shared paths as a central application resource working between local council applicants, VicTrack and DOT. The assessment f ramework has been dev eloped to increase co-ordination and involvement with the DOT Active and Sustainable Transport Branch (as well as other key stakeholders) in the process from initial discussions through to gaining stakeholder approv als. Further consideration of the DOT Active and Sustainable Transport Branch’s involvement in the shared path development process should be considered as the management of the PBN continues to evolve. Land acquisition It is recommended that a long term plan for land acquisition is considered for Melbourne as part of a longer term strategy for viable development of the PBN and wider transport system. Sustrans in the UK have successfully been progressively purchasing land as it comes onto the market for many years in locations where horizontal clearances are a constraint. A long term plan is held f or a corridor and property / land is purchased steadily as it comes onto the market. Land is then subdivided taking the required clearance and the remaining property is put back on the market. Funding Funding for the shared paths is likely to be a critical issue for local councils interested in dev eloping shared paths. This study has identified the higher infrastructure costs required, and the challenge due to the cost implications associated with the increased safety risk posed by mode shift to cycling. Funding for the PBN is currently sought from VicRoads although it is unclear if this will remain f or projects within the rail reserv e. It is recommended that this issue be explored further to ensure that feasible applications for shared paths in rail reserv es can progress and gain the necessary f unding with ease.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page xiv
  17. 17. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report1. Introduction1.1 Purpose Parsons Brinckerhoff has been commissioned by the Department of Transport (DOT) to undertake the Rail Corridors and the Principal Bike Network study. The purpose of the study was to inf orm strategic thinking and policy for addressing future cases where rail corridors may be considered for cycling infrastructure.1.2 Objectives The objectives of the study, as set out in the project brief, are to develop an assessment framework to simplify the application process for providing shared paths within rail corridors on land owned and managed by V icTrack. Five rail corridors, included within the PBN review, have been selected as illustrative examples to test the performance of the initial assessment framework which involves a pre- feasibility study for the construction of bicycle paths. To inform the study, the corridors represent a div erse history, range of conditions and characteristics and include: Northbank (between Flinders Street and Docklands) Craigieburn corridor (between Pascoe Vale and Glenroy) Dandenong corridor (between Caulfield and Dandenong) Werribee corridor (between Laverton and W erribee) Box Hill to Ringwood corridor. This pre-f easibility study should allow the Department to identify: layout of alternatives for the different segments of the corridor including the identification of key infrastructure to be developed and synergies and relationships with other projects within the Department and VicRoads estimation of high lev el cost for development of each of the alternatives proposed consideration of the availability of the land based on consultation with other key internal and external stakeholders. The study is to provide an assessment framework, informed by high-level analysis of the five rail different corridors, to allow prov ide DOT with advice on the additional steps required to dev elop this cycling infrastructure via future detailed designs or further feasibility studies when appropriate.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 1
  18. 18. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report1.3 Background The Principal Bicycle Network (P BN) is a strategic network of routes which provide access to key cycling destinations within the Melbourne metropolitan area. The purpose of the PBN is to guide investment in cycling infrastructure. This investment aims to increase the numbers of people riding bicycles for transport. The Department needed to understand the feasibility of the rail corridors proposed in the PBN recently reviewed by VicRoads. Areas for clarification included where paths would best be positioned, the investment required to develop paths, and the short, medium or long term requirements for rail or other transport infrastructure for the land. Physical constraints could mean some locations would not be available for cycling facilities and that the cycling path might require significant infrastructure investment or diversion in some segments into the road network. There are currently no assessment criteria for establishing the feasibility of rail corridors for cycling paths. The Branch is, however, in the process of developing principles for consideration of cycling access in large scale projects, such as new train stations, road upgrades etc. Initial work on these principles was provided as input into this study. As a general guide, projects along the corridor were likely to include infrastructure developments for cycling (such as grade separated crossings or access path) when they are in close proximity to the PBN or they are a key trip destination. The five corridors hav e been selected to illustrate a diverse range of issues associated with implementing bicycle paths within rail corridors. They were be used as a means of investigating the feasibility requirements, issues, constraints and opportunities, to develop a robust assessment framework and assessment criteria. The assessment framework and assessment criteria was then used to gov ern and establish appropriate policy that could be applied to any potential Metrorail corridor in the future.1.4 Methodology The study methodology is summarised in the flow chart shown in Figure 1.1.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 2
  19. 19. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report Figure 1.1 Study methodology1.5 Consultation Stakeholder input was an essential element of the Principal Bicycle Network and Rail Corridors Study. Details of the consultation process are provided in Section 3 of this report, which includes DOT and stakeholder meetings and workshops.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 3
  20. 20. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report1.6 Study area The five metro rail corridors are shown in Figure 1.2 to Figure 1.6 within the local network including the existing and proposed PBN. Northbank (between Flinders Street and Docklands) Craigieburn corridor (between Pascoe Vale and Glenroy) Dandenong corridor (between Caulfield and Dandenong) Werribee corridor (between Laverton and W erribee) Box Hill to Ringwood corridor. This report follows the Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Draft Background Report (PB, June 2010) [Draft Background Report] which provides details of policy and previous studies rev iews, initial stakeholder interviews, the development of the assessment framework and the baseline condition of each corridor. This report provides details of the refined assessment framework and the recommendations for the Rail Corridors and Principal Bicycle Network study. This report summarises the following: dev elopment of options assessment of options stakeholder consultation refined assessment framework and feasibility criteria conclusions and recommendations.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 4
  21. 21. PACs MACsMelbourne CBD Melbourne  Monash Uni  Werribee Ag Train Station Bike Paths.dwg P Layer Box Hill to Ri Dandenong Glenroy to J Laverton to Flinders St Station Northbank (b Pascoe Vale PBN Support Rou Off Road, Ex Off Road, Pr On Road, Ex On Road, Pr Wide Kerbsi Other PBN Priority Road Network 0 1; 2; 3 4; 5; 6 7; 9; 11; 12
  22. 22. PACs MACs Melbourne  Monash Uni  Werribee Ag Train Station Bike Paths.dwg P Layer Box Hill to Ri Dandenong Glenroy to J Laverton to Northbank (b Pascoe Vale PBN Support Rou Off Road, Ex Off Road, Pr On Road, Ex On Road, Pr Wide Kerbsi Other PBN Priority Road Network 0Oak Park Station 1; 2; 3 4; 5; 6 7; 9; 11; 12 Pascoe Vale Station
  23. 23. AC PACs MACs Carnegie Station Melbourne Carnegie MAC  Monash Uni Glenhuntly MAC Murrumbeena Station  Werribee Ag Train Station Hughesdale Station Bike Paths.dwg P Layer Oakleigh StationOakleigh MAC Box Hill to Ri Dandenong Glenroy to J Laverton to Northbank (b Pascoe Vale Huntingdale Station PBN Support Rou Off Road, Ex Monash University Clayton Campus Off Road, Pr  On Road, Ex On Road, Pr Wide Kerbsi Other Clayton Station PBN Priority Clayton MAC Road Network 0 1; 2; 3 4; 5; 6 7; 9; 11; 12 Westall Station Springvale Station Springvale MAC Sandown Park Station Noble Park Station Yarraman Station
  24. 24. PACs MACs Melbourne  Monash Uni  Werribee Ag Train Station Bike Paths.dwg P Layer Box Hill to Ri Dandenong Glenroy to J Laverton to Laverton Station Northbank (b Pascoe Vale PBN Support Rou Off Road, Ex Off Road, Pr On Road, Ex On Road, Pr Wide Kerbsi Other PBN Priority Road Network 0 1; 2; 3 Hoppers Crossing MAC Hoppers Crossing Station 4; 5; 6 7; 9; 11; 12 Werribee Agriculture, Food & Technology Precinct Werribee Station Werribee PAC
  25. 25. PACs MACs Melbourne  Monash Uni  Werribee Ag Train Station Bike Paths.dwg P Layer Box Hill to Ri Dandenong Glenroy to J Laverton to Northbank (b Pascoe Vale PBN Support Rou Off Road, Ex Off Road, Pr On Road, Ex On Road, Pr Wide Kerbsi Other Ringwood CAD PBN Priority Road Network Ringwood Station 0 1; 2; 3 Mitcham Station 4; 5; 6 Heatherdale Station 7; 9; 11; 12 Nunawading StationNunawading MACLabernum Station
  26. 26. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report2. Stakeholder consultation2.1 One-on-one meetings Stakeholder input is an essential element of the strategic bicycle network planning process. One-on-one meetings were initially organised with each agency identified within the three groups to allow for honest and open discussion and ensure that the views of each stakeholder are being heard. One round of one-on-one meetings were held with key stakeholders as part of the study which inf ormed the policy review and baseline analysis by focussing on the following: previous studies that might be of importance to this assignment future developments that might impact on the use of the corridors their receptiv eness to the concept of bicycle paths within rail corridors issues and/or considerations that should be taken into account and that could be included in the assessment f ramework to be dev eloped information on specific design criteria that need to be taken into consideration. A list of the stakeholder consultation is prov ided below. Table 2.1 Key stakeholder consultation Date One-one-one meetings DOT Property Development, DOT Public Transport Division 16 -19 April 2010 VicTrack Bicycle Victoria Local councils, including: Wyndham City Council, Glen Eira City Council, City of Greater Dandenong Council, Melbourne City Council, Moreland City 22 April 2010 Council. The City of Whitehorse was consulted via a phone discussion. 27 April 2010 VicRoads 30 April 2010 DPCD 11 and 22 June 2010 DOT, Economics and Transport Modelling 20 and 30 July 2010 VicTrackPARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 10
  27. 27. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report2.2 Stakeholder workshop Internal stakeholders attended a workshop to discuss the progress and findings of the study. The information gleaned from these meetings has been used as input into the dev elopment of the assessment framework, the baseline requirements, design assumptions and assessment to identify opportunities and constraints. A summary of the results from the stakeholder consultation is included in Appendix A. Table 2.2 Key stakeholder consultation Date Internal stakeholder workshop 20 July 2010 DOT Property Development, DOT Public Transport Division, MTM2.3 Consultation outcomes For this review PB aimed to address most issues raised by the stakeholders, thereby ensuring that a workable framework was dev eloped that is acceptable to all parties inv olved. As specified previously, the first round of consultation informed the policy review and baseline analysis and development of the initial assessment framework. Improv ements to the initial assessment framework identified through the second round internal stakeholder workshop are summarised in Appendix A and reflected in the revised assessment framework described in 9.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 11
  28. 28. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report3. Requirements for shared path development3.1 Indicative cross section design The Draft Background Report reviewed and presented the key relev ant design guidelines appropriate to the rail reserve, as summarised in Table 3.1. Table 3.1 Summary of key relevant guidelines Criteria Guidelines Requirement VicTrack 8m 3m –access not required for road vehicles & Minimum distance from centre line of concrete sleepered track nearest rail / tram track VRIOGS 4m –access not required for road vehicles other track 6m –access is required for road vehicles Distance from the top of any cutting or toe of any embankment VicTrack 5m supporting the track Distance from railway trunking and VicTrack 1.5m signalling cabling Clearance from aerial services (i.e. VicTrack 5m powerl ines) equipment and platforms VicRoads 3.0m - PBN off road paths Shared path desirable minimum Commuter path 3.0m widths AUSTROADS Local access path 2.5m Minimum clearance for fence AUSTROADS 0.3m Minimum vertical clearance AUSTROADS 2.5m Route should be as close as practicable to VicTrack the boundary to minimise impact on VicTrack property General requirements Pathway is not to terminate at or pass VicTrack through commuter car park Pathway fence to be provided on the track VicTrack sidePARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 12
  29. 29. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report With exception of the Northbank corridor, pedestrian and bicycle paths do not currently exist in the identified study corridors. As such, it was assumed that shared paths would be dev eloped in the first instance. Greater levels of separation in the facilities would be considered where user demands are already/predicted to be significantly high and conflicts may exist. It is recommended that where width constraints are not present the shared path be built to an absolute minimum width of 3m. This will allow for safe passage in both direction, and a central overtaking space for cycle riders. Although the routes are proposed to be shared it is recommended that a central dividing line is applied to the path. This encourages users to keep to the lef t and reduces the chance of conflict. Figure 3.1 illustrates the indicative shared path cross section developed for this study, based upon key relevant guidelines, namely VRIOGS, VicTrack and Austroads presented in Table 3.1. 4 Figure 3.1 Indicative shared path cross section minimum distances4 Figure adapted from the Perth Bicycle Network Plan (1996)PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 13
  30. 30. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report4. Establishing the baseline4.1 Development of a GIS A Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to collate data from a range of sources, as summarised in Table 4.1. Table 4.1 GIS inputs Data source Data incorporated Origin of data Priority routes; support routes (off road / on Principal Bike Network VicRoads road / existing / proposed) Railtrack; reserve; stanchions; comms cable; comms conduit; embankment; buildings; easements; franchisee lease; land parcels; active leases; utilities; water VicTrack data authorities; and `topographical features VicMap Road network 1m contours Rail and tram tracks. Bus routes have not Public transport network DOT been incorporated in this study. Melbourne Integrated Transport zone boundaries DOT Model (MITM) Australian Standard Collection Districts (CD); Statistical Local Geographical Classification Areas (SLA); and Local Government Areas ABS (ASGC) areas (LGA) Aerial imagery VicTrack Activity centres including Melbourne CBD; Central Activity Centres (CADs); Principal Activity Centres (PACs); Major Activity Centres (MACs); university campuses; and Google Earth additional employment precincts Google Earth Local destinations including train stations; schools; colleges; hospitals; medical centres; and libraries Refer to the Draft Background Report for a description of the current conditions and characteristics in the five identified rail corridors.4.2 Spatial analysis The key relevant guidelines and indicative cross section design minimum widths identification guidelines were applied to spatial analysis undertaken to identify potential sections of adequate clearance and sections/isolated bottlenecks where there is insufficient clearance in the rail reserv e (or other adjacent public owned land) from the centre line of the closest track.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 14
  31. 31. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report A two tiered analysis was adopted which aimed to reflect an ideal minimum, based upon exceeding VicTrack standards, and secondly, an absolute minimum horizontal clearance, based upon VRIOGS safe clearances for rail operation, f or both sides of the rail track; ideal minimum 11.6m horizontal clearance (encompasses VicTrack’s requirement of 8m clearance f rom centre line of track to allow for future rail developments, 3m shared path, 0.6m clearance from fencing). This represents strong potential development opportunity absolute minimum of 6.1m (VRIOGS absolute minimum safe horizontal clearance of 3m from the centre line of the track, minimum shared path width 2.5m, 0.6m clearance from fencing). This represents limited development opportunities with a stronger case for unsuccessful outcomes. Significant more analysis and justif ication is required for any consideration of proposals insufficient clearance av ailable less than 6.1m represents no safe dev elopment opportunities. Analysis was undertaken in GIS by buffering the outer rail tracks to the above distances. To aid rapid analysis v ia simple illustration, the area between the outer edge of the rail reserve and 11.6m (ideal minimum) is coloured green, 6.1m to 11.6m coloured amber and less than 6.1m is coloured red, as shown below in Figure 4.1. Figure 4.1 Example Rail Reserve Horizontal Clearance Plan Where ever possible the ideal minimum of 11.6m horizontal clearance was aimed for as this adheres to guidance and standards, and provides a significantly greater opportunity f or shared path implementation. Should available horizontal clearance be less than 11.6m, those developing the shared path must be aware that the scheme is far less likely to achieve approval and will require very strong reasoning and justification for any consideration.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 15
  32. 32. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report Adequate horizontal clearances were also calculated from buildings and active leases within the rail reserve. Analysis was undertaken in GIS by buffering these criteria to 3.6m to represent the minimum adequate clearance between a building and the edge of a shared path. The analysis was summarised by preparing a coloured line for each side of the rail reserve consistent with pervious green, amber red colouring, illustrated in Figure 4.2. Figure 4.2 Example Rail Reserve Clearances4.3 Major constraint identification The assumptions described abov e did not allow consideration f or specific instances where there may be insufficient sufficient horizontal or vertical clearance or the need for significant engineering solutions to overcome changes in grade etc. The spatial analysis was presented on a plan along with other identified major constraints, summarised in Table 4.2. Where major constraints were identified, supporting discussion and consideration of solutions is required.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 16
  33. 33. Rail Corridors and the Principal Bicycle Network Final Report Table 4.2 Preliminary identification of major constraints Constraint Description Possible solution Find alternative land away from VicTrack guidelines state that path must be 5m issue. from the top of any cutting or toe of any embankment supporting the track. High cost engineering solution to Embankments / level out grade changes / take Significant changes in grade may be unattractive grade changes the load off the edge of the or unsafe for cycle/walking access. embankment. May also require the construction of a structure Take alternative route out of rail to level out grade changes. reserve. VicTrack guidelines have minimum clearances Rail to railway trunking and signalling cabling (1.5m) Find alternative land / route infrastructure and clearance from aerial services (i.e. away from issue. powerl ines) equipment and platforms (5m) Leases may be negotiable longer term when Find alternative land / route current leases come to the end of their term. away from issue. VicTrack leases However, there are generally limited options Consult with VicTrack to (particularly when planning for a shared path in the short to establish when the current lease active) medium term. Leased areas are likely to have ends and whether there would fencing or buildings on the land boundary which be scope to amend the needs adequate clearance from the shared path. arrangements. Most buildings are in use and need to be Consult with VicTrack Identify avoided at all costs. current use. Buildings Require adequate clearance from the shared Find alternative land / route path and safe access into the building. away from issue. Consult with DOT and VicTrack to establish current and future rail operations and bridge Safe clearances are required from current and structure details/requirements. Bridges / future rail operations and in line with standards. Potentially very high cost underpasses May require works to the structure. engineering solution to change bridge structures. Take alternative route avoiding the structures. Find alternative land /route away Drainage from issue. May require the construction of a structure. channels Engineering solution to provide access. Increased safety risk, and journey delays, at May require the construction of intersections with the off road shared path and a bridge/underpass or road Road crossings roads. crossing / improvements (range of low-high cost engineering solutions). Site visits where possible have been undertaken to inform of these constraints and local issues. Refer to the Background Report for detailed plans detailing the baseline.PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF 2112902A-RPT-003-B-CN Page 17

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