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Prime Targets in Network Infrastructure


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Over the past fifteen years, Peter Wood and his team have conducted numerous penetration tests for some of the largest organisations in the world. Learn about the most common problems and mistakes that they have found. Discover what to examine and test as though you were "the bad guy", not an architect or network specialist. This presentation will show you how criminal hackers think and offer you ideas for defending against them effectively.

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Prime Targets in Network Infrastructure

  1. 1. Prime Targets inNetwork Infrastructure An Ethical Hacker’s View Peter Wood Chief Executive Officer First•Base Technologies
  2. 2. Who is Peter Wood? Worked in computers & electronics since 1969 Founded First Base in 1989 (one of the first ethical hacking firms) CEO First Base Technologies LLP Social engineer & penetration tester Conference speaker and security „expert‟ Member of ISACA Security Advisory Group Vice Chair of BCS Information Risk Management and Audit Group UK Chair, Corporate Executive Programme FBCS, CITP, CISSP, MIEEE, M.Inst.ISP Registered BCS Security Consultant Member of ACM, ISACA, ISSA, MensaSlide 2 © First Base Technologies 2013
  3. 3. Hacker thinking • How does this work? • What research is there out there? • What‟s happening under the covers? • What happens if I do this? • What happens if I ignore the instructions? • What if I‟m a “legitimate” user? • Where are the weak points? • Is there another way in?Slide 3 © First Base Technologies 2013
  4. 4. Let’s start at the bottom …Slide 4 © First Base Technologies 2013
  5. 5. SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol • A protocol developed to manage nodes (servers, workstations, routers, switches and hubs etc.) on an IP network • Enables network administrators to manage network performance, find and solve network problems, and plan for network growth • SNMP v1 is the de facto network management protocol • SNMP v1 authentication is performed by a „community string‟, in effect a type of shared password, which is transmitted in clear textSlide 5 © First Base Technologies 2013
  6. 6. SNMP Architecture • Managers: responsible for communicating with network devices that implement SNMP Agents • Agents: reside in devices such as servers, workstations, switches, routers, printers, etc. • Management Information Base (MIB): describe data objects to be managed by an Agent within a device • MIBs are text files, and the values in MIB data objects are communicated between Managers and AgentsSlide 6 © First Base Technologies 2013
  7. 7. SNMP can talk to many devicesSlide 7 © First Base Technologies 2013
  8. 8. It‟s simple to scan for SNMPSlide 8 © First Base Technologies 2013
  9. 9. Browsing an MIBSlide 9 © First Base Technologies 2013
  10. 10. MIB data for a network switchSlide 10 © First Base Technologies 2013
  11. 11. SNMP for hackers • If you know the read string (default public) you can read the entire MIB for that device • If you know the read-write string (default private) you may be able to change settings on that device • You may be able to „sniff‟ community strings off the network if they‟ve been changed from the defaults • You may be able to control a router or switch: - Intercept traffic and read sensitive information - Crash the network repeatedly - Lock the device out, requiring physical access to reset it • You may be able to list users, groups, shares etc. on servers • You may be able to subvert wireless network securitySlide 11 © First Base Technologies 2013
  12. 12. Don’t let SNMP stand for Security’s Not My Problem (thanks Nilesh Mapara!)Slide 12 © First Base Technologies 2013
  13. 13. What else is on the network …Slide 13 © First Base Technologies 2013
  14. 14. Default admin access All networks contain some devices which retain manufacturer default credentials …Slide 14 © First Base Technologies 2013
  15. 15. Brocade Fibre Switch: default credentialsSlide 15 © First Base Technologies 2013
  16. 16. Press „Enter‟ then …Slide 16 © First Base Technologies 2013
  17. 17. IP CCTV: no passwordSlide 17 © First Base Technologies 2013
  18. 18. Avaya switch manager: no passwordSlide 18 © First Base Technologies 2013
  19. 19. HP tape library: default credentialsSlide 19 © First Base Technologies 2013
  20. 20. Network device compromise • SNMP on by default (often not required) • SNMP default community strings in use • Default admin logon credentials • No admin credentials at all • Cleat text admin (telnet, http) • Documented standards, regular network discovery and lots of training is the defence!Slide 20 © First Base Technologies 2013
  21. 21. Windows HackingSlide 21 © First Base Technologies 2013
  22. 22. Windows is complicated • Widows permissions are confusing • Default groups can be a problem (e.g. „everyone‟) • There isn‟t enough granularity: - Domain Admins / Enterprise Admins - Account Operators / Server Operators (seldom used) - The rest! • Confusion between domain accounts and local accounts • Windows password weaknesses are not understood • Usually way too many „Domain Admins‟Slide 22 © First Base Technologies 2013
  23. 23. Check for unprotected shares Everyone has “full control” An unprotected share Some very interesting directories!Slide 23 © First Base Technologies 2013
  24. 24. Searching for sensitive data • Use a tool like Advanced Find and Replace • Search for documents containing “password” (files modified in last 6 months) • Use your imagination in search strings • Use your brain to select appropriate targets • Capture files even if they‟re password-protected (they can be cracked)Slide 24 © First Base Technologies 2013
  25. 25. Don‟t ignore open shares! Things we found on unprotected shares: • Salary spreadsheets • HR letters • Usernames and passwords (for everything!) • IT diagrams and configurations • Firewall details • Security rotasSlide 25 © First Base Technologies 2013
  26. 26. Files visible to anyone …Slide 26 © First Base Technologies 2013
  27. 27. Windows architecture (1) Domain logon Local users Domain users and groups Workstation Domain and groups Controller Global group in local group Lo Local users Workstation ca Domain Domain users and groups l lo and groups go Controller n Local users Local users and groups Workstation Member and groups Server Local users Member and groups ServerSlide 27 © First Base Technologies 2013
  28. 28. Windows architecture (2) Log on as member of Domain Admins Local users Domain users and groups Workstation Domain and groups Controller Member of Administrators Local users Domain users and groups Workstation Domain and groups Controller Member of Administrators Member of Administrators rs inis trato Local users er o f Ad m Local users Workstation b Member Me m and groups and groups Server Local users Member and groups ServerSlide 28 © First Base Technologies 2013
  29. 29. Windows architecture (3) Local users Domain users and groups Workstation Domain and groups Controller Lo g of on a Local users Ad s m Domain users Workstation mi Domain and groups n i s e mb and groups tra e Controller tor r s Local users Local users and groups Workstation Member and groups Server Local users Member and groups ServerSlide 29 © First Base Technologies 2013
  30. 30. Look for service accountsSlide 30 © First Base Technologies 2013
  31. 31. Case study: stupid passwords admin5 crystal finance Global firm: friday macadmin • 67 Administrator accounts monkey orange • 43 simple passwords (64%) password password1 prague • 15 were “password” (22%) pudding rocky4 • Some examples we found -> security security1 sparkle webadmin yellowSlide 31 © First Base Technologies 2013
  32. 32. Case study: password crack • 26,310 passwords from a Windows domain • 11,279 (42.9%) cracked in 2½ minutes • It‟s not a challenge!Slide 32 © First Base Technologies 2013
  33. 33. Finally, unpatched systems can mean drag and drop Administrator!Slide 33 © First Base Technologies 2013
  34. 34. Windows Hacking • Badly configured permissions • Too much access for too many accounts • Too many privileged accounts • Obviously named service accounts • Easy-to-guess passwords • No idea how to make a strong password (don‟t know about LM hashes!) • Unpatched systems, because inside is safe! • Clear standards, regular penetration tests and lots of training is the defenceSlide 34 © First Base Technologies 2013
  35. 35. Physical Windows accessSlide 35 © First Base Technologies 2013
  36. 36. If we can boot from CD or USB …Slide 36 © First Base Technologies 2013
  37. 37. Boot Ophcrack LiveSlide 37 © First Base Technologies 2013
  38. 38. We have some passwords!Slide 38 © First Base Technologies 2013
  39. 39. Or just read the disk …Slide 39 © First Base Technologies 2013
  40. 40. … copy hashes to USB key …Slide 40 © First Base Technologies 2013
  41. 41. … and crack with rainbow tables!Slide 41 © First Base Technologies 2013
  42. 42. Or simply change the password!Slide 42 © First Base Technologies 2013
  43. 43. Desktop & Laptop Security • Native Windows security is ineffective if the attacker has physical access • Everything on local drives is visible • Everything on local drives can be subverted • For laptops, encryption is the best defence, coupled with lots of training • For desktops, visitor control and staff vigilance – again, lots of trainingSlide 43 © First Base Technologies 2013
  44. 44. Summary and Conclusions • Scan for SNMP and turn it off where you can • Look for neglected network devices and set passwords • Stop using clear text protocols • Find unprotected shares and files and protect them • Check for legacy Windows accounts and secure them • Patch internal systems up to date and harden them • Segment sensitive systems and firewall them • Protect physically accessible computers (esp. laptops) • Create pragmatic policies and train everyone!Slide 44 © First Base Technologies 2013
  45. 45. Need more information? Peter Wood Chief Executive Officer First Base Technologies LLP Twitter: peterwoodxSlide 45 © First Base Technologies 2013