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  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION JCA-NID TELECOMMUNICATION Document 2006-I-005 STANDARDIZATION SECTOR English only STUDY PERIOD 2005-2008 Joint Coordination Activity on Network Aspects Geneva, 19-21 September 2006 of Identification Systems (including RFID) Source: TSB Title: TD 314/Gen/TSAG: Report for Business Models and Service Scenarios for network aspects of identification (including RFID) Agenda item: 6 Purpose: Discussion This document contains a copy of TD 314/Gen/TSAG (Geneva, 3-7 July 2006) with the report for Business Models and Service Scenarios for network aspects of identification (including RFID). Contact: TSB Tel: +41 22 730 6805 Fax: +41 22 730 5853 Email tsbjcanid@itu.int Attention: This is not a publication made available to the public, but an internal ITU-T Document intended only for use by the Member States of ITU, by ITU-T Sector Members and Associates, and their respective staff and collaborators in their ITU related work. It shall not be made available to, and used by, any other persons or entities without the prior written consent of ITU-T.
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION TSAG TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR TD 314 STUDY PERIOD 2005-2008 English only Original: English Question(s): Geneva, 3-7 July 2006 TEMPORARY DOCUMENT Source: Editorial Group of Working Party 4 Title: Report for Business Models and Service Scenarios for network aspects of identification (including RFID) [NOTE for this revision] This document was made by the Editorial Group of Working Party 4 in order to reflect on the comments during the meeting. This revised version of TD 259 from the correspondence group was made to replace the term "RFID" with "ID" or “ID” tags. There may be a number of transmission media of identification information, such as RF, camera, optical scanner, IrDA, manual key-ins, voice, email, fax, etc. "RF" is just one of examples and out of scope of ITU-T. So, "ID" must be better than "RFID" and this revised report adopted this viewpoint. But the annex part of this report contains still a number of the word of "RFID" because RFID is an incarnation of ID as well as an implementation case of networked ID applications. That is, every word of "RFID" in this revised report implies an implementation case of networked ID applications. They should keep remained to explain existing standalone/networked RFID application cases. _______________ Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Service Scenarios and its functional elements 3. Business Model Alternatives 4. Conclusion Appendix Contact: Yoshito SAKURAI Tel: +81-3-5471-3372 Hitachi, Ltd. Fax: +81-3-5471-3441 Japan Email: yoshito.sakurai.hn@hitachi.com HyoungJun, KIM Contact: Tel: +82-42-860-6576 ETRI Fax: +82-42-861-5404 Korea (Rep. of) Email: khj@etri.re.kr Attention: This is not a publication made available to the public, but an internal ITU-T Document intended only for use by the Member States of ITU, by ITU-T Sector Members and Associates, and their respective staff and collaborators in their ITU related work. It shall not be made available to, and used by, any other persons or entities without the prior written consent of ITU-T.
  3. 3. -3- TD 314 Examples of Applications and Service Scenarios 1. Business applications 2. Government applications 3. Consumer applications 1. Introduction This report is one of the deliverables of the Correspondence Group (CG) of “Network aspects of identification (including RFID)” in TSAG. The report aims to analyze business models and service scenarios through researching applications of various identifications including RFID. This analysis must be useful to clarify standardization points for the network aspects of identification (including RFID). This report is based on three documents; (1) Networked-based RFID Applications and their Standardization Topics from ITU-T’s perspective (TSAG D.28 by Korea, Nov., 2005), (2) Philosophy of Networked RFID Technologies and Applications (TSAG D.39 by Japan, Nov., 2005), (3) Ubiquitous Network Societies: The Case of Radio Frequency Identification --- Background Paper (UNS/04 by SPU of ITU, Apr., 2005). Examples of various applications and service scenarios are collected from above documents and other information cooperated by CG members. These are attached as an Appendix in this document. In Chapter 2, we tried to extract several common service scenarios and its essential elements from these examples. It will be helpful for considering service requirements because there have been already a lot of applications using identification including RFID. Seeking common scenarios and essential elements is important as the first step. In Chapter 3, we tried to categorize business models. You can find that the business models using identification including RFID are basically very simple, although there are various options. 2. Service Scenarios and its functional elements We can pick up some typical service scenarios through various applications shown in the appendix of this document because we can say that some different applications have very similar service scenarios in spite that applied field is different. For this purpose, let us arrange those applications.
  4. 4. -4- TD 314 Table 1. Applications sorted by Fields Field Application Category Function Purpose Effect Types Local/Net- Mo- worked bility Transport Toll control B2C Charging Collect Save cost, Charge Local Yes fares time in / card / Credit Networked card Logistics Baggage tag B2B Tracking Tracking Save cost, Write Local Yes time info / B2C / ID only Networked Security Entrance B2B, Authenti- Security Security Write Local Yes check B2C, info. / cation, Monitoring Save cost, / G2B, time ID only G2C Access Networked Control Supply Supermarkets B2B, Tracking Inventory Total Write Local Yes chain B2C visibility info. / manage- / ID only ment Networked Medical Patient B2B, Refer to Point of Reduce Write Local Yes records, B2C care, human info. / information, / Blood supply, Inventory error, ID only Drug ID Tracking Avoid Networked manage- counterfeit ment Manufacture Assembly line B2B Tracking, Accuracy, Speed up Write Local Yes Monitoring Overall info. / / efficiency ID only Networked Agriculture Meat/Plant B2B, Tracking, Reliability, Water/Dirt Write Local Yes tracking B2C Monitoring Inventory, y protected info. / / Traceability etc. ID only Networked E-govern- Driver’s G2C Authentication Thwart Avoid ID & Local Yes fraud counterfeit bio- ment license metorix Bank note Defence e-Passport G2C Authentication Thwart Avoid ID & Local Yes fraud counterfeit bio. Library Loan & return G2C Tracking Inventory Save cost ID Local / Yes mng. Networked
  5. 5. -5- TD 314 Field Application Category Function Purpose Effect Types Local/Net- Mo- worked bility Personal Children B2C Tracking Tracking Safety ID Local / Yes tracking Safety Networked Shopping e-wallet B2C Charging Accounting Service- Charge Local Yes ability in / card / Networked Credit card Sports Ski lifts B2C Authentication Check & Save cost ID Local / Yes Tracking Safety Networked Leisure Sight B2C Refer to To provide Service- Write Local No info. / seeing info. G2C information Information ability / ID only Networked Welfare Location- G2C Refer to To provide Service- Write Local No info. / Aware info. B2C information Information ability / ID only Safety Networked Table 1 shows that some applications require same functions such as tracking, authentication, etc. Then let us sort those applications by functions. Table 2 Applications sorted by functions Function Applications Mobilit Remarks y Charging Toll control, Yes Charging into the ID device (Local) or e-Wallet Communications to credit card (Networked) Access control Entrance check, Ski lifts Yes Without charge or pre-paid charge Tracking Baggage tag, Yes Tracking function includes Inventory management and things traceability (Monitoring) Food trace, Assembly line Authentication Passport, License Yes Some applications require keeping biometrics data locally in the ID device Refer to Medical, Yes Keep info. in the ID device (Local) or information / Communications to data-base (NW) Location-aware No Info. service Location-aware services require location
  6. 6. -6- TD 314 fixed ID devices As shown in Table 2, five functions are essential for applications using ID. You can make a scenario with combinations of these functions. A typical example is “Food traceability”. Consumers will require both tracking data and information of the food such as a producer, produced location, quality, etc. In the case of “Toll control”, charging is an essential function, however tracking or monitoring will be also important to control traffics. There are some remarkable points. In some cases, the ID device should be equipped charging function or keeping information in itself. In this case, the system of the application can be closed into local site. In the security point of view, such a closed system may have an advantage, though it has difficulty on the system enhancement or service modification, etc. In the other cases, the ID device has only ID. In the latter case, accesses to databases through networks are necessary to complete the function. In this case, the system of the application has an advantage of system enhancement or service modification, etc. Moreover, in this case, you can use read-only device because the only ID is necessary in the tag. All the information to implement the service exists in the database that can easily enhance or modify. In the security point of view, the read-only device is robust to virus or malicious operation, etc. In the case of referring information, two cases are considerable on the mobility of the ID device. The ID device normally has mobility and the reader/writer locates a certain fixed place, however the ID device has to fix on a certain place in the case of location-aware services. Service scenarios will be considered by referring these features. That is; - Essential functions are “charging”, “accesses control”, “tracking”, “authentication”, and “referring to information”. - Two types of the ID devices are considerable; the ID device with multi function, and the ID device with only ID. The latter will fit to the concept of “Networked ID”. - Two types of the ID device mobility should be considered; the ID device with mobility and the ID device fixed on a certain place.
  7. 7. -7- TD 314 3. Business model alternatives Through the applications and service scenarios, we can categorize business models into three. (1) To create new business or new markets For example, location-aware services are promising new services. In the case of providing information to sight seeing tourist, you can expect not only increasing tourists but also increasing advertising revenue. (2) To increase effectiveness or capacity For example, assembly line will get more efficiency using IDs because inventory management of parts will be accurate and easy, tracking products will be very easy, etc. A lot of existing business will get effectiveness or more capacity. (3) To get more secure or safety environment “Food traceability” will be a typical application. Consumers can get more information about the products and track channels of distribution. A business model using identification including RFID will be a realization of one of above categories or their combinations. 4. Conclusion As the results of consideration through various applications and services, our conclusion is fortunately very simple. - There are three categories in business models. - There are five essential functions to implement services. - There are two types of the ID devices and two types of device mobility. The standardization activity of the identification including RFID should always consider these basic points. --------------------------------------------------------
  8. 8. -8- TD 314 Appendix Applications and Service Scenarios 1. Business applications This section describes some of the key business applications that use RFID, such as transport, logistics, access control, supply-chain management, manufacturing, agriculture and health care. 1.1 Transport and logistics One of the most promising areas for the application of RFID is public transport. RFID was first deployed for collecting fares on toll highways. Public transport companies are continuing to suffer losses due to the time-consuming and expensive sale of travel passes and tickets through automatic dispensers or in vehicles. Electronic fare management systems using RFID have been fairly successful in reducing overhead for transport companies and in facilitating travel for commuters. Typically, such systems use contact- less smart cards, which last for about 10 years and are not easily damaged by liquid, dust or temperature fluctuations. In Europe, the Parisian mass transit authority, RATP, one of the most advanced networks in the world, uses RFID-based automated fare collection technology. The mass transit system in Seattle (United States) uses an Philips RFID contact-less smart card for fare collection. In 2004, Transport for London (TfL) announced plans to spend up USD 65.3 million on new digital enforcement technologies for the Congestion Charging Scheme (CCS) for vehicles, which will most likely include radio frequency identification (RFID) tags for the identification of number plates. But the Asia- Pacific region remains a leader in this field. The Korea “bus card” based on RFID has been around since 1997. Thailand’s Bangkok subway uses RFID contact-less round token system for individual trips as well as a contact-less card system (i.e. one which does not require the contact with a reading machine) for regular travelers. In Tokyo, even taxi drivers have begun using RFID to facilitate their operations. A trial of the payment system was launched in October 2004, and consists of a mobile phone with an embedded chip that stores an allocated amount of funds already charged to the phone owner’s credit card from JCB International. In addition to the transport of people, RFID is being used increasingly in the transport and delivery of parcels and postal items. RFID enables improved item tracking during the sorting of mail and delivery processes. More importantly, the technology does not require line of sight to assess an item and to track its location, or to transfer information. This will allow a great number of individual letters or parcels to be routed without physical manipulation. Airlines are actively exploring the possibility of integrating RFID in baggage tags, in order to enhance the efficiency of systems employed to track customer baggage. One of the busiest airports in the world, Hong Kong International Airport (where passengers number some 35 million annually) announced in May 2004 that it would deploy RFID reader infrastructure across its extensive baggage handling facilities. At various nodes within the airport, including baggage carousels, unit load devices (ULDs) and conveyors, reader systems will have the capabilities to read and write to RFID tags that will be applied to passenger luggage. RFID-enabled handheld readers will also be used for handling luggage “on the move”. Another example in Korea Until now, baggage and passengers were given identical barcodes to ensure they do not
  9. 9. -9- TD 314 lose each other. Nonetheless, there are thousands of cases everyday with baggage being lost or sent to the other side of the earth. By utilizing RFID, readers would automatically recognize baggage and passengers to provide information on whereabouts and prevent passengers who mistakenly or deliberately take baggage that do not belong to them. In addition, security can be tightened to a higher level. Baggage without a matching passenger could be easily tracked and checked out to avoid any kind of accidents or terrorist threats. Personal belongings of passengers regarded as questionable could be thoroughly monitored. Port logistics improvement applies RFID tags on shipping containers in order to observe and track their transfers and movements which will in turn strengthen competitive power and automate port logistics. This improvement would be a part of ‘u-Port Plan’ which includes all ports in Korea. 1.2 Security and access control RFID technology is increasingly being deployed to control access to restricted areas, and to enhance security in areas such as laboratories, schools, and airports. Many employee identification cards already use RFID technology to allow staff to enter and exit office buildings. The security program of the Canadian Air Transport Authority (CATSA), for instance, uses smart cards equipped with RFID first deployed in March 2004. These contact-less cards and readers offer physical access control enhanced by biometric authentication to restricted areas. Educational institutions are also exploring the advantages of RFID for monitoring student populations. In China, in November 2003, RFID deployment began in an attempt to prevent fraud. China’s Ministry of Railways and Ministry of Education were facing problems in authenticating genuine student cards, in particular for the purpose of checking eligibility for travel discounts. 10 million smart labels and microchips were delivered to China’s Ministry of Education in 2003. Each chip can hold up to 2 kilobytes of data, and can be read at a distance of 1.5 meters. The chip presently stores the student’s identification data and in the future will include all diplomas and degree information. Libraries are also using the chip to facilitate check out and to control the lending of books. Information on the tag is kept secure through the use of cryptography and includes tamper safeguards. The Rikkyo Primary School in Tokyo (Japan) has taken RFID a step further. In September 2004, the school carried out a trial of active RFID tags in order to monitor the comings and goings of its students in real-time. The system records the exact time a student enters or leaves the campus, and restricts entry to school grounds. Since the tags can be read by scanners from a distance of up to 10 meters, they don’t require students to stop at designated checkpoints. The Asia-Pacific region is a leader in this field, but now schools in North America have begun following suit. One example is the Enterprise Charter School in Buffalo (New York), which deployed an RFID smart label system from Texas Instruments in 2003. This system, in addition to exercising control over access to the school campus, is also being used to identify and secure assets such as library books and laptop computers. The ID cards enable students and staff to make selected purchases at the cafeteria. 1.3 Supply-chain management RFID represents one of the most significant advances in supply-chain management since the first bar code was scanned in 1974. Coupled with wireless systems and intelligent software, RFID has the potential to further revolutionize the supply chain. Already, supermarkets are tagging pallets, cases, and other returnable transit containers such as plastic crates used for fresh foods. Tagging these items permits transparent and total visibility of assets and inventory. The ability to write to the RFID tag also allows the entry
  10. 10. - 10 - TD 314 and management of information such as contents, expiry date, manufacturer and country of origin. In this manner, RFID enhances the accuracy of shipments and deliveries. In addition, it can address what is known as “product shrinkage” or product theft. The majority of this loss occurs between the manufacturer’s front door and the retailer’s back office. Electronic product codes transmitted through RFID can determine product arrival and departure at all points of the supply chain, thereby pinpointing the location where a given product was last reported seen. RFID can be used in the tourism and hospitality industries, for instance, to manage uniforms for their staff. RFID is seen by many businesses as a key method to streamline business processes and cut costs. Procter and Gamble, one of the earliest adopters of this technology, expects to increase after-tax profits by USD 150 million and to realize a working capital increase of USD 1 billion through the adoption of RFID. 1.4 Medical and pharmaceutical Applications An important application of RFID is in the medical and pharmaceutical fields. In hospitals, RFID enables a fully automated solution for information delivery at the patient bedside, thus reducing the potential for human error and increasing efficiency. When used in combination with secure wireless networks, such as Wireless LANs, tags embedded in medication or on patient bracelets can provide fast electronic access to patient records and other information. Key examples of RFID use in health care include: • Point-of-care data delivery: Staff badges, medication packaging and patients’ identity bracelets contain RFID technology. This facilitates identification of a patient by caregivers, who are thus able to submit orders in real-time at the very point of care, instead of being handwritten and sent off for future input. This system saves time, and reduces the chances of human error. Any changes in medication can be updated immediately, and any contra- indications automatically crosschecked. In addition, diagnostic codes can be verified upon admission, thereby ensuring timely and accurate patient billing. • Patient location: Tracking the location of patients is particularly important in cases of long-term care, mentally challenged patients, and newborns. But its benefits are even more widespread. The ability to determine the location of a patient within a hospital can facilitate and expedite the delivery of health care. For instance, when a patient arrives in a lab for a radiology exam, medical staff is instantly alerted via the RFID tag, and the transfer of records can be effected immediately. The development of RFID technology for tracking patients received a boost in October 2004, when the United States’ Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved subcutaneous RFID implants for patients. • Asset tracking and locating: Tracking medical staff as well as medical equipment can ensure an efficient response to medical problems and emergencies. This also optimizes inventory management, saving unnecessary purchasing costs. For instance, a number of pilot studies are under way to determine how RFID can improve the accuracy of the delivery of blood supplies of the appropriate blood group to patients, compared to the current bar-code method. RFID offers the distinct advantage of enabling the accurate matching of blood samples/transfusions to the correct patient, through non line-of-sight data transmission, which can be effected through and around the human body, clothing, bed coverings and non-metallic materials. In sum, the advantages of RFID deployment in-patient care lie in enhancing patient safety and optimizing hospital workflow. Its use is equally pivotal in the pharmaceutical industry, where electronic product tags on medication can curtail counterfeiting, streamline revenue distribution, reduce prescription errors, and decrease returns. RFID can also assist in the manufacture of medical prosthetics, such as dentures or crowns. Finally, tracking medical waste materials as they are moved for disposal may also prove to be an important
  11. 11. - 11 - TD 314 application of RFID: IBM and Japan’s Kureha Environmental Engineering are currently testing waste containers equipped with RFID tags. The University of California is even considering embedding RFID in cadavers to thwart the sale of body parts on the black market, and to ensure that bodies donated to science are treated with respect. The use of RFID would allow authorized individuals walking past the body with a handheld device to readily identify the cadavers, or locate individual body parts that had become separated from the corpse. In Japan, the experiment mainly covering the blood fraction formulation etc was implemented using the RFID on actual field by tracing the supply chains ranging from the plant to the hospital, distributor, the hospital pharmacy, and patient’s room. Very small medicine was attached with the compact RFID that stores the medicine identification code there. The information regarding the production/distribution is stored in database record linked with the identification code. The traceability of drug medicines is materialized by checking these data and overwriting the newly emerged information at each production and distribution stages. It enabled us to specify the range of damages as well as the drug medicines to be recalled when medicines are at risk caused by some trouble in production process and distribution process. Figure 4: The NRFID System which checks if the drug can be taken with any other drugs (right side) 1.5 Manufacturing and processing Manufacturing and processing is increasingly relying on computer-controlled mechanisms and information technology. RFID tags, coupled in some cases with sensors and actuators, can enhance accuracy and overall efficiency in factories and labs. For instance, the use of RFID can speed up the assembly line for the manufacture of golf cars. For products that are sensitive to time or external conditions, RFID enables tracking and monitoring: for instance, in the case of selected health and beauty products. 1.6 Agriculture Agricultural applications for RFID, from wineries to meat packers, have been emerging over the last couple of years. A good example is the RFID trial launched in November 2004 to track containers of frozen beef from Namibia to the United Kingdom. The goal of such a system is to track shipments, for the purpose of ensuring the quality of the meat. RFID tags included with the shipments will be able to detect and record where a container’s seal has been tampered or broken during its journey, and when a particular shipment has been static in excess of a pre-determined length of time. The use of RFID tags in greenhouses can offer a great improvement over traditional bar codes. The latter need to be clean and dry to be read by a scanner. RFID tags, on the other hand, are protected from water or dirt and can be read at a faster rate. RFID sensors
  12. 12. - 12 - TD 314 with antennae mounted upon benches and located within greenhouses can be used by plant-growers for purposes of tracking production and developing accurate inventory. Farming is an area fine for RFID implementation, and a number of farms in the United States have begun using RFID to help track their produce. For instance, “Global Berry Farms” in the state of Michigan has started a trial of RFID tags on its crates of blueberries, and is working with other interested companies, from pharmaceuticals to educational institutions, to further test its systems. 1.7 Combinations of Logistics, Supply Chain, and Agriculture (Tracing and Tracking Food Chain Information) Food traceability is among the important applications that materialize public safety/security by the Networked RFID technology. Currently, the confidence in food wavers due to the exposed problems such as BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) and the pesticide residue found in vegetables. Consequently, food safety becomes the global issue with a central focus on Europe, Japan, and so on. As an approach to the food safety, traceability of food chain has been brought to attentions. Traceability of food chain enables tracing and tracking of the food and the information at each stage of food chain including the production, processing, distribution and sales. When food accident occurs, this approach is employed to search the information and specify the cause to determine the range of damage. A series of mechanism of identification,compilation of data, accumulation/storing of data, and collation of data for the realization of the traceability is referred as a tracing system of the food chain. Utilization of the RFID is especially expected in the parts of identification, compilation of data, and collation of data. For example, the experiment of traceability of vegetables has been conducted at super markets in Japan since 2003. This experiment promotes the merit of individual identification of food at distribution stage, and also data input based on the identification by attaching the RFID to the distributing container box of vegetables. In addition, the streamlining of inputting the production information such as the kind and the used date of sprayed agrichemicals is promoted by attaching with the RFID to agrichemicals and fertilizer. Finally, tracking and retraction of food chain information is directly enabled by consumers at the stores or homes by loading inexpensive barcode tag or the RFID with a single piece of vegetable sold at stores. Whereby this make it possible for each user to confirm the food safety and consume it in relief. Furthermore in 2005, the coverage of the experiment was extended to about 150 item goods including fruits, meat, and the processed food such as tofu (bean curd) and milk etc.
  13. 13. - 13 - TD 314 Figure 1: Food Traceability Information System Architecture  (Example of Ubiquitous ID Center Pilot System) Figure 2: Networked RFID System which provides food information(place of production)
  14. 14. - 14 - TD 314 Figure 3: NETWORKED RFID System which provides food information (Transportation conditions and provision of information for end user) Another example in Korea All imported beef are tagged and monitored from the moment they pass through customs clearance. Their distribution course could be monitored and provided to customers. If contaminated beef are found, they could be easily tracked and collected so that they do not end up in someone’s kitchen. Customers can also find out the quality of beef they plan to purchase by using RFID readers placed near meat corners or on the internet. Imported beef tracking service has started out in 2005, and NVRQS has planned to expand this project into all imported beef and other types of meat (pork, chicken, etc) as well. 2. Government applications It is not only private industry that is using RFID to streamline business processes. National governments, too, have begun exploring the potential benefits of this technology, particularly in the current climate of political uncertainty and international terrorism. This section describes a few pioneering governmental applications for RFID. 2.1 e-government Many public sector authorities are considering RFID to make e-government services more flexible, efficient and secure. In the United States, for instance, the inclusion of RFID tags on driver’s licenses is under debate. The main objective of such tags would be to help thwart fraud: the downside, as, many privacy advocates argue, is that such remotely readable tags will make it easier for government agencies to spy on citizens and increase
  15. 15. - 15 - TD 314 the possibility of “identity theft”. Virginia, in the United States, is one of the first states to consider the use of RFID in drivers’ licenses. These may in the future employ a combination of RFID and biometric data (e.g. fingerprints). In February 2005, the United States House of Representatives approved a measure that would compel states to design their driver’s licenses by 2008 to comply with federal antiterrorist standards. RFID enables the so-called “Internet of things”, which may be further extended to the tracking of human beings. The United States’ Food and Drug Administration has already approved implantable RIFD chips for people (See Section 5.1). The concern among ordinary citizens and privacy advocates vis-à-vis this development is undeniable, as hoax stories such as a U.S government plan to implant all homeless people with RFID tags have been widely circulated over the Internet. In Europe, there has been increasing press coverage since 2001 on the possibility of embedding RFID on Euro bank notes, in order to thwart counterfeit, fraud, and money laundering. The European Central Bank has been in discussion with various technology partners such as Philips Semiconductors, Infineon, and Hitachi on projects to tag European currency. 2.2 Defense and security RFID offers significant potential for governments wishing to fortify their national defense and security systems, particularly in a climate plagued with increased international terrorism. Border crossings offer a good example. The border between the special administrative region of Hong Kong and Shenzhen (China) is highly regulated and is a case in point: since 2002, China’s Shenzhen authorities have installed an RFID system to facilitate the flow of low-risk traffic and goods across that border, and to thwart smuggling. As already observed, the use of RFID can go further still, affecting the lives of individual citizens. Following the events of 11 September 2001, the United States has already mandated that all American passports contain biometric data, such as fingerprints. This requirement has been extended to apply to nationals from those countries not requiring a visa for travel to the United States. More recently, the government has advocated the use of RFID in combination with biometric data on passports. This measure has raised concerns among some technologists and civil libertarians. They fear that information on such chips can be read remotely, thus enabling a person’s biographical information and photo to fall into the wrong hands. Another example in Korea The Ministry of National Defense has developed RFID based national ammunition management system and started putting it into practice since July 2005. RFID tags are attached to ammunitions, and this allows users to monitor real-time status of ammunitions. With the system onboard, carry-ins and carry-outs of ammunitions are automatically logged in order to keep track. Furthermore, accidents related to misuse of ammunitions are expected to decrease dramatically. Operational capacity is expected to improve by 65%.
  16. 16. - 16 - TD 314 Ammunition H.Q. St oc k Co l tr o nt Ammunition Depot r ol on kc oc St Ammunition Depot Real time Attach RFID tags to management using Confinement / Return main ammunition readers (RFID) ASP Confinement / Return Manage main (RFID) ammunition and Read tags with specially treated portable readers to targets by attaching attain real time RFID RFID tags status Army Battalion Naval Forces Air Forces RFID Attach RFID tags to Attach RFID tags to main ammunition main ammunition Company Diagram of National Amm unition Management System , National Computerization Agency Attach RFID tags to main ammunition 2.3 Library systems RFID is increasingly being deployed in libraries to automate the loan and return of library materials through real-time visibility of inventory. These were traditionally identified using bar code labels that had to be read individually with bar code readers. With RFID, libraries can check in and out materials using scanners (placed on shelves or in hand-held devices), thereby resulting in the reduction of personnel, a higher degree of accuracy in inventory management, and fewer losses. The Vatican City Library has opted for RFID to manage its collection. In the Netherlands, publishing companies are getting into the business: NBD Biblion, which sells 2.7 million books to Dutch libraries annually (i.e. 80% of the national market), began tagging all of its books in September 2004. In Tokyo, the Roppongi Hills Library has been tagging its books since 2003. 2.4 Contagious Waste Management System, When waste material is tagged, its weight is automatically weighed and saved on tag wirelessly. As soon as containers with waste are read, information regarding the waste is sent to central computer system (http://www.uwms.co.kr) installed by MoE. All of the processes required to manage waste are developed to be done without any human input including writing up transfer documents. This allows human and time resources to be minimized. Furthermore, administrative agencies could easily monitor and respond to accidents, thus preventing illegal disposal of waste and making prompt and efficient management possible.
  17. 17. - 17 - TD 314 2.5 e-Museum u-Museum service would provide information on art pieces as well as location, exhibition information, warehousing management. For implementation of the service, RFID tags, RFID mobile readers, RFID information database, cable/wireless network system are being worked out. Once the service gets onboard, visitors could easily locate works of art with mobile terminals. Furthermore, RFID tags would provide visitors with descriptions of art pieces and customized information services. 3. Consumer applications Though they may not always be aware of it, individual consumers have been exposed to RFID in action: on toll roads, in offices, and in libraries (as discussed above). Over the next few years, these small tags will be increasingly used to add further convenience to day-to-day living, from sports events to retail shopping. This section describes some interesting current applications of RFID and their future potential. 3.1 Personal welfare and safety RFID applications for the medical industry (e.g. hospitals) mentioned in Section 2.1.4 above are set to address current lacunae in patient treatment and welfare. But as tags are location-sensitive, they can also be used to enhance personal safety in general. In this context, not only have schools begun deploying RFID to keep track of pupils, but public leisure parks such as Legoland in Denmark are using the technology to attract families concerned for the personal safety of their children and elderly relatives. Large shopping malls and department stores may not be far behind, particularly as many have begun using RFID readers and tags for tracking inventory. 3.2 Sports and Leisure In the sporting world, RFID tags have been used in marathons to track runners, allowing both participants and spectators to benefit from the combination of mobile SMS and RFID. RFID technology has been used to determine with remarkable accuracy the winner in an Indy 500 car race by tracking cars as they pass the finish line. Hands-free access systems using RFID for ski lifts have been introduced since the last 1990s. For instance, in 1999, Texas Instruments together with the Austrian company TeamAxess deployed an RFID system for access to ski lifts and slopes in Europe. Remote-operated gates equipped with readers can detect a valid ski pass and open automatically, thus leading to shorter line-ups and more efficient customer processing. The credit-card sized RFID-enabled ski pass can easily fit into a jacket pocket, and is scanned in place, thus obviating the need for manipulation. The passes can also be used to locate skiers (e.g. in cases of injury, or for the location of children). RFID can also assist in preventing theft of property, particularly in relation to travel or leisure activities. In Germany, for example, Philips Semiconductors introduced an RFID labeling system to protect recreational boats (of which there are 660’000 in the country) from theft by providing secure electronic identification. In the past, boats were simply identified by painting numbers on them. This system of identification suffered the considerable disadvantage of fraudulent removal or modification. Since RFID tags allow the identity of a boat to be determined remotely, German authorities can check the status of a boat against their databases of stolen and registered boats, without the need for a search warrant. The RFID labels are thin and waterproof, and can be read at a distance of up to 60 centimeters, even through materials such as wood or fiberglass. Plans to extend the current system to other forms of high value property such as trailers, caravans and bicycles are being actively considered. In the travel and hospitality industries, RFID tags are enhancing and facilitating customer service. Manchester City Football Club in the United Kingdom was the first football club in
  18. 18. - 18 - TD 314 Europe to adopt RFID, thereby giving fans ticket-less access to football grounds and significantly reducing the time it takes spectators to enter the grounds. 3.3 Location-Aware Information Services using Networked RFID Location-aware information service is among the important applications of RFID. It is the system that provides location-aware information service after the RFID and the active tag (beacon), attached and installed to the environmental side as road, are read out by passer-by and vehicles to automatically recognize the environmental information as the location. For example, the location-aware information services support our mobility in which we can get inform of traffic facilities and transportation pathway from departure place to destination. Moreover, they provide the emergency supporting information on the move, the indicator/guidance information around the destination, and the information regarding the destination facilities/indoor space. In Japan, the “Free Mobility Assistance Project” is conducted for realizing the location- aware information service, on the basis of the concept that “tie the information with the location”. Experimental service is already conducted at various places in Japan, starting with Kobe, Asakusa in Tokyo, Ueno in Tokyo, Tsuwano, Aomori, Sapporo, and Nagoya.
  19. 19. - 19 - TD 314 Figure 5:Location-aware sightseeing information service Figure 6:Directions for the blind with the RFID embedded in the roadway surface 3.4 Shopping and dining out Wal-Mart was the first to deploy item-based tagging using RFID for the purposes of streamlining their supply chain. Other major stores such as Tesco (UK), Metro AG (Germany), Home Depot (United States), and Mitsukoshi (Japan) are among the growing list of large retailers joining this new method of tagging products. This section looks at RFID in the retail world from the consumer perspective. Clearly, the advantage to customers of a retail store deploying RFID is a speedier checkout. If every item in a consumer’s shopping basket is tagged and the necessary reader is suitably installed, there should no longer be any need to lay the items on the belt and manually scan each one for
  20. 20. - 20 - TD 314 purposes of determining the final bill. Eventually, when users will also be equipped with contact-less payment cards, the onerous and dilatory checkout procedure could be eliminated. All items in the shopping cart would be automatically debited from the consumer’s account upon exiting the store. Early contact-less payment solutions using RFID are already being deployed around the globe, for instance for ticketing applications. Calypso is a good example of a global player in this area. And in February 2005, Visa introduced a system using RFID to enable consumers to make purchases by simply waving their cards. Meanwhile, McDonalds have introduced a Mastercard wireless system using RFID to make their fast food even faster. Retail stores are not the only ones to benefit from RFID technology. Restaurants can use item-level tagging to improve the customer experience and facilitate the billing process. Pintokona, a Sushi restaurant in Tokyo, has introduced RFID tags to track and price their plates of sushi that are presented on a rotating belt. Sushi freshness is a critical requirement for Pintokona, as dishes should typically be exposed no longer than thirty minutes. RFID tags associated with individual dishes contain the precise time of their placement on the rotating belt, thus facilitating their withdrawal upon the expiry of the pre- determined period. The system also assists with the calculation of the bill, as each tag contains information such as price, sushi type, and chef. 3.5 Mobile RFID in Korea The most promising terminal for B2C is a mobile handset, that is, cell phone. An RFID reader is equipped in a cell phone for B2C RFID applications, which is called “mobile RFID service.” Christoph Seidler has already described about mobile RFID telecommunication services at the ITU-T Technology Watch Group and his summary is good enough to explain the definition. “RFID based mobile telecommunication services can be defined as services that provide information on objects equipped with an RFID tag over a telecommunication network. The RFID reader is installed in a mobile device such as a cell phone. The implementation of RFID in mobile telecommunications services would lead to a scenario where the tags are stationary and readers (that are integrated in the cell-phone) become mobile. There would also be applications where the mobile phone can be both, tag and reader at the same time.[1]” A mobile RFID service is provided by cooperation of a few business partners including customers. The key factor of successful mobile RFID services is the “everybody win-win relationship” with which every partner should enjoy benefits in its participation. Some business models proposed at various presentations and articles looked good for customers but a certain partner couldn’t take any advantage for its investment and there are no reasons why it has to join the service models. Here are a few application models passing such evaluation check for a success. More application scenarios are summarized at the ITU-T Lighthouse technical paper. 3.6 Shopping A consumer looks around a shopping mall to buy something. He reads RFID tags attached to a shelf or product items and presses “order” at a shopping application user interface. In the end, he pays for chosen items as in on-line shopping and goes out with empty hands. The mall packs and delivers ordered items to his pre-registered postal address. Big shopping malls such as Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Costco, etc. are very interested in reducing checkout systems for cost saving and checkout lines for consumer convenience. They can choose RFID tags to take advantages of such a service model and additionally automated inventory management. The scenario has a trade-off in terms of cost. If they feel benefits from a view point of TCO (Total Cost of Ownership), they will decide to adopt this application scenario. Users can enjoy browsing as well as shopping without carrying
  21. 21. - 21 - TD 314 heavy shopping bags. 3.7 Trust Taxi Driver Taxi companies install RFID tags at taxi dashboards or somewhere to provide taxi driver’s information such as photo, name, car number, etc. Taxi passengers read the tags and send a short message containing driver’s information and location to parents, friends, or somebody pre-registered or inserted. In case of a stolen taxi, an automated message is sent to the police with or without notice to passengers. Taxis have been used sometimes for such crimes as robbery, kidnapping and so on. So women are very concerned about trust of taxis and feel uncomfortable while staying in a tax. This situation makes passengers feel uncertainty and taxi companies lose opportunities. So taxi companies will decide to adopt RFID tags to give confidence of taxi and driver for passengers and make more opportunities. 3.8 Bus and Subway Route Search A bus passenger reads RFID tags attached to bus stop signs, gets aware of his location from the tags, inserts his destination at an input interface, and then acquires the optimum route via subways and/or buses to the destination. If he is at a wrong location of bus stop signs or subway platforms to take a proper bus or subway, he gets a direction to the right location and the optimum route. Seoul, the capital of Korea, has about 10 million people, its satellite cities have 13 million, and totally 48.3% of the population of Korea live around Seoul. Since there are so many subway and bus routes, strangers, even citizens, feel difficulty in finding the optimum route from some place to destination. The cities will install RFID tags at every bus stop sign and subway terminal. 3.9 Advertisement and Information Retrieval These application models are typical mobile RFID applications and described well at Seidler’s paper. A free preview or music video can be provided easily by reading a tag at a movie poster or a music CD. With this application model, users can get additional information about manufacturer, usages, side-effects, history of a delivery process and so on via reading an RFID tag. ----------------------------------------------------