The Management of RFID


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The Management of RFID

  1. 1. The Management of RFID Wang Wenfeng RFID Research Engineer China Electronics Standardization Institute Oct 29, 2008
  2. 2. Main Contents <ul><li>RFID and Internet of Things </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Several Coding Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. RFID Is Widely Used <ul><li>RFID has played an important role in many industrial fields, such as production control, assets management, Electronic Toll Collection, luggage sorting, animal tracking, and books management. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID has greatly facilitated the daily life for people, such as ID cards, e-passports, the “one-card-for all” resident’s cards, and mobile payment. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID has demonstrated its great potential in numerous fields. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Use of RFID Requires Network Support <ul><li>Actually, RFID has to be used in connection with network to really demonstrate its advantage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to cost consideration, the memory of RFID label has a limited capacity; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The memory only stores the unique code of an item or communication-related technical parameters; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The detailed information of the item will be stored in the database of the related company or a local datacenter; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The user needs to use the network to search for the specific information of the item. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Application of RFID is Still Limited to the Internal Users of a System <ul><li>Although many industries and sectors in the world have deployed the RFID, these RFID systems currently do not have direct or indirect links between them, and individual RFID systems are still isolated islands at present. </li></ul><ul><li>The current situation is mainly the result of the siloed operation of different industries and sectors, and they didn’t communicate with each other in implementing RFID; the lack of unified planning & management as well as the lack of standards and information exchange networks is the fundamental reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Especially, there is a lack of the Coding Standards used for labeling products and services as well as the Network Platform used for the exchange of information for products and services. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Code and Network Decoding Has to be Solved ASAP <ul><li>With the development of the RFID technology and the continuous expansion of the application scope, the combination of RFID and the Internet is inevitable. </li></ul><ul><li>As there are no management solutions for code and network decoding that can be recognized worldwide, the data formats and codes used by different industries and sectors in implementing the RFID project are not consistent. This problem will become increasingly serious with the widespread adoption of the RFID technology, and will become a major barrier to the promotion and application of the RFID technology. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The EPC of EPCglobal 64 56 128 8 Type3 128 56 64 8 Type2 192 56 32 8 Type1 epc-256 36 24 28 8 Type1 epc-96 23 13 26 2 Type3 34 13 15 2 Type2 24 17 21 2 Type1 epc-64 Serial # Object Classification EPC Manager Header Field Type Coding System
  8. 8. The ONS of EPCglobal
  9. 9. The uCode of the Ubiquitous ID Center in Japan (1) <ul><li>The uCode of the Ubiquitous ID Center (UID) in Japan developed the uCodes. The basic length of a uCode is 128 bits, which can be expanded to 256 bits, 384 bits and 512 bits. UID claims that uCodes can be compatible with all the existing coding standards. </li></ul>Variable Variable 4 16 4 Length Identification Code Domain Code Type Code Top Domain Code Ver. Field Name
  10. 10. The uCode of the Ubiquitous ID Center in Japan (2) <ul><li>uCode can contain the original codes of the existing coding systems, and can be compatible with multiple codes, including JAN, UPC, ISBN, IPv6 address, and even telephone numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>The labels that can use uCode have many different forms, including barcode, RFID, IC card, and active chips. </li></ul><ul><li>UID has designed a UID system based on uCode. The system consists of four parts: uCode, information system server, ubiquitous communicator, and uCode decoder. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The mCode of Korea <ul><li>Korea began to implement an RFID application program based on the mobile terminals. The program, dominated by several mobile operators in Korea, is a mobile service with which a user can obtain information by using the RFID reader of his/her mobile phone to read an RFID label. In order for this service to be used in every corner of people’s life, the program has defined coding systems for different types of industries. The coding systems include three kinds: mCode, mini-mCode, and micro-mCode. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The mCode of Korea <ul><li>TLC : Top Level Code , CC : Company Code </li></ul><ul><li>ICC : Item Category Code IC : Item Code </li></ul><ul><li>SC : Serial Code </li></ul>- N/A Reserved for other code structures F00H ~ FFFH - N/A Reserved for type expansion FH - N/A Reserved 7H~EH G 96 IC ICC CC 6H F 96 SC IC CC 5H E 96 SC IC CC 4H C,D 64 Reserved 2H~3H B 64 IC CC 1H A 48 IC 0H 001H ~ EFFH N/A Reserved 000H 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits Types Length (bit) CC+ICC+IC+SC Types (4 bits) TLC (12 bits) Remarks mCode
  13. 13. EPC, uCode and mCode <ul><li>The limitations of coding objects 。 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>, EPC coding system is a coding system for use in the commodity circulation field. uCode system is only adopted within Japan. Other systems are coding systems within logistics companies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Registration & management fee 。 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The registration and management of all these coding systems are not in China. Domestic registration organizations are the agent organizations. If a domestic company wants to use EPC and uCode, it needs to pay a significant fee each year, especially for EPC, of which the fee is almost prohibitorily high for a country as big as China. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The security issue associated with network decoding and management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>。 The root servers of the Internet of Things based on EPC and uCode are located in the United States or Japan. This management model is very unfavorable in terms of the economic information security of other countries. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. “ ISO/IEC 15459-Information Technology-Unique Identifiers” <ul><li>“ ISO/IEC 15459-Information Technology-Unique Identifiers” has six parts. This Standard, by registering each code issuance organization, allocates an code for each code issuance organization called IAC, to realize the unification of different coding systems. This code consists of a number from 0 to 9 and letters from A to Z. Depending on the number of the users registered with a code issuance organization, different levels of codes are allocated. </li></ul><ul><li>Any company can make an application to the International Standard Organization (ISO), which is headquartered in Holland. According to the application regulations issued by this organization, each applicant organization needs to pay an application fee and an annual maintenance fee. Applying for the registration of one IAC code needs to pay 400 Euros, the IAC code can be used for two years, and after that a maintenance fee of 125 Euros is required. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Object Identifiers on the Internet of Things <ul><li>Unique codes have been used in e-commerce of various applications. In e-commerce, what that need unique codes are not only goods, there are also various services and applications as well as the identifiers for other abstract objects. The identifiers for these objects must be unique. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore when developing codes for goods, we must consider their uniqueness on networks; these codes for goods are no longer simple codes—they already have the network attributes. To ensure that the codes for various applications and services can be unique on networks, we need to adopt an international standard processing method, and only this way can we ensure that the identifiers are globally registered, globally unique, and internationally recognized. </li></ul>
  16. 16. IAC Registered and Managed by ISO/IEC 15459 NATO AC/135 D UPU J Dun & Bradstreet UN DHL ND GS1 0~9 Code Issuance Organization Code Issuance Organization’s Code
  17. 17. Coding System Based on Object Identifiers ITU Telecommunication Unit (0) ISO (1) ISO and ITU (2) Standards(0) 8571 Abstract syntax (2) Member Body (2) China (156) Specifications (0) nid(27) Root
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>The development of technologies including RFID and sensors network will enter a new stage—the Internet of Things. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of unique identification systems needs to take specific objects and abstract objects into separate considerations. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopting a distributed approach to code registration and network decoding is the trend. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thanks! Wang Wenfeng [email_address]