Radio frequency Identification




                            (image from Aimglobal 2003)




                     ISRC T...
A New Revolution




                         (image fromTierney 2003)      Information Systems Research Center


Septembe...
What is RFID
     Bar codes vs. RFID
     Low-frequency RFID
       – 13.56 MHz standard
       – Inductive coupling      ...
RFID in Houston
     Toll booths
       – EZ Tag
     Payment systems
       – ExxonMobil Speedpass
     Access control
  ...
Classification of Tags
     Active
       – Contain a battery
       – Longer range possible (10-15 feet or more)
       –...
Frequency Bands
                     and Applications
 Frequency           Characteristics                       Typical A...
Other Applications of RFID
  Corporate/campus                E.g., cafeteria vending,
  cards                           pa...
Benefits of RFID
     No need for contact
       or line-of-sight
     Can scan entire pallets
       at once
     Greater...
Additional Benefits
     Size – a grain of rice



     Ability to hold more
     data than bar codes



     Durability  ...
Drawbacks
     Cost
       – Passive tags: 30-50 cents
       – Would be economically viable at 5 cents
     Lack of stand...
Adoption
     Wal-Mart
       – Leading the charge by requiring all suppliers to use
         RFID on pallets by 2006.
   ...
On the Horizon
     Quadrillion units in the global supply chain

     Estimated Market (VDC Corp.):
       – $700 million...
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September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing

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September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing

  1. 1. Radio frequency Identification (image from Aimglobal 2003) ISRC Technology Briefing September 25, 2003 Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  2. 2. A New Revolution (image fromTierney 2003) Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  3. 3. What is RFID Bar codes vs. RFID Low-frequency RFID – 13.56 MHz standard – Inductive coupling (from Aimglobal 2000) High-frequency RFID – UHF (300-1000 MHz) – Electromagnetic wave propagation (from Aimglobal 2000) Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  4. 4. RFID in Houston Toll booths – EZ Tag Payment systems – ExxonMobil Speedpass Access control – Schlumberger Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  5. 5. Classification of Tags Active – Contain a battery – Longer range possible (10-15 feet or more) – Expensive (e.g., Apple has one for over $25) Semi-passive – Contain a dormant battery – Intermediate range – Mid-range price (over $1) Passive – Draw energy from an electromagnetic field – Limited range (up to 10 feet) – Cheapest to produce (30 to 50 cents) Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  6. 6. Frequency Bands and Applications Frequency Characteristics Typical Applications Band Low Short to medium read Access control 100-500 kHz range Animal identification Inexpensive Inventory control low reading speed Car immobilizer Intermediate Short to medium read Access control 10-15 MHz range Smart cards potentially inexpensive medium reading speed High Long read range Railroad car monitoring 850-950 MHz High reading speed Toll collection systems 2.4-5.8 GHz Line of sight required Expensive (from Aimglobal 2003) Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  7. 7. Other Applications of RFID Corporate/campus E.g., cafeteria vending, cards parking, etc. Hazardous materials Avoids the need for physical contact Luggage tagging E.g., baggage tagging and boarding passes Time and attendance To identify in- and out- management times Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  8. 8. Benefits of RFID No need for contact or line-of-sight Can scan entire pallets at once Greater speed Low error rates Reduced counterfeiting (from RecordsAssociates 1999) Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  9. 9. Additional Benefits Size – a grain of rice Ability to hold more data than bar codes Durability (Clinton 2002) Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  10. 10. Drawbacks Cost – Passive tags: 30-50 cents – Would be economically viable at 5 cents Lack of standards – Proliferation of multiple operating frequencies – Need for standard electronic product code (EPC) – Efforts by ISO and ANSI Privacy – Implications of staying active beyond checkout – Kill switches Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  11. 11. Adoption Wal-Mart – Leading the charge by requiring all suppliers to use RFID on pallets by 2006. Gillette – Has ordered 500 million tags for razors. Delta – Testing RFID on passenger luggage this fall. Ford – Testing use of RFID to track parts. DoD – Tracking parts sent to the Persian Gulf. Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing
  12. 12. On the Horizon Quadrillion units in the global supply chain Estimated Market (VDC Corp.): – $700 million (2003)  $2 billion (2007) Five cent target Privacy issues paramount Information Systems Research Center September 25, 2003 RFID Technology Briefing

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