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  1. 1. Active RFID Standards – Why, Issues and Solutions Fraser Jennings VP Standards & Regulatory Savi Technology, Inc., A Lockheed Martin Company RFID/USN Korea 2007
  2. 2. Why Standards???
  3. 3. Active / Passive Comparison Passive RFID Can Be Like Shining A Light At A Mirror On A Dark Night Eventually The Mirror Is Too Far Away To Reflect The Light Back Active RFID Is More Like Two Lamps Shining A Light At Each Other Eventually The Lights May Be Too Far Away To See But It Will Be Much Farther Than A Mirror
  4. 4. Active RFID Tower of Babel, circa 2006 Many Proprietary Active RFID Systems Flat Overall Industry Growth <ul><li>Impact: </li></ul><ul><li>Limited or no device interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>High device and support costs </li></ul><ul><li>Slow customer adoption </li></ul>
  5. 5. How Standards Impacted Similar Information Technologies Adoption of Group 3 Fax Standard (1984) DoD LOGMARS Code 39 Requirement (1981) Barcode Business Fax Large number of proprietary Systems = Anemic Industry growth
  6. 6. Standards & The Technology Hype Cycle Hype Level Time Unrealistic Expectation Peak Market Stability RFID Today! Initial Standards Published Interest in Standards Starts Standards Improved Gaps Identified
  7. 7. Standardization Benefits <ul><li>Increases confidence in new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>World-wide acceptance and technology advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Broadens markets, encourages global competition, and reduces price for end users </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates growth in applications by encouraging </li></ul><ul><li>interoperability and by reducing customization </li></ul><ul><li>Provides development platform for complementary </li></ul><ul><li>products (software, translators, hardware accessories) </li></ul><ul><li>Standards: Making the most of any new technology </li></ul>
  8. 8. Active RFID Today Multiple Standards Ratified, Providing a Global Standard for Interoperability DoD specifies ISO 18000-7 RFI for RFID III Allied military RFP’s for ISO 18000-7 infrastructure Multiple international companies including some in Korea developing ISO 18000-7 products Remaining Proprietary Active RFID Systems No major customer RFPs No international adoption Limited opportunities to create new market footholds Group 1 Group 2 Numerous ISO 18000 Licensees
  9. 9. Issues !!!
  10. 10. Issue’s <ul><li>Multiple Standards Bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Standards development lead time </li></ul><ul><li>Many categories of standards </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency Allocation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Standards Organizations International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) IEEE INCITS International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (United Nations) TC 122/104 JWG SC Apps RFID TC 8 Ships & Marine Tech SC 31 Automatic Data Capture ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) ITU-T (fka CCITT) Telecommunications ITU-R (fka CCIR & IFBR) Radio-frequency Issues ITU-D (fka BDT) Telecommunications Development ECMA Comité Européen Normalisation (CEN) Comité Européen Normalisation Electrotechnique (CENELEC) Comité Européen Postal & Telegraph (CEPT) TC 104 Freight Containers International Regional National Standards Assoc of China (SAC) AFNOR Deutches Institut fur Normung (DIN) JISC ANSI British Standards Institution (BSI) AIM MHI GS 1 CEA Industry Other DoD ATA CEA AIA HIBCC AIAG GS 1 Other WG 1 - Symbology WG 2 - Data Content WG 3 - Conformance WG 4 - RFID Universal Postal Union (UPU) (United Nations) T6 B10 SC 17 IC Cards VDA ODETTE WG 5 - RTLS TC 122 Packaging SC 6 Telcom & info exch btwn systems EPCglobal Source: Q.E.D. Systems
  12. 12. Overview of ISO Standards JTC 1 Information Technology SG 1 RFID Conformance 18046-1 18046-2 18046-3 18047-7 SG 1 Transfer Syntax 15961-1  4 15962 15963 24753 24791-1  6 TC 104 Freight Container E-Seal 18185-1 18185-2 18185-3 18185-4 18185-5 TC 122 Packaging SC 31 AIDC Techniques SG 3 Air Interface 18000-1 18000-2 18000-3 18000-4 18000-6 18000-7 WG 1 Data Carrier WG 2 Data Structure WG 3 Conform- ance WG 4 RFID for Item MGT WG 5 RTLS 24730-1 24730-2 24730-5 SC 4 Identification & Comm. WG 2 AEI for Containers 17363 17364 17365 17366 17367 WG 7 Supply Chain App of RFID Source: Q.E.D. Systems
  13. 13. ISO Standard Development Process <ul><li>Accept NP </li></ul><ul><li>Voting: 3 </li></ul><ul><li>months </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare WD </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation: 6-12 </li></ul><ul><li>months </li></ul><ul><li>Produce </li></ul><ul><li>& Accept CD </li></ul><ul><li>Voting: 3-6 </li></ul><ul><li>months </li></ul><ul><li>Accept FCD </li></ul><ul><li>Voting: 4-6 </li></ul><ul><li>months </li></ul>Proposal Publish Standard Preparatory Committee Draft Enquiry Approval <ul><li>Approve </li></ul><ul><li>FDIS </li></ul><ul><li>Voting: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>months </li></ul>
  14. 14. EPCglobal Standard Development Process Collect Biz & Tech. Requests Form JRG Tech. Def With End Users Develop Req. In JRG BSC & TSC Approve JRG Req. Time Deliverable On going 4 Weeks 5 Weeks 10 Weeks 1 Week <ul><li>Accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Request </li></ul><ul><li>Create JRG </li></ul><ul><li>Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Approve </li></ul><ul><li>JRG Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint JRG </li></ul><ul><li>Chairs </li></ul><ul><li>Complete </li></ul><ul><li>Op-in </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A & </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Material </li></ul><ul><li>Educate </li></ul><ul><li>Users on </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Req. for </li></ul><ul><li>IAG </li></ul><ul><li>LCWD of </li></ul><ul><li>Req. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute </li></ul><ul><li>to other IAGs </li></ul><ul><li>Approve </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Req. </li></ul><ul><li>Assign to </li></ul><ul><li>existing or </li></ul><ul><li>new TAG WG </li></ul>Submission Track Process (22 weeks) Standard Track Form WG Standard Development AG Review & Approve Prototype Test & Spec BSC & TSC Review Board Ratification IPs Review IPs Review <ul><li>WG </li></ul><ul><li>Charter </li></ul><ul><li>LCWD Spec. </li></ul><ul><li>Candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Spec. </li></ul><ul><li>WG </li></ul><ul><li>Review on IP for Candidate Spec. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed </li></ul><ul><li>Spec. </li></ul><ul><li>Conformance </li></ul><ul><li>Req. </li></ul><ul><li>WG </li></ul><ul><li>Review on IP for Candidate Spec. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Spec. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratified Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Submit to </li></ul><ul><li>other </li></ul><ul><li>Standard. </li></ul>Deliverable Time Submission Track 4 Weeks 16 Weeks 6 Weeks 12 Weeks 30 days 30 days 4 Weeks 4 Weeks Standard Track Process (54 weeks)
  15. 15. Different Types of Standards <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbology, RFID, I.C. Card </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics (DIs or AIs), Syntax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conformance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print Quality, Test Specifications, Conformance to Air Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object-to-object communications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freight container, RTI, Ship Label, Product Package, Product Mark/Tag, eSeal </li></ul></ul>Source: Q.E.D. Systems
  16. 16. ??? 433 MHz 315 MHz 915 MHz 2.45 GHz 5.8 GHz Source: Q.E.D. Systems
  17. 17. Solutions
  18. 18. International Harmonization Is Key <ul><li>ISO Committees have liaisons to share information </li></ul><ul><li>ISO Application standards reference ISO technical standards for Air Interface specifications </li></ul><ul><li>International regulations have allowed for harmonization of 433 MHz for Supply Chain Active RFID and 2.4 GHz for RTLS Active RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Only minor adjustments can be done to the standards development timeline </li></ul>
  19. 19. Active RFID Standards Status <ul><li>Technology Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/IEC 18000-7 — Parameters for active air interface at 433.92 MHz- Published </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/IEC 24730-2 — Information technology automatic identification and data capture techniques — Real Time Locating Systems (RTLS) – Published </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/IEC 24730-5 - Information technology automatic identification and data capture techniques — Real Time Locating Systems (RTLS) — Part 5: Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) at 2.4 GHz – Committee Draft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.15 — Wireless Personal Area Networks – Emerging as a technology useable for RFID – Published but no action underway on RFID application standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO TC 104/TC122 Joint Working Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 17363 — Supply chain applications of RFID - Freight containers (Based on ISO 18000-7) - Published </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO TC 104 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 18185 — Freight containers — Electronic container seals (Based on ISO 18000-7 and 24730-2 – Published </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>EPCglobal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking at member requirements for Active RFID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most likely will look to establish standards to meet requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently identified five tag types </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Questions ??????? Contact: Fraser Jennings [email_address]