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  • To help you understand how tightly integrated RFID applications are to the customer’s environment, we have prepared an analysis of each system component, describing the component and environmental properties and considerations.
  • NOTE: Bullet 5 - Tag is NOT actually generating and transmitting a signal. The Tag modifies the signal and sends it back to the reader. Intermec tags are “passive tags” because they are NOT generating and transmitting their own signal.
  • RFID_Basics_qed.ppt

    1. 1. Basics of RFID Technology by: Craig K. Harmon 16 September 2003
    2. 2. Q.E.D. Systems • Craig K. Harmon • President Visit our web sites: http://www.qed.org and http://www.autoid.org <ul><li>Chair, ASC INCITS T6 (Radio Frequency Identification) - ANS INCITS 256:1999, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Chair, U.S. TAG to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4 “RFID” </li></ul><ul><li>Chair, ASC MH 10/SC 8/WG 4, RFID for Returnable Containers </li></ul><ul><li>Chair, ISO TC 122/WG 4 (Shipping Labels) & ISO TC 122/WG 7 (Product Packaging) </li></ul><ul><li>Chair, ISO TC 122/104 JWG - Supply Chain Applications of RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Project Editor ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 3 (RFID - Air Interface) </li></ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison Officer to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU-R) </li></ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison Officer to the International Air Transport Association (IATA) </li></ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) </li></ul><ul><li>ASC MH 10/SC 8 Liaison Universal Postal Union (UPU) Physical Encoding Group (PEG) </li></ul><ul><li>Expert to USPS Strategic Technology Council </li></ul><ul><li>ISO TC 104 (Freight Containers / RFID) Liaison Officer to JTC 1/SC 31 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Editor, ISO 18185 (Freight Containers - Electronic Container Seals) </li></ul><ul><li>Chairman & Project Editor, ANS MH10.8.2 (Data Application Identifiers) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Rapporteur to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Editor, American Trucking Association (ATA) ADE Work Group </li></ul><ul><li>AIAG Bar Code, Applications, 2D, Tire, Returnables, and RFID Committees </li></ul><ul><li>Project Editor, EIA Shipping Label, Product, Product Package, & Component Marking </li></ul><ul><li>Advisor, U.S. Department of Defense in Migration to Commercial Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Project Editor, NATO STANAG 2233 (RFID for NATO Asset Tracking) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Editor Designate (Japan) - ISO/IEC 15459-3 (Unique Identification of Items) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Editor Designate (Japan) - Technical Report on Direct Part Marking </li></ul><ul><li>Convenor (CKH) and Secretary (MAH) - INCITS T20 (Real Time Locating Systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Convenor Designate (MAH) - SC 31/WG 5 (Real Time Locating Systems) </li></ul>http://www.autoid.org/presentations/F-ISCW_2003_RFID_Basics.zip
    3. 3. Session Description <ul><li>It is unlikely that any technology in the automatic identification and data capture industry has been hyped more than RFID. So what is the truth? What technologies are best suited for which technologies? What is the relationship between regulations in the United States and in other parts of the world? What is the future of that regulation? How to determine which technology is best for you by asking yourself three little questions: &quot;How far?&quot;, &quot;How fast?”, and &quot;How many?&quot; Learn the answers to these and other questions in this session. </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is RFID? <ul><li>RFID is an ADC technology that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track... </li></ul><ul><li>RFID is fast, reliable, and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item </li></ul>
    5. 5. What Constitutes an RFID System? <ul><li>One or more RF tags </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more antennas </li></ul><ul><li>One or more interrogators </li></ul><ul><li>One or more host computers </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate software </li></ul>
    6. 6. RFID API Software (Communicates with the RFID Reader) Customer-Specific Application Software Host Computer Host Memory Space Reader Antenna Application Program Interface (API) Application Program Interface (API) Components of an RFID System
    7. 7. Antenna Reader Firmware Customer’s MIS Host Application Software API TCP/IP Power ~ Asset Asset/Tag RFID System Components (block diagram) Tag Insert
    8. 8. RESPONSES COMMANDS Tag Physical Memory APPLICATIONRESPONSES APPLICATION INTERROGATOR RF TAG APPLICATIONCOMMANDS Command / Response Unit PHYSICAL INTERROGATOR DATA PROTOCOL PROCESSOR ISO/IEC 15961 ISO/IEC 18000 Encoder Logical Memory AIR INTERFACE ISO/IEC 15962 ISO/IEC 15962 Annexes Logical Memory Map Note: The Logical Memory Map in the Tag Physical Memory is given by the Tag architecture and the mapping rules in the Tag Driver. All the information in the Logical Memory is represented in the Logical Memory Map Decoder Tag Driver and Mapping Rules Application Program Interface DEVICE COMMANDS DEVICE RESPONSES
    9. 9. RFID Operation <ul><li>Sequence of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Host Manages Reader(s) and Issues Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Reader and tag communicate via RF signal </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier signal generated by the reader (upon request from the host application) </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier signal sent out through the antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier signal hits tag(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Tag receives and modifies carrier signal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ sends back” modulated signal (Passive Backscatter - FCC and ITU refer to as “field disturbance device”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antennas receive the modulated signal and send them to the Reader </li></ul><ul><li>Reader decodes the data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results returned to the host application </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. RFID Operations
    11. 11. What is RFID? -- The Tags <ul><li>Tags can be read-only or read-write </li></ul><ul><li>Tag memory can be factory or field programmed, partitionable, and optionally permanently locked </li></ul><ul><li>Bytes left unlocked can be rewritten over more than 100,000 times </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Tag ID Only </li></ul><ul><li>Programmable Database Pointer </li></ul><ul><li>Mission Critical Information </li></ul><ul><li>Portable Database </li></ul><ul><li>Read Only (Factory Programmed) </li></ul><ul><li>WORM - Write Once, Read Many times </li></ul><ul><li>Reprogrammable (Field Programmable) </li></ul><ul><li>Read/Write (In-Use Programmable) </li></ul>RFID System Basics
    13. 13. <ul><li>Tags can be attached to almost anything: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pallets or cases of product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>company assets or personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>items such as apparel, luggage, laundry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people, livestock, or pets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high value electronics such as computers, TVs, camcorders </li></ul></ul>What is RFID? -- The Tags
    14. 14. Are All Tags The Same? <ul><li>Basic Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag transmits radio signal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High Read Range (300 feet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag reflects radio signal from reader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reader powered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Variations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size (16 bits - 512 kBytes +) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read-Only, Read/Write or WORM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type: EEProm, Antifuse, FeRam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitration (Anti-collision) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to read/write one or many tags at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>125KHz - 5.8 GHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbnail to Brick sizes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price ($0.50 to $250) </li></ul></ul>Are All Tags The Same?
    16. 16. RFID System Basics <ul><li>How far? </li></ul><ul><li>How fast? </li></ul><ul><li>How many? </li></ul><ul><li>How much? </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to and surround by what? </li></ul>
    17. 17. What is RFID? -- The Readers <ul><li>Readers (interrogators) can be at a fixed point such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrance/exit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point of sale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warehouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Readers can also be mobile -- tethered, hand-held, or wireless </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Uses normal CMOS processing — basic and ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Relative freedom from regulatory limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Well suited for applications requiring reading small amounts of data at slow speeds and minimal distances </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrates materials well (water, tissue, wood, aluminum) </li></ul><150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )
    19. 19. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate or transmit around metals (iron, steel) </li></ul><ul><li>Handles only small amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>Slow read speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Large Antennas -- compared to higher frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Range </li></ul><150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )
    20. 20. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Tag construction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is thicker (than 13.56 MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is more expensive (than 13.56 MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more complex (requires more turns of the induction coil) </li></ul></ul><150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )
    21. 21. 13.56 MHz <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Uses normal CMOS processing--basic and ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Well suited for applications requiring reading small amounts of data and minimal distances </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrates water/tissue well </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler antenna design (fewer turns of the coil); lower costs to build </li></ul><ul><li>Higher data rate (than 125 kHz--but slower than higher MHz systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinner tag construction (than 125 kHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Smart Card frequency </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Government regulated frequency (U.S. and Europe recently harmonized) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate or transmit around metals </li></ul><ul><li>Large Antennas (compared to higher frequencies) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger tag size than higher frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Tag construction: requires more than one surface to complete a circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Range of ≈ 0.7 m </li></ul>13.56 MHz
    23. 23. RFID Primer…Frequencies <ul><li>Electromagnetic Field </li></ul><ul><li>Coupling: Lower Range UHF </li></ul><ul><li>> 300 MHz <3 (<1) GHz </li></ul><ul><li>(862-928 MHz ANSI MH10.8.4, ISO 18185, B-11 & GTAG) </li></ul><ul><li>(433.92 MHz ISO 18185) </li></ul>1000 MHz Cell Phone RFID: Toll Roads Data Terminal
    24. 24. >300 MHz <1GHz <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Effective around metals </li></ul><ul><li>Best available frequency for distances of >1m </li></ul><ul><li>Tag size smaller than 13.56 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Range: licensed to 20-40' with reasonable sized tag (stamp to eraser size). Unlicensed 3-5 m. </li></ul><ul><li>Good non-line-of-sight communication (except for conductive, &quot;lossy&quot; materials) </li></ul><ul><li>High data rate; Large amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled read zone (through antenna directionality) </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate water/tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory issues (differences in frequency, channels, power, and duty cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory issues in Europe (similar band 869 MHz requires frequency agile chip) </li></ul><ul><li>950 - 956 MHz under study in Japan </li></ul>>300 MHz <1GHz
    26. 26. RFID Primer…Frequencies <ul><li>Electromagnetic </li></ul><ul><li>Field Coupling: </li></ul><ul><li>2.45 GHz </li></ul>RFID: Item Management EAS 2.45 GHz
    27. 27. 2.45 GHz <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Tag size smaller than inductive or lower range UHF (1&quot;x 1/4&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Range: greater range than inductive w/o battery </li></ul><ul><li>More bandwidth than lower range UHF (more frequencies to hop) </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller antennas than lower range UHF or inductive </li></ul><ul><li>High data rate </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Good non-line-of-sight communication (except for conductive, &quot;lossy&quot; materials) </li></ul><ul><li>Can transmit large amounts of data more quickly than lower frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled read zone (through antenna directionality) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective around metals with tuning/design adaptations </li></ul>2.45 GHz
    29. 29. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>More susceptible to electronic noise than lower UHF bands, e.g. 433 MHz, 860-930 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Shared spectrum with other technologies-- </li></ul><ul><li>microwave ovens, RLANS, TV devices, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires non-interfering, &quot;good neighbor&quot; tactics like FHSS </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive requirement: single chip--highly technical; limited number of vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory approvals still &quot;in process&quot; </li></ul>2.45 GHz
    30. 30. RFID Primer…Frequency <ul><li>>5.8 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>(European Road Telematics Frequency) </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Less congested band/less interference </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages : </li></ul><ul><li>Not available in U.S. or many other countries (5.9 now in FCC review) </li></ul><ul><li>Must orient antennas carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Range limited (due to scaling issues/wavelengths) </li></ul><ul><li>Chip difficult to build </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul>RFID: European Tolls 300 GHz
    31. 31. Spectrum Regulation <ul><li>The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is a scarce and shared resource, used nationally and internationally, and subject to a wide range of regulatory oversight. In the U.S., the Federal Communications Commission is a key regulatory body that allocates spectrum use and resolves spectrum conflicts. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is a specialized agency of the United Nations which plays the same role internationally. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Regulations - ITU
    33. 33. Regulatory Differences <ul><li>Usage of channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot interfere with primary service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot claim protection of interference from primary service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can claim protection of interference from other secondary users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial, Scientific, & Medical (ISM) Bands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrowband or Spread Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Power level </li></ul><ul><li>Duty cycle </li></ul>
    34. 34. How far, how fast, how much, how many, attached to what ?
    35. 35. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Applications
    36. 36. Portal Applications Bill of Lading Material Tracking
    37. 37. Portal Applications <ul><li>Limited number items at forklift speeds </li></ul><ul><li>8’ X 10’ doorways </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic receipt & dispatch </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong destination alert </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic marking </li></ul><ul><li>Pallet/container item tracking </li></ul>
    38. 38. Conveyor / Assembly Line Read / Write Operations Higher Accuracy than Bar Code
    39. 39. Conveyor / Assembly Line <ul><li>Up to 450 fpm </li></ul><ul><li>60+ items per container </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>Longer tunnel more items </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic receipt </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic marking </li></ul>
    40. 40. Hand Held Application Categories Wireless Batch Fixed Station
    41. 41. Application Examples Material Handling Inspecting / Maintaining Where is it? What is it? What is inside the box? Where is it going? Where has it been? Should it be here? What have I assembled or disassembled? How many do I have? Do I have enough? Has this been repaired? Is this under warrantee? Has this been inspected? Is this complete? What is the asset’s status or state? Wireless / Batch Inventory Management Material Handling By Destination Material Handling Aggregate / De-aggregate
    42. 42. Shipping Validation Tote/Box/Unit Level Inventory
    43. 43. Intelligent Labels
    44. 44. The HazMat Label
    45. 45. HazMat Smart Label <ul><li>Low power > long range </li></ul><ul><li>1024 bit memory </li></ul><ul><li>Read/write/lock on 8 bits </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient multi-id  Lock data permanently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 ms/8 byte read  25ms/byte write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group select  Broadcast write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 tags/second  Anti-collision </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Standards
    47. 47. The Layers of Logistic Units (Optically Readable Media) Movement Vehicle (truck, airplane, ship, train) Layer 5 ISO TC 204 (None) AIAG B-15 Container (e.g., 40 foot Sea Container) Layer 4 ISO TC 104 (None) Layer 3 ISO TC 122/WG 4 (15394) ANSI MH10.8.1 AIAG B-10/14 EIA 556-B UCC 6 Layer 2 ISO TC 122/WG 4 (15394) ANSI MH10.8.1 AIAG B-10/14 EIA 556-B UCC 6/EAN Genl Spec Layer 1 ISO TC 122/WG 7 (22742) ANSI MH10.8.6 AIAG B-4 (TBD) EIA 621/624 & IEC TC 91 UCC 1 /EAN Genl Spec Layer 0 ISO TC 122 (TBD) ANSI MH10.8.7 AIAG B-4 EIA SP-3497 UCC 1 /EAN Genl Spec Unit Load “ Pallet” Unit Load “ Pallet” Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item
    48. 48. The Layers of Logistic Units (Radio Frequency Identification - RFID) Container (e.g., 40 foot Sea Container) Movement Vehicle (truck, airplane, ship, train) Layer 5 ISO TC 104 ISO TC 204 (ISO 14816) IATA ISO TC 8 AAR Layer 4 (433 MHz, 860-930 MHz) ISO 122/104 JWG (ISO 10374) ISO TC 104 (ISO 18185) ISO TC 104 (Beyond 18185) ISO 17363 (122/104 JWG) Layer 3 (433 MHz, 860-930 MHz) ISO 17364 (122/104 JWG) ANSI MH10.8.4 AIAG (TBD) EIA (TBD) EAN.UCC GTAG Layer 2 (860-930 MHz) ISO 17365 (122/104 JWG) ANSI MH10.8.8 AIAG (TBD) TCIF (TBD) Layer 1 (860-930 MHz) ISO 17366 (122/104 JWG) Layer 0 (860-930 MHz) ISO 17367 (122/104 JWG) AIAG B-11 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Unit Load “ Pallet” Unit Load “ Pallet”
    49. 49. Application Requirements <ul><li>Wal-Mart - Suppliers will mark inbound cases and pallets with RFID - 1 January 2005 - May, 2003 specification calls for ≈256 bit read/write tag </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Defense - Draft RFID policy to be completed by 18 September 2003 - To issue final policy in July of 2004 that will require suppliers to put passive RFID tags on selected case/pallet packaging by January of 2005. Draft policy calls for passive tags (est. 256 byte) and active tags </li></ul>
    50. 50. Lads, Dads, & Granddads                                                          
    51. 51. ???
    52. 52. Thank You!