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  1. 1. RFID Tags Prasanna Kulkarni Motorola ILT Workshop Smart Labels USA February 21, 2008
  2. 2. Agenda • RFID tags – Brief overview – Roadmap of key attribute needs • Existing tag technologies • Emerging tag technologies – Critical technology needs – Prioritized R&D needs – Recommendation – Discussion & Feedback 1
  3. 3. Passive RFID tags RFID tag creates association of an object with the data collection system • Passive RFID tags attributes – No power source on-board – Extracts power for operation from the Super-high RFID reader signal Frequency Ultra-high – Tag life does not depend on the battery High Frequency life Frequency Low – Inexpensive tags Frequency – Easy to integrate with product or packaging 3KHz 3MHz 3GHz 3000GHz • Passive RFID tags represent about 5.8GHz 77% of the RFID tags sold today 125-134 KHz 13.56 MHz 860-960 MHz 2.4GHz Operating frequency Standards Typical applications Low frequency ISO 18000-2 Animal tracking, access control, gas cylinders High frequency ISO 18000-3, ISO 14443, ISO 18092 Ticketing, payment, smart cards, pharmaceutical, laundry Ultra high frequency ISO 18000-6 A, B & C, EPC class0, EPC Pallets and cases, airline baggage, Class1 Gen1, EPC C1G2 supply chain Super high frequency ISO 18000-4 Banknotes, secure documents 2
  4. 4. Active RFID Tags • Active RFID tag attributes – Local power source (most common: battery) – Longer read range and ability transmit in challenging RF environment – Ability to integrate sensor or other device inputs – Data security through encryption – Tag life based on battery life and usage – Tags are usually more expensive and bulkier than passive tags • Common active tags frequencies: 433 MHz, 315 MHz, 2.45 GHz, 5.8 GHz • Standards: ISO 18000-7, ISO 24730 • Typical Applications: Car clickers Asset tracking Smart active labels 3
  5. 5. Roadmap of attribute needs Passive RFID tags – Cost of the tags • Continuously being reduced: Silicon scaling, novel assembly techniques, component integration such as antenna on chip, novel technologies like chipless tags – Memory • Faster read write speeds: Novel memory structures like ferroelectric, MRAM etc • Higher memory density – EAS integration • Compatibility with current EAS infrastructure – Data security on the tag • Selective read, write, locking and killing of the data on the tag – Tag size • Driven by antenna size, Size reduction for Item-level applications – Tag environment • Temperature, humidity, radiation, chemicals, 4
  6. 6. Roadmap of attribute needs Active RFID tags • RTLS application – Locate range – Location accuracy critical for ILT – Location finding algorithm – Battery life – Operating environment for he tag • Smart active label application – Added functionality: Temperature, humidity sensor other – Sensor integration: – Tag form factor – Battery life 5
  7. 7. Emerging tag technologies • Chipless RFID tags: – A promise to produce very low-cost, high-volume tags tag and ability to integrate with product packaging – Printed transistor based – Surface Acoustic wave (SAW) based – Printed electromagnetic inks based – Printed transistor based • Operating frequency: – LF to HF operation – semiconductor mobility, channel lengths, – dielectrics • Operating voltage • Memory size and type • Infrastructure compatibility • Physical size of the tag 6
  8. 8. Critical technology needs • Passive RFID tags: – Tag memory • Miniaturization of the memory cells • Novel memory structures like ferroelectric, magnetic memory for low power consumption and high write speeds – Antenna type • Printed antenna with high performance • Integration of antenna on the chip – EAS functionality • Integration to current RFID • EAS backward compatibility • Dual functionality • Deactivation – Tag data handling • Selective killing of the tag data • Selective locking of the tag data • Partitioned read zones protected by password – Tag to tag communication – Tag on metal mounting at low cost 7
  9. 9. Critical technology needs Active tags in RTLS Active tags in smart active labels  Improved locate range:  Integration of sensor with RFIC  High sensitivity reader design,  Low cost display solution to present efficient antenna and RF front key sensor output data end design  Data security for the tag  Novel accurate location finding  Encryption algorithms for item level tracking  Mutual authentication  Solutions for tracking items in dense  Battery life environment, orientation sensitivity  Higher battery cell density  Battery life:  Low power consumption by the IC  Higher battery cell density  Printed batteries  Low power consumption by ICs  Cost of the tag  Harvesting from the environment –  Form factor: Large, credit card, label solar, vibration etc  Tagged item location  Networking: ability to operate on multiple types of networks 8
  10. 10. Prioritized R&D needs • The item-level RFID uses cases were categorized in four different clusters – Process validation – Asset tracking – Inter-company transaction – Intra-company transaction Process Gaps Asset tracking Inter-company Intra-company validation Tag cost M L M M Tag size (x,y,z) and/or H L M M form factor* Tag read reliability M L H H (high read yield)1 Tags vs metals and H H M M liquids1 Tag detuning – close M L M M proximity 9
  11. 11. Recommendations Recommended actions to address near term needs (2008-2012) Recommended Action Near Term Need Funding Agencies University & Research (2008-12) Industry (NSF, MITI, 5th Standards Bodies Consorita Framework, etc.) Reading tags for EM propogation theory Guide university and Identify/fund centers for N/A difficult centers of excellence consortia research & top research problems applications encourage deployment in connected to the iNEMI product lines ILT roadmap Availability of N/A Provide test beds to validate Fund test beds Enable a strong portfolio of open source open source open source software software and Identify and help close gaps closely linked to middleware Validate open source ROI standards. Deploy in products and Participate in test beds to solutions validate both standards and open source software Adoption of N/A Adopt standards in products N/A Enable interoperability of standards Validate and help refine them products by harmonizing based on lessons learned standards across all geographies 10
  12. 12. Recommendations Recommended actions to address long term needs (2012+) Recommended Action Long Term Needs Funding Agencies University & Research (2012+): Industry (ex. NSF, MITI, 5th Standards Bodies Consorita framework, etc.) Low cost Create centers of Participate in centers of Fund centers of excellence Match standards technology excellence for low cost ILT excellence to enable the iNEMI ILT functionality with low cost solutions for ILT technologies; Enable the supply chain to roadmap price points by intelligently Analyze and develop commercialize and produce reducing requirements options for enabling low cost ILT technologies commercialization Tunable antennas Create centers of Engage with Centers of Fund centers of excellence N/A excellence for tunable Excellence and enable the to enable the iNEMI ILT antennas development of roadmap commercially viable technologies Deployment Train students to be RFID- Drive standard, easy to use N/A Determine if plug-and-play complexity savvy for both future and configure solutions; philosophy can be built into research and commercial Adopt open industry the standards engineering standards Tags for extreme Investigate materials and Adopt materials and Fund extreme enivironment N/A environments technologies that withstand technologies for extreme materials and technology extreme environments per environments into product research roadmap offerings; Drive for lower cost to enable use 11
  13. 13. Discussion • Barriers to RFID tag implementation – Cost • Silicon strategy • Tag assembly and label conversion • Alternate technologies (chipless tags) – Technology standardization • EPC, ISO standards • Global frequency spectrum – Read reliability • Orientation sensitivity • Anti-collision • Read range • Harsh RF environments 12
  14. 14. Discussion • Barriers to RFID tag implementation (continued) – Functionality • Memory – read write speed • Low and high functionality tags • EAS – Configurable Antennas • Modular antenna • Response to a wide UHF spectrum – Data security • Encryption • Selective read / write 13
  15. 15. Backup slides 14
  16. 16. Roadmap – Active tags in RTLS Roadmap of attributes for real-time location systems (RTLS) State of the art (2007) Mid term (2012) Long term (2017) Attributes 100m indoor 150m indoor 300m indoor Locate range 1000m outdoor 2000m outdoor 3000m outdoor Location finding Triangulation, TDOA, RSSI, RSSI, TDOA Novel accurate location finding algorithm proprietary location method techniques Zone tracking, item-level Item -level tracking Accurate item-level tracking Location accuracy tracking 1m to 3m 0.3m to 1m 1.5m to 6m ISO 24730 based detection Standards based, novel Standards based, novel Solution for dense solutions to operate in dense solutions to operate in dense environment of environment environment tracking items 1-5 years 3-10 years 3-10 years, low cost printed Battery life batteries, energy harvesting (e.g solar cell) Cost of the tag $30 -$100 $10 - $ 50 $1 - $ 10 Networking WiFi (802.11), ISO 24730, WiFi (802.11), UWB, A multi-protocol supporting proprietary network, ultra-wide Bluetooth system band GSM 15
  17. 17. RFID Tags – State of the art Attributes Active Passive Operation 433MHz 2.4GHz LF HF UHF Semi-passive frequency Read range1 <100m <100m <20cm <3m <7m <20 m Memory size 2kbits 2kbits 64-96bits 64-128bits 64-512bits ID size2 sensor memory Security Encryption Encryption Encryption Coding the chip, Write, read lock, Encryption encrypted kill code, random number Form factor Large Large 0.5cm – 10mm 2cmx2cm – 2cmx2cm – Passive2 sensor size >5cmx5cm >5cmx5cm 4cmx10cm 10cmx10cm Cost Expensive Expensive $0.20-$2.00 $0.20-$0.80 $0.20-$0.80 $4 to $20 $5-$50 $5-$50 Tag life Based on Based on Up to 10 years Up to10 years Up to 10 years RF tag portion: battery life and battery life and based on tag based on tag based on tag up to 10 years, usage usage environment environment environment sensor life 1-5 years 3-5 years based on battery life; 1-5 years Read rate 1-20 tags/sec 30-300 tags/sec 30-300 tags/sec Tag environment Not severe in Not severe in Not severe in Not severe in Issues with Potential issues impact typical typical typical typical metal and liquids with metal and environments environments environments environments liquids Interoperability ISO 18000-7 ISO/IEC 24730 ISO 18000-2 ISO-14443, ISO- ISO18000-6 ISO-15693 standards (433 MHz) (2.4 GHz) 18092, ISO (Parts A, B &C), (sensor tag) 18000-3, EPC EPC Class 0, HF Gen 2 EPC Class 1 Gen 1 EPC class1, Gen 2 Coupling Electro Electro - Capacitive/ Inductive Electro - Electro - mechanism –magnetic magnetic inductive magnetic magnetic backscattering backscattering Anti-collision Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 16
  18. 18. Roadmap – Active tags in SAL Active RFID Tags: Roadmap attributes for Smart Active Labels State of the art 2007 Mid term 2012 Long term 2017 Attributes Added functionality Time & temperature Temperature, time, Environmental sensing, display sensing, source tracking humidity sensing, source tracking Sensor integration Sensor integrated on the Sensor integrated on Sensor integrated on silicon chip tag with RFIC silicon chip (e.g. MEMS) (e.g. MEMS) Integrated EAS No Yes Yes Tag life Dependent on battery life Dependent on battery life Single use tag Single use, or multi-use tag Single use, or multi-use tag Security Password protected data Password protected data, Password protected data, encryption encryption Read range 1-10m Up to 30m Up to 100m Battery life Up to 1 year Up to 1 years Up to 3 years Cost of the tag $4 - $10 $2 - $5 Under $1 Form factor Credit card from factor Credit card form factor Label Networking EPC and ISO standard EPC and ISO standard, EPC, ISO standard, autonomous based, proprietary Zigbee, proprietary network Tagged item No No Yes location (RTLS) 17
  19. 19. Roadmap – Low functionality passive tags Roadmap of key attributes for ultra-low functionality passive tags State of the art (2007) Mid term (2012) Long term (2017) Attributes Cost Min. 12 cents Min. 5 cents Min. 1 cent Memory size (License 64-128 bits 64-256 bits 64-256 bits plate) Memory type WORM WORM/ RW WORM/RW Antenna type Antenna and chip on inlay Printed antenna - coupled to Antenna integrated on chip chip Attachment to product/ Label applied to product Partially integrated into Totally integrated into the packaging product, tag antenna printed on product product Chip type Si Si Si or polymer Read distance 1-2 m 1-2 m 1-2 m Speed of reading 100 tags/sec 300 tags/s 600 tags/s EAS No Yes Yes Password read No Yes Yes Proximity tags Difficult to read Readable Readable Power requirement at the Up to 100mW Up to 1mW Up to 0.01mW tag Tag on metal mounting No No Yes 18
  20. 20. Roadmap – High functionality passive tags Roadmap of attributes for high functionality passive RFID tags State of the art (2007) Mid term (2012) Long term (2017) Attributes Cost Min. 25 cents Min. 10 cents Min. 5 cents Memory size (license plate) 256bit -2kbit 256-64kbits 256-64kbits Memory type RW RW RW Antenna type Antenna and chip on inlay Printed antenna - coupled to chip Antenna integrated on chip Attachment to product Label applied to product Partially integrated into product, tag antenna Totally integrated into the product printed on product Chip type Si Si Si Read distance 1-3m 1-6m 1-10m Speed of reading 100 tags/sec 300 tags/sec 600 tags/sec EAS Yes Yes yes Password read Yes Yes yes Proximity tags Difficult to read Readable Readable Sensors (temp/pressure/ Connected Integrated (MEMS ) Integrated (MEMS) humidity/light) Selective killing of data on tag No Yes Yes Selective locking of data on tag Yes Yes Yes Partitioned read zones protected Yes Yes Yes by passwords Encryption No Yes Yes Tag networks - tag to tag No Yes Yes communication Memory write technologies CMOS EEPROM Ferro-electric RAM based high speed EEPROM High speed EEPROM Tag on metal mounting No No Yes 19
  21. 21. Roadmap – Printed TFT based RFID tags Roadmap of key attributes for Printed TFT-based RFID tags State of the art 2007 Mid term 2012 Long term 2017 Attributes Operating frequency LF to HF HF HF-UHF On-board memory 4-32 bits 128 bits 1Kbit Memory type Read only Write once read many Read/write many (WORM) Read range <4cm Up to 1m Up to 3m Infrastructure Very little Compatible with LF and Compatible with UHF compatibility HF infrastructure infrastructure Integration level Discrete components: Integrated RFID tag as RFID tag (chip + antenna) directly antenna, RF and memory label printed on product/packaging Physical size of the tag 4 cm2 - 25cm2 2cm2 – 10cm2 1cm2 – 5 cm2 Anti-collision Unavailable Limited availability Widely available 20
  22. 22. Contacts Email contacts: Prasanna Kulkarni Prasanna.kulkarni@motorola.com Dan Gamota gamota@motorola.com Jim McElroy jmcelroy@inemi.org 21