RFID Chips


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RFID Chips

  1. 1. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology Philip Ihewuokwu Shaki Hughes -19 RFID Technology
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Applications/Uses of RFID technology </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of RFID Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Principles of RFID Systems </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Tags </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Backend Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns About RFID Technology </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>-19 RFID Technology
  3. 3. <ul><li>What is RFID? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An identification method relying on storing and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>-19 RFID Technology
  4. 4. <ul><li>RFID Technology Background: </li></ul><ul><li>First known device was IFF transponder (Identification Friend or Foe) </li></ul><ul><li>Invented by British in 1939 – used by allies in WWII to identify friend </li></ul><ul><li>from foe. </li></ul><ul><li>Mario Cadullo patented first true ancestor of modern RFID in 1973. </li></ul><ul><li>Initial device was a passive radio transponder used by toll systems and </li></ul><ul><li>had a memory size of 16 bits. </li></ul>-19 RFID Technology
  5. 5. <ul><li>Uses and Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Track tagged objects e.g. Merchandise at stores, luggage at airports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contactless identification card eg. RFID passports and debit cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highway toll systems </li></ul></ul></ul>-19 RFID Technology
  6. 6. <ul><li>Application: </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tags provide the same functionality as barcodes though have a globally unique identifier. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No line of sight necessary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification can be performed contactless </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not susceptible to dust, dirt, or vibrations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>-19
  7. 7. <ul><li>Operating Principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near Fields: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive /Capacitive Coupling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Far Fields: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backscatter Coupling </li></ul></ul></ul>Communicate Through a RF Channel -19 RFID Technology Received data transmitted to computers within network
  8. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>5.1 What is Inductive Coupling? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of energy from one circuit to another through a shared magnetic field powers microchip. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circuitry uses load modulation to send data back to reader. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>-19 RFID Technology
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>5.2 What is Backscatter Coupling? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses electromagnetic waves to transfer data from RFID tag to reader. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic waves emitted from reader are reflected by tag in the direction in which they were received. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>-19 RFID Technology
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>6.1 Also called transponders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Two types of transponders: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive transponders: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do not have own power supply </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much cheaper to manufacture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>operating at low frequencies (typically 135 kHz or 13.56 MHz) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active transponders: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must have own power source, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>longer ranges and larger memories. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ability to store additional information sent by the transceiver </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>-19 RFID Technology
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>6.2 Components of a RFID Tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Microchip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rectifier + limiter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Slicer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shift register & Logic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IF Oscillator (intermediate frequency) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power on reset </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) Antenna </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For receiving and responding to radio-frequency queries from an RFID reader </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) Encapsulation/packaging </li></ul></ul></ul>-19 RFID Technology
  12. 12. 6.3 RFID Tag Architecture -19 RFID Technology
  13. 13. 6.3 RFID Tag Architecture -19 RFID Technology <ul><li>Data Slicer: </li></ul><ul><li>The detector consists of an envelope detector (diodes) and an average filter </li></ul><ul><li>Shift register & Logic </li></ul><ul><li>The shift register (SR) is responsible for loading the received bit of information from the decoder </li></ul><ul><li>IF Oscillator (Intermediate frequency) </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the logic chosen, from the (shift reg. & logic) it can operate as a –stable trigger circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>Power on reset: </li></ul><ul><li>The power-on-reset circuit is composed of a cross-coupled pair of transistors and a NOR gate. </li></ul><ul><li>The NOR gate compares the two gate signals insuring a power-on-reset for the logic blocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Rectifier + Limiter: </li></ul><ul><li>The rectifier consists of a three-stage full-wave voltage doubler cascade. The rectifying devices are diode connected transistors. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Also called transceivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting element between RFID tags and backend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components of Readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antenna and other communication devices. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reader sends an N-bit serial number and only the transponder that contains this serial number wakes up . </li></ul></ul>-19 RFID Technology RFID Tag
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Consists of Middleware and Applications: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interface towards the application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access control for accessing data associated with tags </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decoupling of system components. </li></ul></ul></ul>-19 RFID Technology
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Problems respecting data security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple to disrupt service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul>-19 RFID Technology
  17. 17. Design and Optimization of Passive UHF RFID Systems Publisher : Springer US Copyright: 2007 ISBN: 978-0-387-35274-9   RFID Security and Privacy Concepts, Protocols, and Architectures Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg ISBN: 978-3-540-79075-4 http://rfid-handbook.com -19 RFID Technology
  18. 18. Luggage bag: http://www.barcoding.com/Industry/airline/baggage-tracking.shtml luggage tag: http://www.flickr.com/photos/civex/2527717137/ debit card: http://www.crunchgear.com/2008/06/04/hooray-my-creditdebit-card-now-has-rfid/ passport http://infosecurity.us/?p=5959 Picture of reader www.uktelematicsonline.co.uk/html/rfid.html toll system transponder: http://www.nanoprinttech.com/gallery/FasTrak_transponder.jpg       -19 RFID Technology
  19. 19. No? THE END -19 RFID Technology