RFID and IoT


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RFID and IoT

  1. 1. CASAGRAS Open Seminar 1 th December 2008, Shanghai The role of RFID within the Internet of Things Eldor Walk, FEIG Electronic GmbH
  2. 2. RFID and the Internet of Things <ul><li>Introduction and Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Key Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of RFID Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction and Definitions <ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio frequency or wireless communication used for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identification purposes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet of Things </li></ul><ul><li>refers to a network of real world or real world related objects </li></ul><ul><li>RFID connects the real world to the Internet </li></ul>
  4. 4. Applications <ul><li>CE RFID, a project funded by the European Commission, developed the RFID Reference Model </li></ul><ul><li>The RFID Reference Model </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to structure RFID applications </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiates RFID application fields as “mainly object tagging” and “tagging with reference or potential reference to individuals” </li></ul><ul><li>Model defines 40 RFID applications (called “subcategories”) summed up to 8 “Application Fields” </li></ul>
  5. 5. The RFID Reference Model A. Logistical Tracking & Tracing G. Sport, Leisure, Household B. Production, Monitoring, Maintencance H. Public Services F. eHealth Care E. Loyalty, Membership, Payment C. Product Safety, Quality, Information D. Access Control, Tracking & Tracing
  6. 6. RFID Reference Model http://www.rfid-in-action.eu/internal/documents/copy_of_rfid-reference-model/ce-rfid-brochure-reference-model RFID-Application Fields Description A. Logistical Tracking & Tracing <ul><li>Solely identification and location of goods and returnable assets (e.g. pallets or containers) </li></ul>B. Production, Monitoring and Maintenance <ul><li>Smart systems in combination with RFID-Technology to support production, monitoring, and maintenance of goods and processes </li></ul>C. Product Safety, Quality and Information <ul><li>Applications to insure quality (e.g. sensors to monitor temperature) and product safety (e.g. fight against counterfeiting) </li></ul>D. Access Control and Tracking & Tracing of Individuals <ul><li>Single function tags for identification and authorisation applications for entries and ticketing </li></ul>E. Loyalty, Membership and Payment <ul><li>Smart Card based identification and authorisation systems for multi-functional applications (e.g. loyalty, payment, and banking systems) </li></ul>F. eHealth Care <ul><li>Systems for hospital administration and smart systems to support and monitor health status </li></ul>G. Sport, Leisure and Household <ul><li>Sports applications, rental systems (e.g. cars or books), smart home </li></ul>H. Public Services <ul><li>Systems mandated by law or to fulfill public duties (e.g. ID-Cards, Health Insurance Cards, Road Tolling Systems) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Applications <ul><li>Library </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory management </li></ul><ul><li>Self checkout and return of books and media </li></ul><ul><li>Remote check of availability </li></ul>
  8. 8. Applications <ul><li>Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking and tracing </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory management </li></ul><ul><li>Automated goods receiving and shipment </li></ul>
  9. 9. Applications <ul><li>Health care </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time inventory management </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Patient safety </li></ul>
  10. 10. Applications <ul><li>Public transport </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic fare management </li></ul><ul><li>Toll collection </li></ul><ul><li>Airline baggage tracking </li></ul>
  11. 11. RFID and the Internet of Things <ul><li>Introduction and Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Key Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of RFID Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  12. 12. RFID Key Characteristics related to the Internet of Things <ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object-connected data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Wireless connection <ul><li>Information exchange by electromagnetic radio link </li></ul><ul><li>Allows mobility of connected objects </li></ul><ul><li>Basically no line of sight is necessary to be connected </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple simultaneous connections </li></ul><ul><li>Different frequency bands, UHF and HF, offer different properties </li></ul>
  14. 14. System Characteristics and Environmental Effects <ul><ul><li>Communication zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penetration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple reading </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Basic layout of communication zones </li></ul></ul>Communication zones <ul><ul><li>Antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic system, e.g. UHF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive system, e.g. 13.56 MHz </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Communication zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of an UHF system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>without reflections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with ground reflections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>top view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>side view </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>No necessity of line-of-sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited by absorption effects </li></ul></ul>Penetration Multiple Reading
  18. 18. Object-connected data <ul><li>Simple RFID tags carry only an identification code </li></ul><ul><li>More sophisticated tags can carry any kind of digital data and content. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Object-connected data <ul><li>support the management or processing of any kind of a variety of entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-assemblies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pallets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Containers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals and human beings </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. RFID and the Internet of Things <ul><li>Introduction and Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Key Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of RFID Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  21. 21. Categories of RFID Systems <ul><li>Passive RFID tags </li></ul><ul><li>Active RFID tags </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor tags </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of RFID and other technologies </li></ul>
  22. 22. Passive RFID tags <ul><li>Two main components </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed or variable data memory </li></ul><ul><li>Radio frontend </li></ul>
  23. 23. Active RFID tags <ul><li>Additional components </li></ul><ul><li>Battery </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Unit </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sensor tags <ul><li>Important components </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor </li></ul><ul><li>A/D converter </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sensor nodes <ul><li>Sensor tag plus a microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Communication links to other sensor nodes and readers </li></ul>
  26. 26. Combination of RFID and other technologies <ul><li>Mobile RFID applications </li></ul><ul><li>Information services </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile payment </li></ul>
  27. 27. RFID and the Internet of Things <ul><li>Introduction and Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Key Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of RFID Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  28. 28. Standards and Regulations <ul><li>Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Important IoT related standards and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul>
  29. 29. Categories of Standards and Regulations <ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Regional or national regulations, directives, decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Air interface protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Data standards </li></ul><ul><li>Network standards </li></ul><ul><li>Application standards </li></ul>
  30. 30. Important IoT related Standards <ul><li>Frequency specifications and air interface protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Tag data standards such as identifiers and codes </li></ul><ul><li>Network standards (naming, addressing and querying the real world) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Challenges <ul><li>Adequate frequency spectrum for passive and active tags, sensor tags and sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability between different edge technologies like RFID and barcode </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability between data structure and network standards of different formal and industry standardisation organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable security standards and guidelines. Different application areas need a different level of security. </li></ul>
  32. 32. RFID and the Internet of Things <ul><li>Introduction and Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Key Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of RFID Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  33. 33. The role of RFID within the Internet of Things <ul><li>Enabling technology for the “Internet of Things” </li></ul><ul><li>RFID connects the Internet to the real world </li></ul><ul><li>RFID makes items “smart” and able to communicate with their environment </li></ul><ul><li>RFID is a framework for a wide range of applications </li></ul>
  34. 34. Eldor Walk [email_address] Feig Electronic GmbH www.feig.de