Radio Frequency Identification


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Radio Frequency Identification

  1. 1. Management of Technology Radio Frequency Identification © 2006 Dr. R. Siriram
  2. 2. RFID General Overview <ul><li>Radio frequency identification </li></ul><ul><li>Is really not a specific technology, but an entire class of “Tagging” items by radio accomplished methods. This is done by a variety of means </li></ul><ul><li>RFID has been much hyped recently as a replacement for the barcode… and more.. </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy concerns have cropped up </li></ul>
  3. 3. RFID History <ul><li>WWII roots as the British put IFF transponders in pallets (Identification: Freiend or Foe) to identify returning aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>In the 70’S, Los Alamos developed RFID tagging of nuclear equipment and personnel for safety </li></ul><ul><li>Amtech (Transcore) and Identronix spun off released research </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle stock monitoring, tracking (after trying and failing to use bar code technology) through railroads </li></ul>
  4. 4. RFID History <ul><li>Some obvious spin-offs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fleet vehicle identification (tractors/trailers/cargo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toll collection on highways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast lane (automated toll collection) uses an active transponder operating in the 900MHz band </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote keyless entry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1984, several manufacturers, several flavors </li></ul>
  5. 5. RFID Flavours <ul><li>Operating Frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>900/1800MHz, LF, MF, VHF, UHF, microwave </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programmability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WORM (Write once, read many times) usually at manufacture or installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct contact or RF (reprogrammable 10,000-15,000 times) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full read/write (Identronix had some 64KB proptotypes by 1984) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. RFID Flavours <ul><li>Operating schemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitter- where batteries provide electrical power for tag (clearly has it’s disadvantages) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transponder-where tag receives power and clocking from the reader…. This is what is of keen interest today. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. RFID Further Development 1985 AB RFID SYSTEM
  8. 8. RFID Further Development <ul><li>By the mid 1980’s, RFID development shifted to improve performance, cost, size rather than new applications </li></ul><ul><li>Many (BIG) companies were now getting involved: Motorola, TI, BTG, Microelectronic, Philips, Sokymat </li></ul><ul><li>A brief Foray into the technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID (particularly the passive/transponder variety) by its very nature and design depend upon proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This relates to both how it works and how it is used. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Sensetable In Hiroshi’s group, Sensetable uses some varieties of RFID tagging
  10. 10. Intel Research RFID Glove <ul><li>Glove-based reader and broadcast using Crossbow/UCB Mica2Dot Mote </li></ul><ul><li>Some assembly parts are shown on the right </li></ul>
  11. 11. Terminology <ul><li>Passive tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power extracted from the RF field, no battery on board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not initiate communication, can only respond to reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-passive tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have a battery on board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not initiate communication, can only respond to reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have a battery on board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can initiate communication to reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly communicate peer-to-peer </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. RFID Communication Model Reader Power from reader Power commands Tag responses Reader antenna
  13. 13. What does a reader do? <ul><li>Remotely powers tags </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes a bidirectional data link </li></ul><ul><li>Inventories tags, filters tag reads </li></ul><ul><li>Publishes reads to higher level data systems </li></ul>
  14. 14. Case 1: One reader, one tag Reader
  15. 15. Case 2: One tag, many readers Reader Singulation (Anti-collision)
  16. 16. Case 3: Many readers, many tags Reader Reader Channel sharing
  17. 17. RFID System engineering <ul><li>Choice of operating frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory limits </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of communication protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Tag IC, tag antenna design </li></ul><ul><li>Reader, reader antenna design </li></ul><ul><li>Proximate materials </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of external interference </li></ul>
  18. 18. RFID Operating Frequencies <ul><li>US/Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>125 KHZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13.56 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>902-928 MHZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 GHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>125 KHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13.56 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>868-870 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 GHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ASIA/Pacific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>125 KHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13.56 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>950-956 MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 GHz </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. RFID Operating Frequencies Library book tracking Pallet and container tracking Building access control Airline baggage tracking Apparel item tracking Does not work well near metal Limited range, making it less useful for warehouse and many other supply chain related applications than UHF Frequency accepted worldwide Works well in most environments In wide use today High Frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz Animal ID Beer tracking Automobile ID and anti- theft systems Limited read range, making it unsuitable for warehouse and many other supply chain related applications Frequency accepted world wide Works well near metal In wide use today Low Frequency (LF) 125 KHz-134KHz Common use Limitations Benefits Radio Frequency
  20. 20. RFID Operating Frequencies Access control for vehicles Frequency not licensed worldwide Complex systems development required Not in wide use today Read ranges longer than 6 feet Microwave 2.45GHz Pallet and container tracking Truck and trailer tracking (within shipping yards) Tracking of individual items within pallets and containers Frequency not licensed worldwide Does not work well in moist environments Read ranges longer than 6 feet Rapidly growing commercial use (especially with supply chain applications) Ultra High Frequency (UHF) 868MHz-928MHz Common use Limitations Benefits Radio Frequency
  21. 21. Reader to tag power transfer Reader Reader Antenna Separation distance d <ul><li>If a reader transmits Pr watts, how much power Pt does a tag receive at separation distance d? </li></ul><ul><li>It depends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At HF via inductive coupling : P t ∞ 1/d 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AT UHF via far field propagation: P t ∞ 1/d 2 </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Limiting Factors for passive UHF RFID <ul><li>Reader transmitter power Pr (Gov. limited) </li></ul><ul><li>Reader receiver sensitivity Sr </li></ul><ul><li>Reader antenna gain Gr (Gov. limited) </li></ul><ul><li>Tag antenna gain Gt (Size limited) </li></ul><ul><li>Power required by tag Pt (Silicon processes limited) </li></ul><ul><li>Tag modulator efficiency Et </li></ul>
  23. 23. Typical UHF operating parameters <ul><li>Reader Transmit power Pr = 30dBm (1watt) </li></ul><ul><li>Reader Receiver sensitivity Sr = -80Dbm(10 -11 Watts) </li></ul><ul><li>Reader Antenna Gain Gr = 6dBm </li></ul><ul><li>Tag Power Requirement Pt = -10dBm (100 microwatts) </li></ul><ul><li>Tag antenna gain Gt = 1dBi </li></ul><ul><li>Tag Backscatter Efficiency Et = -20dB </li></ul><ul><li>System operating wavelength = 33cm (915MHz) </li></ul>
  24. 24. What is AIT?
  25. 25. Automatic identification Technology Not just RFID
  26. 26. Scenario
  27. 27. Networked RFID Tags
  28. 28. CMB Project
  29. 29. Applications: Promotional Events
  30. 30. Applications: Safe Return Home
  31. 31. Applications: Road Information
  32. 32. Convergence Trend
  33. 33. Considerations <ul><li>Usage parameters ( How far, how fast, how many, how much, applied to what, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Tag and label issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement, orientation, design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety and regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Backups </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors/traducers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tag isolation </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Considerations <ul><li>Data rates </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication, who talks first </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power source </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-collision </li></ul>
  35. 35. Lesson’ learnt <ul><li>Site survey is critical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine frequency interferences in area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test plan is mandatory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power is a major hurdle </li></ul><ul><li>Computer connectivity is not always guaranteed </li></ul><ul><li>Standards should be reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability, scalability, and modularity are critical to the design requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Reconfiguration of the facility could be a problem </li></ul>
  36. 36. Controversy <ul><li>The dark side of RFID tagging is that the technology could be used to invade privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Products could be tracked into a home, marketing could be targeted on products in the home, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchases could be tied to people, etc. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Conclusion <ul><li>This is a very hot, hyped field right now, it remains to be seen how this technology is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply-chain people think it’s the best thing, ever, while privacy advocates think it’s the worst </li></ul><ul><li>There is plenty of info on RFID, Some reference sites are: </li></ul>