Abstract

The project is to locate and track a moving object in a confined area e.g. a patient in a

nursing home or a for...
•   To track forklifts and/or other mobile machinery in a large industrial complex, such

    as a warehouse. This applica...
Figure 1 - Diagram of triangulation


•   Micropower impulse radar. This technology would require the radar device and a

...
computer (PC). The central computer would used for location resolution and display.

    The software for this system woul...
Figure 4 - RFID Technologies


http://home.att.net/~randall.j.jackson/rfid.htm

Operating Environment

To discuss operatin...
from such sources as computer components and power supplies. Temperature range

    of operation is expected to be approxi...
Forklift Application

       •   Technology will not operate in a hazardous environment (IR sensitivity to

           dus...
Frequency Detection Unit

       •   Unique identification of tracked objects is not possible.

       •   Transmitters mu...
Design Objectives

The design must include

   1. A frequency detection unit that could detect radio signals from tags att...
Machinery tracking

The second application would be to track objects such as forklifts in a warehouse setting.

This syste...
•   The detectors would need a very short latency to allow for fast calculations.

   •   The detectors would need a very ...
•   The tag would need to be encoded with unique identifiers in order to distinguish

       between all persons.

   •   ...
The area of coverage varies depending upon the technology employed for the project.

Infrared detection requires a line of...
Another constraint for the team members is to make the sensors differentiate between the

sources. When the sensor (IR det...
Selection of the application and technology

   •   The team is currently researching on several technologies from which o...
Technical approaches and design

There are three kinds of technical approaches to be chosen.



Cell-based tracking system...
6 meters. The MIR concealable sensors can be located anywhere you want. The system

detects motion by repeatedly monitorin...
•   Line of sight not necessarily needed

   •   Transponders are generally very low cost

   •   At low frequencies, can ...
Micropower impulse radar tracking system

Micropower impulse radar (MIR) tracking system has two parts: MIR concealable

s...
Radio Triangulation

Radio triangulation would consist of two parts: a transmitter, and multiple receivers.

Advantages:

...
To test the functions of the program individually.

Performance Testing

To test the whether the program is going well as ...
Will occur if the plan is too big and the project does not meet the financial budget or in

the middle of the project, the...
Do not plan well what is the milestone about and cannot head to the directions on which

one to accomplished during the se...
The estimated personal effort budged for the project is outlined below.

Personnel                    Original Estimated E...
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Project Plan

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Project Plan

  1. 1. Abstract The project is to locate and track a moving object in a confined area e.g. a patient in a nursing home or a forklift in a factory, or to track computers or other assets. Various technologies under consideration include a cell based tracking system using radio frequency identification (RFID), asset tracking system using detectors, micropower impulse radar tracking system using electromagnetic pulses, infrared beacon tracking system, and radio triangulation and telemetry tracking system. The results of this project could have many applications in domestic and commercial products. Definition of Terms Triangulation: Measuring distance using the travel time of radio signals propagating within a combination of two or more receivers (satellites) and a transmitter Telemetry: The transference of data over a wireless channel RFID: Radio frequency identification LOS: Line of sight LED: Light emitting diode LCD: Liquid crystal display MIR: Micropower impulse radar Introduction General Background The project involves developing a local area tracking and monitoring system. The system is to be designed for one of three possible applications. 1
  2. 2. • To track forklifts and/or other mobile machinery in a large industrial complex, such as a warehouse. This application would require on-demand tracking of the exact location of the entity. A central computer would be used to display location information. • To track residents of a nursing home, in order to ensure that they stay on the premises. This application would require continuous tracking to determine perimeter violation, along with the location of that perimeter violation. A central computer would be used to display location information • To deter computer or equipment theft. A perimeter violation system would be implemented to trigger alarms should any protected piece of equipment break the perimeter. Periodic location resolution is sufficient for this application. Technical Problem In order to implement a system for one of these applications, several technologies are being researched. These technologies are outlined below. • Radio triangulation and telemetry. This technology would require two or more receiving antennas, a transmitter located on the tracked object, extremely accurate time synchronization equipment, and a central computer (PC). The central computer would be used to display location information, as needed. The software for this system would be programmed in C++ or Visual Basic. 2
  3. 3. Figure 1 - Diagram of triangulation • Micropower impulse radar. This technology would require the radar device and a central computer (PC). The central computer would be required to do several tasks such as filtering, imaging, and identifying tracked objects. Thus, the central computer would need to be quite fast. The software for this system would be programmed in Matlab and C++/Visual Basic. Figure 2 - A typical micropower radar • Infrared beacon. This technology would require an infrared source (such as an LED), to be carried by each tracked object, two rotating infrared receivers, and a central 3
  4. 4. computer (PC). The central computer would used for location resolution and display. The software for this system would be programmed in Visual Basic. Figure 3 - Example of infrared detection • Frequency detection unit. This technology would require a transmitter on each tracked object, and strategically placed receivers. This system would not be able to discriminate between objects. The output would simply be whether or not a signal is detected. • Radio frequency identification. This technology would require radio frequency transponders on each tracked object, radio frequency reading units to be placed strategically throughout the tracking area, and a central computer. The central computer would be used to display location information, and could be either a PC or a microcontroller and LCD display. The software would be written in C or Assembly. 4
  5. 5. Figure 4 - RFID Technologies http://home.att.net/~randall.j.jackson/rfid.htm Operating Environment To discuss operating environment, each application must be examined separately. • For the forklift application, the technology would be operating in an industrial setting. The system should then be able to function in a fairly dirty environment, as dust and other contaminants may be present. The system should also be resistant to any electrical interference caused by operating machinery, within reason. Some resistance to both high and low temperatures would be needed, with an operating range approximately between 0-110 degrees Fahrenheit. • For the human tracking system, the technology would be operating indoors and outdoors. The system should not be affected by electronic equipment commonly found in offices. Temperature range of operation is expected to be approximately between 0-110 degrees Fahrenheit. • For the computer security application, the technology would operate in an office or lab setting. The system should be adequately shielded from electronic emissions 5
  6. 6. from such sources as computer components and power supplies. Temperature range of operation is expected to be approximately between 60-80 degrees Fahrenheit. Intended User/Uses To discuss intended user and uses, each application must be examined separately. Currently, the team is considering three specific applications. However, this technology could be employed for a variety of other applications. • The forklift application is intended for use by plant managers or manufacturing engineers. It is to be used to track the locations of mobile equipment uniquely, so that a particular piece of equipment can be found on demand. • For the human tracking system, the intended user would be an administrator of a nursing home or medical care facility. The system would be used to detect entry to or exit from certain areas to protect patients or residents. An example would be to detect the exit of an Alzheimer’s patient from the facility, in order to protect them from wandering away. • The computer security system is intended to be used by IT or equipment managers. The system would be used for security purposes to detect the removal of computers or other valuable equipment from the facility. Assumptions Assumptions will be listed by application. 6
  7. 7. Forklift Application • Technology will not operate in a hazardous environment (IR sensitivity to dust and contaminants). Human Tracking Application • The tracked person shall not remove a transmitter or transponder, or subject them to adverse conditions. Computer Security Application • Tracked materials shall only be removed from the building via doors (perimeter monitoring only). Limitations Limitations shall be listed by technology. Radio Triangulation • All transmitted signals must be low power to reduce interference. Micropower Impulse Radar • Unique identification of two or more of the same type of entity, such as two identical forklifts, is not possible with this technology. • Multiple radar sites can only be implemented if the central computer is of sufficient speed to handle the extra load, due to cost considerations. Infrared Beacon • Line of sight is necessary for this technology to determine position. • Continuous tracking of entities is not possible. • Beacons and receivers must be kept clean. 7
  8. 8. Frequency Detection Unit • Unique identification of tracked objects is not possible. • Transmitters must not be blocked or enclosed in radio frequency dampening materials. Radio Frequency Identification • Continuous tracking is impossible due to cost considerations. • Transponders must not be blocked or enclosed in radio frequency dampening materials. Design Requirements Design objectives and functional requirements This project will require two main things: something to monitor and some way to monitor it. In designing this system, the team has considered three main applications and several technologies to use in implementing the system. Asset monitoring The first application considered is asset monitoring and protection. An example of such an application would be to track computers and peripherals making sure that they did not violate an arbitrary perimeter, thus ensuring they would not be stolen. This system would not need to distinguish between different components. To implement this system, many objectives must be met. 8
  9. 9. Design Objectives The design must include 1. A frequency detection unit that could detect radio signals from tags attached to assets. 2. A tag attached to each asset that sends out radiation to be picked up by the detector. Functional Requirements • The detectors would have to be placed at all possible exits from the room to ensure maximum security. Leaving out such things as windows would greatly undermine the value of the system. • The detectors would need to set off an alarm when the perimeter is breached by an asset. • The detectors would work by reading a tag attached to each item being tracked. The detectors would need a source of power and would need to be relatively small so as to fit in areas such as doorways and windows. • The tags would be very small and passive in nature. They would be very small and inconspicuous and could easily fit inside computers without affecting the operation of the tags or the computers. • The tags would all be identical thus making it impossible to distinguish between each item. 9
  10. 10. Machinery tracking The second application would be to track objects such as forklifts in a warehouse setting. This system must be able to distinguish between each individual vehicle wishing to be tracked. This system would involve several requirements. Design Objectives The design must include 1. An active beacon device attached to each vehicle wishing to be tracked. 2. Multiple detectors located strategically throughout the warehouse depending on warehouse dimensions to allow for triangulation throughout the warehouse or manufacturing facility. 3. A central computer that receives signals from all the detectors to compute and display the location of all vehicles. Functional Requirements • The beacon would need to be powered and would need to have a sufficient range for the signals to propagate to the detectors, through walls if need be. • The beacon would need to send out a unique identification code at short intervals that would be detectable by multiple detectors. • The detectors would need to be able to process multiple signals at once coming from all vehicles. • The detectors would need to be networked in some way to allow for the triangulation calculations. 10
  11. 11. • The detectors would need a very short latency to allow for fast calculations. • The detectors would need a very accurate timing mechanism to heighten the precision of the system. • The computer would need to be know the location of all the detectors. • The computer would need to be able to quickly process all incoming data. • The computer would need to display location information in a meaningful way. Human tracking The third application would be to track people inside a confined area. Some uses include tracking patients inside a nursing home to make sure they don’t try to leave, and tracking prisoners inside a prison to make sure that they are always in an area that they are authorized to be in. The best way to implement such a system would be to detect the transition between rooms using a radio frequency identification system. Such a system would have several requirements. Design Objectives The design must include 1. A small identification tag would need to be worn by all persons being tracked. 2. Detectors would need to be placed at every transition point, most likely doorways, driveways, etc. 3. A central computer would be needed to process all transactions. Functional Requirements 11
  12. 12. • The tag would need to be encoded with unique identifiers in order to distinguish between all persons. • The tag would need to have a sufficient range (5-10 feet) for the signal to reach the detectors. • The tags would be powered by a signal from the detectors and thus would only work in near proximity to the detectors. • The detectors must constantly send short bursts of power at a suitable frequency to charge the tags. • The detectors must be able to read and identify the identification code sent back by the tags. • The detectors must be networked to some central computer informing it of which tags have crossed what point. • The computer must be able to accept signals from all detectors. • The computer must be able to display location information upon demand. • The computer must be able to set off an alarm in case of perimeter breach. Design Constraints Cost Due to unavailability of a sponsor, the team is facing a financial constraint. The team is uncertain about using off-the shelf components that has affected the level of design of the project. To counter this limitation, the team is looking for an appropriate sponsor. Coverage Area 12
  13. 13. The area of coverage varies depending upon the technology employed for the project. Infrared detection requires a line of sight (LOS) operation. This would require multiple sensors in a small area depending upon the beamwidth of the radiation. Asset tracking system is only limited to the boundaries of the covered area. Similarly, micropower impulse radar has an ability to penetrate but the penetration power decreases as the materials electrical conductivity increases. Precision of Location Even the sophisticated global positioning systems (GPS) have a location accuracy of 5-10 meters. This is enormous for tracking an object within a building. For rotating Infrared beacons, the intersection of the two arcs guided over the target by the radiations can reveal the actual position. However, this technique is limited by the funds as well as requires extraordinary cleaning and prevention from dust that can ruin the operation of IR. Target Visibility One of the major considerations for the team members is the target’s continuous possession of a source (IR diode, RF transponder etc.) that makes it visible to the sensor. This might be inappropriate in some of the project’s applications where the target cannot wear a source continuously (monitoring the movements of the patients in a hospital). Source (target) discrimination 13
  14. 14. Another constraint for the team members is to make the sensors differentiate between the sources. When the sensor (IR detector, EM radiations of MIR) has multiple targets within its range, it should be able to distinguish between those. Temperature Temperature range of the system is expected to be 0-110 degrees Fahrenheit. Extreme temperatures are expected to affect the performance of the system. Code The team members are restricted by the programming language that is known by members of the team. The team has not yet decided about the language to be used. Interference The system should be adequately shielded from the electronic emission and fields of other computers and power supplies. These interfering electromagnetic signals are harmful for the performance of the system especially for MIR and computer security technologies. Measurable Milestones Cost • The project should be completed within the expected budget. Time • The project should be completed within the allocated time. 14
  15. 15. Selection of the application and technology • The team is currently researching on several technologies from which one will be chosen for the final project. Performance • The project should be able to perform up to the desired limit. It should come up to the required specifications and track the target as expected. Deliverables • All the formal deliverables (reports etc.) should be deposited on the scheduled time. Presentation of a working prototype • The team should be able to present a working project at the end of two semesters. End Product Description The end product shall have a variety of applications in commercial areas including monitoring the movements of machinery in a factory setting, tracking patients in a nursing home, or keeping computers secured in any building. This product will be designed to be less expensive and more functional than the alternatives. Approaches and Design 15
  16. 16. Technical approaches and design There are three kinds of technical approaches to be chosen. Cell-based tracking system This system can be designed by using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. It uses two kinds of frequency to vary detect range from 1-3 meters for low frequency (>500KHz) to 20+ meters for high frequency (>10MHz). It would require three main parts: transponders, reading units, and transmit/receive antennas. Transponders are located on each tracked object. When the object arrives within a reading unit range, the reading unit reads its ID, and relays its information to the central computer to identify and make the decision. Asset tracking system using detectors This system could be used for simple and advantage applications. It has passive modules, simple detectors, and alarm system. The passive modules are attached on each asset (such as television, computer, etc); detectors are located on each door or window. When an asset passes through one detector, the alarm system will alarm. Micropower impulse radar tracking system Micropower impulse radar (MIR) tracking system uses very short electromagnetic pulses, so it can detect objects at much shorter range. This system has two parts: MIR concealable sensors and alarm system. The effective range of MIR concealable sensor is 16
  17. 17. 6 meters. The MIR concealable sensors can be located anywhere you want. The system detects motion by repeatedly monitoring the echo pattern to see if it changes. A change means an intruder has entered the radar bubble, so it triggers an alarm. Radio Triangulation This technology works as a coordination between two or more receivers and a transmitter. The location of the transmitter can be determined by calculating the propagation time of the radio signals between the transmitters and the receivers. A very common example of radio triangulation is the global positioning system (GPS). Infrared Detection This technology works on the principle of IR source/sensor combination. The object to be located and tracked should wear either an infrared reflector or an IR LED, which act as the source. The Infrared rotating beacon with a considerable beamwidth and coverage area can be used as a sensor. The relative position of the target with respect to the beacon can give information about its planar location. Two such beacons can also accurately determine the position by the intersection of their tracked arcs over the target. Advantages and Disadvantages Cell-based tracking system Cell-based tracking system would require three main parts: transponders, reading units, and transmit/receive antennas. Advantages: 17
  18. 18. • Line of sight not necessarily needed • Transponders are generally very low cost • At low frequencies, can transmit through some media • Other data can also be transmitted along with the ID Disadvantages: • Reading units are expensive, hence continuous tracking of entities is unlikely • Location would be determined by “last cell crossed” • Modern systems use specialized IC’s, design of which is beyond the scope of this team’s knowledge To design this system, suitable frequency, power, ID and reading unit should be chosen. Asset tracking system using detectors Asset tracking system would have passive modules, simple detectors, and alarm system. Advantages: • Easy installation • It can be easily used • Have many more uses Disadvantages: • Expensive To design this system, suitable passive modules, simple detectors, and alarm system should be chosen. 18
  19. 19. Micropower impulse radar tracking system Micropower impulse radar (MIR) tracking system has two parts: MIR concealable sensors and alarm system. Advantages: • Easy installation • It can be use easily • Security Disadvantages: • The penetration of MIR signals through a material decreases as that material’s electrical conductivity increases. To design this system, suitable MIR concealable sensors and alarm system should be chosen. Infrared detection Infrared detection would consist of two parts: the infrared source, and sensors. Advantages: • Easy installation • Accuracy • Low power consumption Disadvantages: • High maintenance • Must be kept clean • Line of sight operation • Hard to differentiate between multiple sources 19
  20. 20. Radio Triangulation Radio triangulation would consist of two parts: a transmitter, and multiple receivers. Advantages: • Reliable • Proven technology • Great expandability • Huge coverage area Disadvantages: • Large error margin • Expensive • Can not be used in confined areas Testing Description There are some of the testing approach to test the end product and the intermediate products in order to the product to work efficiently. It will divided by two parts, one is the software testing and another one will be hardware testing. For the software part Module Testing To test each module of the program individually. Black Box Testing 20
  21. 21. To test the functions of the program individually. Performance Testing To test the whether the program is going well as written to perform the product. For the hardware part Environment Testing The test the devices whether it operates under actual conditions. Quality Testing Test the product whether it is stable or not, like reliability, and maintainability. Recovery Testing To actual test the devices whether it will have faults like having loss of data, power goes off out of the sudden and find solutions to recover the faults. Maintenance Testing Use tools and procedures to maintenance the devices and tired to keep the system to be stable. Risks and risk management Technical Failure Some problems on the technical approach due to equipment failure or the design failure. To overcome this, start it early and have more time to trial and errors to make it to the best Shortage of Financial assistance 21
  22. 22. Will occur if the plan is too big and the project does not meet the financial budget or in the middle of the project, there is some error in the financial budget that causes a shortage of funds. To solve this, there must be sure and clear planning of the financial budgets. No Sponsors to assist the project Maybe no sponsors will be found as it is not in their interest. To solve this, the team will need to make the objectives of the project clear and target specific companies that are interested or related to the project. Unforeseen Events/Incidents This will be a sudden risk when doing the project, it is normal that some of the members have some personal problem and will not able to turn out for meeting, cannot able to finish up his part of work. To solve this, the member should inform the other members as soon as possible and have some discussion. It is teamwork and everyone should help each other when one is in trouble. Unable to counter problems Have some difficulties on some of the issue and the advisors are not free or do not have office hours. To solve this, more mentors, like faculty members or persons who are experts in the field, must be found. We can have other alternatives beside advisors when emergencies occur. Time shortage 22
  23. 23. Do not plan well what is the milestone about and cannot head to the directions on which one to accomplished during the semester. To solve this, goals must be set and a precise date to accomplish them. Other considerations include the team members availability. Conflict between team members In the process of doing the project, there may be conflicts between team members. This may result in not accomplishing milestones. Therefore, the team must work in a cooperative manner. Financial Budget The estimated financial budget for the entire project is outlined below. Item Original Estimated Cost Labor $0 Equipment/Parts $1500 Telephone/Postage $0 Printing $150 Total Estimated Cost $1650 Table 1 - Financial Budget The labor costs were calculated from an estimate of the total team workload for the project. The equipment/parts section was calculated assuming that sponsors or other (financial) assistance can be found. No telephone or postage costs are projected. The printing costs will arrive from the printing of the poster. The total is simply a sum of all the parts. Personnel Effort Budget 23
  24. 24. The estimated personal effort budged for the project is outlined below. Personnel Original Estimated Effort Brent Gill 107 Eric Jackson 99 Muhammad Umar Sheikh 102 Shih-Hau Kuan 106 Hui Liu 97 Total 511 Table 2 - Personnel Effort budget The team members have tried to utilize their time efficiently in order to meet the project requirements. 24

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