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  1. 1. RFID Prepared by Rui Wang Ram Katepally
  2. 2. Any Guesses??
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction and Background </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Components </li></ul><ul><li>Data Transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Data Management </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is RFID ?
  5. 5. IBM Commercial for RFID Supply Chain
  6. 6. RFID <ul><li>Its first use is in World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Global RFID Market spent $2.7 billion in 2006, and is projecting $26.2 Billion By 2016. </li></ul><ul><li>More and more companies are looking forward to deploying RFID. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>RFID Tag(a.k.a Transponder) </li></ul>Physical Components
  8. 8. Physical Components <ul><li>RFID Reader(a.ka Interrogator) </li></ul>Handheld Reader PlugNPlay Readers Microprocessor + Circuit board + Antenna Fixed Reader
  9. 9. How do they work together? Reader (Transceiver Antenna) Tag (Transponder) 2 1 Passive Mode
  10. 10. <ul><li>Active Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in Battery makes tags broadcasting, reader becomes the listener </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-active Mode </li></ul><ul><li>passive mode with battery assisting </li></ul>
  11. 11. RF Electromagnetic spectrum Works better on metal and water products Longer reading range, and faster reading speed
  12. 12. RFID Standards
  13. 13. RFID data Architecture Enterprise System Middleware Readers Tags Items Enterprise Interface Feature Implementation Reader Interface
  14. 14. Elements of an RFID System
  15. 15. Ubiquitous RFID data Readers
  16. 16. RFID Data <ul><li>Data generated from an RFID application is seen as a stream of RFID tuples of the form EPC, location, time. </li></ul><ul><li>large amount of data redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Compressing multiple items that stay together at a single location is vital in order to reduce the enormous size of the cleansed RFID database. </li></ul>
  17. 17. RFID Data Analysis <ul><li>The essence of RFID is automated data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Databases are thus a critical part of most RFID systems </li></ul>
  18. 19. RFID data management & Challenges <ul><li>How to interpret the enormous volume of data that an RFID application generates? </li></ul><ul><li>Walmart generates around 7 terabytes of data every day. </li></ul><ul><li>Database vendors like Oracle, IBM and Teradata provide solutions to integrate RFID information into enterprise data warehouses. </li></ul>
  19. 20. RFID Back-End Database <ul><li>The RFID system has several RFID readers at the front-end, and a database at the back-end </li></ul><ul><li>Real-life RFID deployments employ a wide variety of physically distributed RFID readers, access gateways, management interfaces, and databases. </li></ul>RFID TAGID ContainerContents 123 Apples 234 Pears
  20. 21. RFID Back-End Database(cntd..)
  21. 23. Data Architecture(cntd..) <ul><li>Node servers </li></ul><ul><li>Reside inside the reader hardware and check if tags are registered. </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Server </li></ul><ul><li>- Routes tag reads from node servers to interface servers for applications. </li></ul><ul><li>- Also periodically checks with node servers to make sure they are still running. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Data Architecture(cntd..) <ul><li>Interface Server </li></ul><ul><li>- Based on the raw data from cluster server, Interface server computes higher level events. </li></ul><ul><li>- Maintain connection with applications </li></ul><ul><li>- Also respond to event Queries by applications </li></ul><ul><li>Application Server </li></ul><ul><li>- Runs the application logic and UI. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Smart Card Commercial
  24. 26. Case Study - RFID Credit Cards <ul><li>RFID chip or contactless smart card chip </li></ul><ul><li>require only physical proximity of credit card and the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Use a small radio transponder that is energized and interrogated by a reader </li></ul><ul><li>According to Visa &quot;This has been the fastest acceptance of new payment technology in the history of the industry&quot; </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>RFID card readers capture the information such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Cardholder Name </li></ul><ul><li>Complete credit card number </li></ul><ul><li>Credit card expiration date </li></ul><ul><li>Credit card type </li></ul><ul><li>Information about software version and supported communications protocols </li></ul>
  26. 28. Security Threats of RFID Smart Cards <ul><li>Skimming Attack </li></ul><ul><li>- No cryptography or passwords were required to obtain this data </li></ul><ul><li>Eavesdropping Attack </li></ul><ul><li>Captures a copy of transmission between a legitimate credit card reader and an RFID credit card. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Security of Tags and Readers
  28. 30. Conclusion <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>No line of sight required </li></ul><ul><li>Enable automated process </li></ul><ul><li>Read multiple tags </li></ul><ul><li>Increase accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><li>Costly </li></ul>
  29. 31. Questions?