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  1. 1. RFID Technology… Trends and Challenges April 2006 By Nalini Mahadeo RFID Technology… Opportunities and challenges
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To educate, inform and share information on a rapidly growing technology. </li></ul><ul><li>To create a forum for discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>To facilitate development of a network amongst RFID stakeholders. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>RFID History </li></ul><ul><li>RFID system components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags, Readers, Spectrum, Antennas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFID Models </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Market Trends </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards, Security, Privacy, Societal impact </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What is RFID? <ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification or RFID refers to the set of technologies that use radio waves for identifying objects or people. </li></ul>Identification System Wireless Link ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Item to identify
  5. 5. RFID Characteristics <ul><li>Does not require line of sight </li></ul><ul><li>Can withstand harsh environments </li></ul><ul><li>Can be reused </li></ul><ul><li>Can be read in groups </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for data security </li></ul>
  6. 6. RFID History
  7. 7. <ul><li>Three Main Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Tags (or transponders) - carry identifying data </li></ul><ul><li>Readers (or transceivers) - read/write tag data & interfaces with system </li></ul><ul><li>Back-end infrastructures - process the data </li></ul>RFID Basics RS485 Serial Interface Computer ID Tag Reader
  8. 8. RFID System: Components
  9. 9. Readers <ul><li>Communicate with RFID tags. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called an interrogator because it “interrogates&quot; the tag. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Radio Modules and Readers
  11. 11. Tags <ul><li>Passive Tags </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Passive Tags </li></ul><ul><li>Active Tags </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tag Types > 7 TTD > 0.7 TTD > 37 TTD Price < 150 ft 4” - 15ft ~ 300ft Distance Yes (not used for communication) No Yes (used for communication) Battery Semi-Passive Passive 67% (2004) Active 33% (2004)
  13. 13. Tags- Passive
  14. 14. Tags- Active
  15. 15. Smallest Tag <ul><li>World smallest RFID chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.45 GHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive transponder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 cm reading distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery-less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure (ROM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplicity </li></ul></ul>0.4 mm x 0.4mm x 0.15mm approx. 50mm
  16. 16. Spectrum Plan <ul><li>Radio Spectrum -limited Resource for RFID </li></ul><ul><li>FCC Part 15 (NA)- 902-928 MHz (50 channels) </li></ul><ul><li>ETSI 208 (EU)- 865.6-867.6 MHz (10 channels) </li></ul><ul><li>Reader signal and Tag signal need to be separate </li></ul>
  17. 17. Spectrum 100% 2004 125 KHz 6.78 MHz 13.56 MHz 433 MHz 868/915 MHz 2.45 GHz LF HF VHF UHF μ wave Card key, access control Baggage handling, tracking hospital equip Supply chain, materials management
  18. 18. Frequency, Antenna & Range
  19. 19. Networked RFID
  20. 20. Regulatory Considerations <ul><li>Usage of channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial, Scientific, & Medical (ISM) Bands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrowband or Spread Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Power limits </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment certification </li></ul>
  21. 21. Market trend
  22. 22. RFID Cost trend
  23. 23. Miniaturization and declining prices
  24. 24. Korea’s Roadmap
  25. 25. Future trends
  26. 26. Challenges <ul><li>Governance of resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of UIDs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards-setting and interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ITU to coordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Protection and Consumer Privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity of data and its use </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. RFID Standards <ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 11784, ISO 11785,ISO 14223 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart card </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 10536, ISO 14443, ISO 15693 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Item management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 18000 series, EPC Global, GTAG initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 10373 (Smart Card) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Standards Organisations International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) IEEE INCITS International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (United Nations) TC 122/104 JWG SC Apps RFID TC 8 Ships & Marine Tech SC 31 Automatic Data Capture ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) ITU-T (fka CCITT) Telecommunications ITU-R (fka CCIR & IFBR) Radio-frequency Issues ITU-D (fka BDT) Telecommunications Development ECMA Comité Européen Normalisation (CEN) Comité Européen Normalisation Electrotechnique (CENELEC) Comité Européen Postal & Telegraph (CEPT) TC 104 Freight Containers International Regional National Standards Assoc of China (SAC) AFNOR Deutches Institut fur Normung (DIN) JISC ANSI British Standards Institution (BSI) AIM MHI GS 1 CEA Industry Other DoD ATA CEA AIA HIBCC AIAG GS 1 Other WG 1 - Symbology WG 2 - Data Content WG 3 - Conformance WG 4 - RFID Universal Postal Union (UPU) (United Nations) T6 B10 SC 17 IC Cards VDA ODETTE WG 5 - RTLS TC 122 Packaging SC 6 Telcom & info exch btwn systems
  29. 29. Types of Standards <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Data Content </li></ul><ul><li>Conformance </li></ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><li>Application Standards </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Unauthorized disabling tags </li></ul><ul><li>Spoofing and Impersonation </li></ul><ul><li>Passive signal interception of signals from the RFID tag or Reader </li></ul><ul><li>Unauthorized reading of RFID tag </li></ul><ul><li>Hacking tool for RFID tag is available on Internet </li></ul><ul><li>More elaborate cases of attacking RFID tags </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy infringement </li></ul>Data Protection
  31. 31. Privacy <ul><li>Impact of consumer concerns over Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Is being addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of clarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to avoid divide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to convince users to progress </li></ul></ul>PRIVATE
  32. 32. Privacy <ul><li>Socio-ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer rights </li></ul><ul><li>Public Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Economic/Market </li></ul><ul><li>Self Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Codes of Conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy certification </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer education </li></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul><ul><li>ID Management </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal/Regulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer consent </li></ul><ul><li>Collection limitation </li></ul><ul><li>Use limitation </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul>Privacy Protection
  33. 33. Business Life Infrastructure Potential to change lifestyles ( Physical distribution, Inventory control ) ( Guidance for handicapped people or tourists ) ( Food safety, Products traceability ) Potential Impact of RFID
  34. 34. Summary <ul><li>Expected to be most dense, customer installed radio network </li></ul><ul><li>Data deluge- another internet/cellular communication system </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors and item level tagging may take us from mission critical retail to revolutionary lifestyles </li></ul>
  35. 36. Thank You! <ul><ul><li>Ms. Nalini Mahadeo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: 675-8288 </li></ul><ul><li>Fax: 674-1055 </li></ul><ul><li>Email: </li></ul>