Radio Frequency Identification Jessica Palmer Center for Logistics Management University of Nevada Reverse Logistics Execu...
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Definition <ul><li>A wireless method of identifying unique items using radio waves. ...
Features <ul><li>Three Main Components to an RFID System </li></ul><ul><li>Active and Passive Types </li></ul><ul><li>Read...
Three Main Components <ul><ul><li>1. An antenna or coil: emits radio signals to activate the tag and read / write data to ...
Tag Frequencies <ul><ul><li>Low (LF): typically 125 KHz (30 KHz to 500 KHz)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High (HF): typical...
Ranges <ul><li>Anywhere from a few millimeters to 100 feet or more, depending upon its power output and the radio frequenc...
Active vs. Passive Types <ul><li>Where the power comes from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passi...
Read / Write Capabilities <ul><li>Read-Only (identify product with tag) </li></ul><ul><li>Write Once Read Many (WORM – ide...
RFID System Hierarchy
Shapes and Sizes <ul><li>Shapes: any shape at all – screw shaped to insert into trees (wood), credit card shaped for acces...
Rafsec’s Smart Labels
Square Tag
Cylinder Tag
Glass Medium
Plastic Medium
History <ul><li>Military origin in the 1940’s to identify aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify: friend from foe (IFF) <...
Benefits of RFID over Barcodes <ul><li>Non-contact </li></ul><ul><li>Non-line-of-sight nature </li></ul><ul><li>Robustness...
Constraints in Using RFID with Regard to Bar Codes <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic or other conductive material en...
Current Uses <ul><li>Transportation (vehicle - RR cars - and container ID) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-theft (the white tags at...
Future Uses <ul><li>Casino chips </li></ul><ul><li>Detection of potentially harmful food </li></ul><ul><li>Robotic warehou...
Cost Analysis
Standards in Progress <ul><li>Global Tag (GTAG) </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul>
International Standard Differences <ul><li>US: frequencies used are 902-928 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>Europe: frequencies used...
Application of RFID on Key Reverse Logistics Management Elements <ul><li>Gatekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>Compacting Disposit...
Examples of RFID Currently In Use <ul><li>WhereNet (Santa Clara, CA) and Associated Food Stores (SLC,UT) </li></ul><ul><li...
Associated Food Stores’ Utilization of WhereNet Corporation’s Technology <ul><li>Associated Food Stores has been using Whe...
Technologies Associated with RFID <ul><li>Electronic Price Codes (EPCs) – a 96-bit unique identifier code (a standardized ...
Speculations on Increasing RFID Usage <ul><li>Closed-Loop Logistics Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Totes </li></ul></ul><ul...
RFID Resources <ul><li>MIT’s Auto ID Center:  www.autoIDcenter.org </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Center for Excellence </li></ul>
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  • RFID is a way of digitally serializing products at their individual level rather than at a UPC level in order to gain visibility throughout the supply chain. Particularly important in this age of outsourcing and using 3PLs.
  • Explaining how RFID works
  • Low (LF): Typically 125 KHz (30 kHz to 500 kHz) experience less environmental interference and are omnidirectionally readable because they have short reading ranges (within three feet). Rate of data transfer is slow. Most commonly used in security access, asset tracking, and animal identification applications. High (HF): Typically 13.56 MHz (850 KHz to 950 KHz) transfer data faster and can have long read ranges (10 feet). Used for such applications as railroad car tracking and automated toll collection. Incurs higher system costs. Ultra-high (UHF): Typically between 300 MHz to 1900 MHz. Sends information faster than the others. These frequencies pass through fruit and water where radio waves do not. Most expensive and use the most power. Read ranges greater than 90 feet. Microwave (VHF)
  • Active vs. Passive Types Active: powered by an internal battery, typically read / write, generally gives longer read range. Larger size, more expensive, and limited operational life (which may yield a max. of 10 years, depending upon operating temperatures and battery type). Passive: where the power comes from the interrogating / reading transmitter. Power generated from the reader, virtually unlimited operational lifetime. Require shorter read ranges and a higher-powered reader. Mostly read-only and are programmed with a unique set of data (usually 32 to 128 bits) that cannot be modified. Semi-passive: has a battery, but goes to sleep until woken up by the transmitter
  • -4- Read-Only: preprogrammed and cannot be altered – gain significance when correlated to a database. Mostly operate as a license plate into a database in the same way as linear barcodes reference a database containing modifiable product-specific information. .Write Once Read Many (WORM) .Read/Write: part’s tag gives the machine instructions, then the machine reports actual performance back to the tag where it becomes the part’s history, relieving the memory and processing duties of central controllers or host computers -4-Tags are available in a variety of memory types and data capacities. Permanent, read-only memory generally has a s/n programmed during the manufacture of the tag. It has unlimited life. RAM (random access memory) requires a battery to maintain its data. Data capacity of RAM varies from 2K bytes to more than 32K bytes. Many EEPROM (electronically eraseable programmable read only memory) tags have specifications for limited write cycles of about 100,000, although they can often be written reliably to more than 500,000 cycles. Read cycles are unlimited. Data capacity of EEPROM memory varies from a few hundred bytes to several hundred, and the data itself has a life of 10 years or more. Recently developed FRAM (Ferroelectrical Random Access Memory) is gaining popularity among factory automation applications. Without a battery, FRAM has virtually unlimited write cycles of RAM.
  • http://www.teknopel.com/rf-id1.htm
  • -6- The Rafsec company of Finland (www.rafsec.com) sells smart labels on thin polyester film with permanent adhesive backing. The memory is 512-bit with a fixed 64-bit serial number and a free 384-bit user memory that can be configured to a read-only or read-write state. An anti-collision protocol permits reading 50 or more smart labels simultaneously. Rafsec recommends their smart labels for parcel and post services, industrial logistics, retail, libraries, rental services, airline luggage tags, and counterfeit protection. { http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?Did=000000117463259&amp;Fmt=4&amp;Deli=1&amp;Mtd=1&amp;Idx=3&amp;Sid=2&amp;RQT=309}
  • The concept of RFID systems originated in the 1940’s as a means of distinguishing friendly aircraft from enemy aircraft. Large powered RFID tags, or transponders, were placed on friendly aircraft. When interrogated by a radar signal, these transponders would give the appropriate response to identify the carrying aircraft as ‘friendly.’ This IFF (Identify: Friend or Foe) system was the first obvious use of RFID and present day aviation traffic control is still based on IFF concepts. Through the 1970’s, RFID systems research remained primarily a government-sponsored endeavor. The primary catalyst for this research was the need for safety and security surrounding several government programs, particularly those involving the use of nuclear materials. The invention of the microchip and subsequent technological advances led to the design and use of passive RFID tags. The lack of on-tag power reduces their cost, but forces passive RFID tags to obtain their power from the interrogation signal of the tag reader. The minimal power obtained in this manner limits their read range to a few feet. In the late 1970’s, the U.S. government transferred its RFID technology to the private sector through the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories. One of the first commercial uses of this technology was the tagging of livestock in Europe. By the early 1980’s, RFID tags were manufactured by several United States and European companies. Today, these tags are used in a wide range of applications from access control to livestock management to logistics management.
  • Non-contact Non-line-of-sight nature Robustness: the label is better protected from the environment - can be read through opaque environmental conditions (snow, fog, ice, paint, crusted grime) Efficiency: Can be read at remarkable speeds, in most cases responding in less than 100 milliseconds Read/write capability (obvious advantages) Ability to scan numerous different products at once Data capacity Re-usability and durability Security through encryption Marking process: information about the logistics unit can be added at any point once the it is known and is fully automated.
  • Due to the complicated / technological nature of RFID, it will never be as cost effective as barcodes, however, the practicality of employing RFID systems and tagging items really depends on the ROI rather than the cost of the product.
  • Dry Cleaners
  • A. Gatekeeping – known information of who, where, when and how a product was bought (w/o receipts) as well as the return policy of that particular product at the point of potential return B. Compacting Disposition Cycle Time – with write capabilities, reason codes can be written onto the returned product and already entered into a database; for retailers, all returned products can be placed in one (secure? Like a laundry shoot?) bin and automatically sorted- all without paperwork C. Reverse Logistics Information Systems – information scanned can be directly linked with an in place RLIS for accurate inventory management D. Centralized Return Centers - E. Zero Returns - F. Remanufacturing and Refurbishment – G. Asset Recovery - historical information on the transponders can help determine the disposition and practicality of asset recovery H. Negotiation – maximizing the purpose of commodity negotiation is the information of cost and return policies stored on each product, facilitating contract adherence I. Financial Management - J. Outsourcing –
  • WhereNet (Santa Clara, CA) and Associated Food Stores (SLC,UT) – see next slide -5- Escort Memory Systems (Scotts Valley, CA) and Toyota-South Africa – Toyota recently replaced its old job card system with an RFID solution in order to install an Automated Tracking System in its manufacturing facility. 14 passive reader/writers are mounted on the auto paint shop dollies and hangers, which provides a remote database at each. This allows Toyota to track vehicles at any point during the painting process, as well as track the maintenance records of each dolly and hanger, reducing downtime. For more information see www.controleng.com/freeinfo -6- En-Vision America, Inc. (Normal, IL) and Scrip Talk^sup TM is designed for the elderly and sight-impaired. It is a handheld device that lets your prescriptions talk to you, identifying what’s in the prescription container and the schedule for taking the medication. See what the label looks like at www.envisionamerica.com/grst1.html
  • -1- EPCs are codes that uniquely identify a product; like serial numbers that can be read by XML regardless of the scanning technology used. RTLS: (real-time locating systems) can locate objects by searching with radio signals in addition to providing object identification (like GPS systems)
  • -9- “For retailers, this pilot is the first step toward addressing their biggest problem – the last 50 feet, getting the product to the shelf”
  • Auto ID Center -9- RFID Center for Excellence – formed to define where, within the supply chain process will have the greatest benefit and to translate these benefits into increased functionality regarding supply chain execution applications. Unilvever and Georgia-Pacific joined with McHugh Software International, Intermec Technologies Corp., Marconi InforChain and CHEP International to help consumer goods manufacturers take potentially billions of dollars out of the supply chain, increase supply chain velocity and improve customer service through the use of wireless technology.
  • (MS PowerPoint Format)

    1. 1. Radio Frequency Identification Jessica Palmer Center for Logistics Management University of Nevada Reverse Logistics Executive Council Woodland, CA August 7, 2002
    2. 2. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Definition <ul><li>A wireless method of identifying unique items using radio waves. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Features <ul><li>Three Main Components to an RFID System </li></ul><ul><li>Active and Passive Types </li></ul><ul><li>Read/Write Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes and Sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Tag Frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Ranges </li></ul>
    4. 4. Three Main Components <ul><ul><li>1. An antenna or coil: emits radio signals to activate the tag and read / write data to it – they are the conduits between the tag and the transceiver. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. A transceiver (with decoder): controls the system’s data acquisition and communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. A transponder (RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Tag Frequencies <ul><ul><li>Low (LF): typically 125 KHz (30 KHz to 500 KHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High (HF): typically 13.56 MHz (850 KHz to 950 KHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultra-high (UHF): typically between 300 MHz to 1900 MHz. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microwave (VHF) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Ranges <ul><li>Anywhere from a few millimeters to 100 feet or more, depending upon its power output and the radio frequency used. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Active vs. Passive Types <ul><li>Where the power comes from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-Passive </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Read / Write Capabilities <ul><li>Read-Only (identify product with tag) </li></ul><ul><li>Write Once Read Many (WORM – identify tag with product) </li></ul><ul><li>Read/Write </li></ul>
    9. 9. RFID System Hierarchy
    10. 10. Shapes and Sizes <ul><li>Shapes: any shape at all – screw shaped to insert into trees (wood), credit card shaped for access applications, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Sizes: many – as small as a grain of rice (common in animal implementation) or as large as a cell phone (common when used in GPS systems – long range communications) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Rafsec’s Smart Labels
    12. 12. Square Tag
    13. 13. Cylinder Tag
    14. 14. Glass Medium
    15. 15. Plastic Medium
    16. 16. History <ul><li>Military origin in the 1940’s to identify aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify: friend from foe (IFF) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primarily government sponsored through the 1970’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress with the invention of the microchip </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tagging of livestock in Europe </li></ul>
    17. 17. Benefits of RFID over Barcodes <ul><li>Non-contact </li></ul><ul><li>Non-line-of-sight nature </li></ul><ul><li>Robustness </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Read/write capability </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to scan numerous different products at once </li></ul><ul><li>Data capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Re-usability and durability </li></ul><ul><li>Security through encryption </li></ul>
    18. 18. Constraints in Using RFID with Regard to Bar Codes <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic or other conductive material environments </li></ul><ul><li>Tags located on or near liquid products </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple data capture: interference between RFID labels </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations: incompatible national and regional regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Human exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Proof of reading </li></ul>
    19. 19. Current Uses <ul><li>Transportation (vehicle - RR cars - and container ID) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-theft (the white tags attached to merchandise in stores) </li></ul><ul><li>Toll booth collection </li></ul><ul><li>Security (access control) </li></ul><ul><li>Automated manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Animal tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle velocity </li></ul><ul><li>Airline baggage </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Ski lift tickets </li></ul>
    20. 20. Future Uses <ul><li>Casino chips </li></ul><ul><li>Detection of potentially harmful food </li></ul><ul><li>Robotic warehouse inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Counterfeit currency prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling – currently sorting is the highest cost of recycling. </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Store check outs </li></ul><ul><li>And many, many more… </li></ul>
    21. 21. Cost Analysis
    22. 22. Standards in Progress <ul><li>Global Tag (GTAG) </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul>
    23. 23. International Standard Differences <ul><li>US: frequencies used are 902-928 kHz </li></ul><ul><li>Europe: frequencies used are 420-460 kHz (over 900 is for cell phone use). Europeans have reservations about what the electrical fields created by radio frequency does to their health. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Application of RFID on Key Reverse Logistics Management Elements <ul><li>Gatekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>Compacting Disposition Cycle Time </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Logistics Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized Return Centers (CRCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Returns – verifications of percentages </li></ul><ul><li>Remanufacturing and Refurbishment </li></ul><ul><li>Asset Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Financial / Inventory Management </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul>
    25. 25. Examples of RFID Currently In Use <ul><li>WhereNet (Santa Clara, CA) and Associated Food Stores (SLC,UT) </li></ul><ul><li>Escort Memory Systems (Scotts Valley, CA) and Toyota-South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>En-Vision America, Inc. (Normal, IL) and Scrip Talk^sup </li></ul><ul><li>SCS Corporation (San Diego, CA) and San Francisco Airport </li></ul><ul><li>Intermec (Everett, WA) and CHEP International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>o OHIO Principle – Zero Human Intervention Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Omron Electronics (Schaumberg, IL) and Sainsbury </li></ul><ul><li>Intellident (Manchester, England) and Marks & Spencer </li></ul>
    26. 26. Associated Food Stores’ Utilization of WhereNet Corporation’s Technology <ul><li>Associated Food Stores has been using WhereNet, Corp.’s WhereTags, which work with a Real-Time Locating System, a wireless technology in which the active tags (about the size of a pager) are placed on any of the company’s high-value, mobile assets, such as trailers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RTLS: (real-time locating systems) can locate objects by searching with radio signals in addition to providing object identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From 127 ship yard employees to 5 </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Technologies Associated with RFID <ul><li>Electronic Price Codes (EPCs) – a 96-bit unique identifier code (a standardized tag) </li></ul><ul><li>Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) </li></ul><ul><li>Real-Time Locating Systems (RTLS) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Speculations on Increasing RFID Usage <ul><li>Closed-Loop Logistics Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Totes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pallets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Containers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smoothing Collaborative Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Replenishment </li></ul><ul><li>Task Elimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issuing Purchase Orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issuing Advance Ship Notices </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. RFID Resources <ul><li>MIT’s Auto ID Center: www.autoIDcenter.org </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Center for Excellence </li></ul>

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