RFID technology  in mobile applications Karol Hrudkay Transport Research Institute , Žilina,  Slovak Republic
RFID technology - introduction <ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification - means to efficiently and quickly auto-identify obj...
Current RFID applications <ul><li>Transport and logistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>toll management, tracking of goods, … </li...
RFID technology - properties <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rough conditions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long r...
Mobile RFID technology <ul><li>Vision of automatic identification and ubiquitous computing – „Internet of objects“ </li></...
Applications of mobile RFID technology <ul><li>Major tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>download and view information represente...
LBS zone <ul><li>Services „related to“ and „available at“ customer's current location </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage: public p...
Mobile RFID security at LBS zone  <ul><li>Security threats and security requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure job del...
Mobile RFID security assessment at LBS zone MP: mobile phone  X: not required SP IS: service's provider IS  0: required 0 ...
Mobile RFID at LBS zone – building blocks <ul><li>Mobile RFID (M-RFID) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phone with RFID reader...
Mobile RFID at LBS zone – security solutions <ul><li>Mutual authentication M-RFID – MO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secure job de...
Mobile RFID at enterprise zone <ul><li>Mobile phone assists mobile staff  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inventory checkers, field ...
Mobile RFID security assessment - enterprise zone MP: mobile phone  X: not required E-EPC: Enterprise's EPC network  0: re...
Mobile RFID at private zone <ul><li>Mobile phone assists user in the private space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>instant call or i...
RFID and standardisation <ul><li>Need for harmonisation at national and international level </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisat...
Areas of RFID standardisation <ul><li>Air interface, protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Data structure </li></ul><ul><li>Conforma...
RFID based mobile telecommunication services <ul><li>Information retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Data transmission </li></ul><...
RFID and SIM card <ul><li>SIM card with embedded RFID capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>benefits of contactless cards into th...
Practical issues <ul><li>Mobile RFID technology - privacy/security issues </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on networks </li></ul><...
Conclusion <ul><li>RFID enables ubiquitous computing – integrating computation into environment </li></ul><ul><li>MP and R...
Thank you for your attention! Karol Hrudkay Transport Research Institute Žilina, Slovakia [email_address]
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Karol Hrudkay

  1. 1. RFID technology in mobile applications Karol Hrudkay Transport Research Institute , Žilina, Slovak Republic
  2. 2. RFID technology - introduction <ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification - means to efficiently and quickly auto-identify objects, assess, people, ... </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time tracking of inventory in the supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tag – tiny computer chip with very small antenna – passive/active </li></ul><ul><li>The chip contain Electronic product code (EPC) – uniquely identify the object </li></ul><ul><li>The antenna transmits EPC to RFID reader – within a certain RF range, without requiring line-of-site </li></ul>
  3. 3. Current RFID applications <ul><li>Transport and logistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>toll management, tracking of goods, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security and access control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tracking people, controlling access to restricted areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supply chain management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>item tagging, theft-prevention, product life cycle, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical and pharmaceutical applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identification and location of staff and patients, asset tracking, counterfeit protection for drugs, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>streamlining assembly line process, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tracking of animals, quality control, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public sector , government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>passports, driver’s licenses, library systems, … </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. RFID technology - properties <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rough conditions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long read ranges, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portable databases, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple tag read/write, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tracking items in real-time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quick scanning of products in large bulks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>automated supply chain management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>significant savings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accuracy of shipment sent and received, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>check on product theft, counterfeiting, product recall, ... </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Mobile RFID technology <ul><li>Vision of automatic identification and ubiquitous computing – „Internet of objects“ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly connected network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dispersed devices, objects, items can communicate each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>real-time information about objects, location, contents, destination, ambient conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>efficient and easy M2M identification, communication and decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Handheld portable devices – mobile phones, PDAs – behaves as RFID readers and tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conventional RFID closer to common user </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Applications of mobile RFID technology <ul><li>Major tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>download and view information represented by RFID tag: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>quickly and easily download info represented by RFID tag and view that info via device's display </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M2M identification and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. RFID mobile device behaves as a RFID tag (authenticate to access, carry out payments, download multimedia content from kiosk, quick call and instant message, ...) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile RFID application zones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LBS (Location-based services) zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enterprise zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>private zone </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. LBS zone <ul><li>Services „related to“ and „available at“ customer's current location </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage: public places, roads, shopping centres, cinemas, ... </li></ul><ul><li>Service provider deploy RFID tagged items/devices </li></ul><ul><li>Various security threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most of tags respond to every mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually tag-reader mutual authentication and strong secure communication tag-phone is not considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>publicly available tags can be fake or illegally modified – one-way authentication mechanism needed (tag -> phone) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Items/product tagged with low-cost passive RFID tags (EPCGlobal Gen. 2 UHF tags) assumed </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mobile RFID security at LBS zone <ul><li>Security threats and security requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure job delegation and trust model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identity and authenticity of provider’s information server, security of transaction, protection of privacy – security delegated to mobile operator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malicious tag information servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it is essential to authenticate and authentic tag information server to be accessed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorised tag information access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>categorisation which user is entitled to download what kind of information - authentication, authorisation, access-control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User privacy protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identity and location of user, user profile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data integrity and confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>secure electronic data interchange is required (MP – SP IS) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Mobile RFID security assessment at LBS zone MP: mobile phone X: not required SP IS: service's provider IS 0: required 0 0 X X Trust model Key/Pwd. management Key/pwd. compromise 0 0 X X Encryption/decryption Digital certificate Eavesdropping 0 0 0 0 X X Authentication Authorisation Access control list Illegal info. access 0 0 0 0 Pseudonyms Anonym. credentials User ID privacy MP – SP IS Tag - MP Security requirement Threat
  10. 10. Mobile RFID at LBS zone – building blocks <ul><li>Mobile RFID (M-RFID) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phone with RFID reader and tag </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFID tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>every tag contains its unique EPC number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>company identification, product number, object unique identifier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>related product information is stored on EPC network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile operator (MO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trust is concentrated at the site of MO – ,trusted proxy’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EPC network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specifically to look up EPC data (like DNS) – further information is stored on databases and servers of EPC network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication can be encrypted </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Mobile RFID at LBS zone – security solutions <ul><li>Mutual authentication M-RFID – MO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secure job delegation, trust model, data integrity and confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mutual authentication MO – EPC IS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MO takes responsibility so select, identify and authenticate only genuine SP (and its servers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certification for identity management, authentication and authorisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M-RFID can request anonymous certificate from MO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M-RFID privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kill the tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lock the tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blocker tag </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Mobile RFID at enterprise zone <ul><li>Mobile phone assists mobile staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inventory checkers, field engineers, maintenance and repair staff, security guards, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>real-time inventory management, work attendance, instructions on how to operate tagged items, identification of and access control to tagged equipments and secure enclosures, presence of staff on monitored places, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>list of employees and items/products, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designing and implementing of key/psw. distribution, data integrity and confidentiality, identification, authentication, and access control among staff, RFID reader, RFID tagged items and EPC network </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Mobile RFID security assessment - enterprise zone MP: mobile phone X: not required E-EPC: Enterprise's EPC network 0: required X 0 X 0 Trust model Key/Pwd. management Key/pwd. compromise 0 0 X X Encryption/decryption Digital certificate Eavesdropping 0 0 0 0 0 X Authentication Authorisation Access control list Illegal info. access X X X X Pseudonyms Anonym. credentials User ID privacy MP – E-EPC Tag - MP Security requirement Threat
  14. 14. Mobile RFID at private zone <ul><li>Mobile phone assists user in the private space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>instant call or instant message by scanning RFID tagged items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characterisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small zone, simple security model – easily deployed and maintained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>off-the-shelf mobile RFID kits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>possible obtain storage space on the EPC network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reader to tag authentication needed (within home) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>user identity and access control list </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. RFID and standardisation <ul><li>Need for harmonisation at national and international level </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisation ensures compatibility and interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Various players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Article Numbering (EAN), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPCglobal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Radiocommunication Office (ERO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Air Transport Association (IATA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Telecommunication Union (ITU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Postal Union (UPU) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Areas of RFID standardisation <ul><li>Air interface, protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Data structure </li></ul><ul><li>Conformance </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Existing standards focus on specific area or sector </li></ul>
  17. 17. RFID based mobile telecommunication services <ul><li>Information retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Data transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Automated messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Voice services </li></ul><ul><li>Device integration </li></ul><ul><li>Presence indication </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile payment </li></ul>
  18. 18. RFID and SIM card <ul><li>SIM card with embedded RFID capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>benefits of contactless cards into the MP using SIM cards as a storage device </li></ul><ul><li>installed, updated cancelled over the air (GSM) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Practical issues <ul><li>Mobile RFID technology - privacy/security issues </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new services will generate more traffic in fixed and mobile networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>how big this impact is, how network design has to change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Internetworking technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how RFID technology can integrate into existing network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>context of RFID applications in MP with other technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RFID – (Internet protocol) IP mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evolution towards active RFID tags with networking capability – large number of tag will need network addresses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Service capabilities, architecture at network and service levels, signalling protocols, QoS, business model </li></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusion <ul><li>RFID enables ubiquitous computing – integrating computation into environment </li></ul><ul><li>MP and RFID – potential for mobile telecommunication services </li></ul><ul><li>Broad range of services, attractive for customers </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of technical questions </li></ul><ul><li>Security and privacy issues </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on fixed and mobile networks </li></ul>
  21. 21. Thank you for your attention! Karol Hrudkay Transport Research Institute Žilina, Slovakia [email_address]

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