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Four Tier Framework for RFID Regulation for medical information

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Four Tier Framework for RFID Regulation for medical information

  1. 1. “ Privacy Implications of RFID Technology in Health Care Settings” Marc Rotenberg President EPIC Dept. of Health & Human Services Washington, DC 11 January 2005
  2. 2. Health Care Applications for RFID <ul><li>Label bulk products </li></ul><ul><li>Label products for patients (amber vials) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify patients - temporary (ID cards) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify patients - permanent (implant) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Multiple Privacy Frameworks <ul><li>Fair Information Practices (FIP) </li></ul><ul><li>HIPAA Privacy Rule (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>EPIC RFID Guidelines (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Common concern: collection and use of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) </li></ul><ul><li>(Non-PII problems arise with data but they are not typically characterized as “privacy concerns”) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Privacy Risks with PII <ul><li>Data mismanagement: inaccurate, incomplete, out of date </li></ul><ul><li>Data misuse: data used for other purposes adverse to the the interests of the data subject (employment, insurance, travel) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of transparency, data subject control </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of freedom </li></ul>
  5. 5. HIPPA AND PII <ul><li>HIPPA Privacy Rule (2002) adopts multiple terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individually Identifiable Health Information (IIHI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected Health Information (PHI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient Identified Information (PII) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deidentified Information (DI) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. EPIC RFID Guidelines (2004) <ul><li>RFID Users (no PII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duties: Notice, disable tags, removal, accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibitions: Tracing, recording data, coercing collection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFID Users (with PII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duties: written consent and application of broad Fair Information Practices, including minimization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rights of RFID Subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access and correct data, remove tags, hold accountable </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Legislative Developments <ul><li>Int’l Privacy Commissioners affirm application of data protection principles and recommend deletion (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>US state bills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massachusetts and Maryland bills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maryland established an RFID task force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California bill provides strong safeguards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearings at the Federal Trade Commission (2004) </li></ul>
  8. 8. EPIC Recommendations on RFID for NCVHS, HHS <ul><li>Adopt Four Tier Approach to RFID Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Tier 1 (bulk distribution of products): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No links to specific individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No collection of PII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No privacy risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No privacy obligations </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. EPIC RFID Recommendations (cont’d) <ul><li>Tier 2 (product distribution to patient): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy risk proportional to collection of PII. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current privacy rules apply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional rules will be necessary (EPIC RFID Guidelines) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. EPIC RFID Recommendations (cont’d) <ul><li>Tier 3 (temporary identification of patients): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current privacy rules apply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant risk of identity theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security concerns become significant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can context be limited? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. EPIC RFID Recommendations (cont’d) <ul><li>Tier 4 (permanent identification of patients): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive and profound. Far-reaching ethical implications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy risk is greatest -- permanent loss of control over disclosure of actual identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 1 m animals have been permanently tagged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HHS should prohibit this practice </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. EPIC RFID References <ul><li>Privacy and Human Rights: An International Survey of Privacy Laws and Developments 115-123 (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed Guidelines for Use of RFID Technology (EPIC 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>“ RFID Technology: What the Future Holds for Commerce Security and the Consumer” (House Commerce Committee 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>“ RFID: Application and Implications for Consumers (FTC 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>EPIC RFID Page, http://www.epic.org/privacy/rfid </li></ul>

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