Final Report




SMART MATTRESS SYSTEM FOR PATIENT IDENTIFICATION

            AND BEDSORE PREVENTION




             ECE...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                                               ...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                           iii

               ...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                          1

1.     INTRODUCTIO...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                          2

          Though o...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                         3

in danger of develo...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                        4




Figure 1. RFID ta...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                           5

were placed betwe...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                             6

doctor’s name, ...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                       7




Figure 2. Movement...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                           8




Figure 3. (a) ...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                             9

Wetness Detecti...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                        10

Wetness Detection C...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                       11

prototype.

       F...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                          12

detection range w...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                        13

The team was divide...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                      14

7.     MARKETING AND ...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                        15


 Table 3. Part Cos...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                      16


 Table 4. Developmen...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                      17


 Table 5. Profit Pro...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                          18




Figure 9. Fina...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                    19

PIC Microcontroller

  ...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                                20

9.    REFERENCES

[1]   R.A...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                                                            21

[9]    C. K. Harmon, “RFID: Upd...
Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03)                 22




                              APPENDIX A

                             ...
23
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Final Written Report.pdf

  1. 1. Final Report SMART MATTRESS SYSTEM FOR PATIENT IDENTIFICATION AND BEDSORE PREVENTION ECE4007 Senior Design Project Section L03, Koblasz Smart Mattress Team Bryan Kuo Priyen Patel Dev Shah Xitij Shah Tim Stamm Submitted December 11, 2008
  2. 2. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary.......................................................................................................... iii 1. Introduction....................................................................................................................1 1.1 Objective ...........................................................................................................1 1.2 Motivation .........................................................................................................1 1.3 Background .......................................................................................................2 2. Project Description and Goals .....................................................................................2 3. Technical Specification..................................................................................................3 4. Design Approach and Details 4.1 Design Approach ...............................................................................................4 4.2 Codes and Standards........................................................................................11 4.3 Constraints, Alternatives, and Tradeoffs .........................................................11 5. Schedule, Tasks, and Milestones.................................................................................12 6. Project Demonstration..................................................................................................13 7. Marketing and Cost Analysis 7.1 Marketing Analysis...........................................................................................13 7.2 Cost Analysis ...................................................................................................14 8. Summary........................................................................................................................16 9. References......................................................................................................................17 Appendix A........................................................................................................................19
  3. 3. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Infections acquired in hospitals cost the healthcare industry billions of dollars each year and result in numerous preventable deaths. These infections can result from patients developing bedsores due to lying stationary for an extended period as well as lying on wet sheets. Another issue is mistaking the patient in the bed for the wrong patient and giving incorrect medication or treatment. To prevent these overlooked problems, the Smart Mattress verifies the correct patient is occupying the bed, detects patient movement, and senses the presence of moisture. Proper patient identification was accomplished by displaying the patient’s name, patient ID, doctor’s name, and unique ID barcode on a PC monitor using RFID to read data from the patient’s wrist or ankle tag. An array of pressure sensors was used to monitor patient movement and warn staff when a patient needed to be moved. To detect moisture, a disposable mattress using a conductive pattern between the top paper layer and the bottom biodegradable plastic layer was placed on the bed. Since polymer, reinforced paper loses its strength when wet, air- laid paper widely used in hospital applications safely provides a flexible, and low cost alternative. The demonstration for the Smart Mattress took place in a classroom of the Van Leer building located on the Georgia Institute of Technology main campus. The functionality of the mattress was tested by simulating several possible scenarios that could occur in a typical patient room. Specifically, a test “patient” went through scenarios demonstrating the functionality of the wetness detection system, the movement detection system, and the patient identification system. When the system is mass-produced, the cost of each unit will be $1,765. With the system being so cheap, a profit margin of 15 percent results in a final selling price of $2,030.
  4. 4. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 1 1. INTRODUCTION Nosocomial infections, which are infections acquired in hospitals are prevalent at a rate of about 9.8 percent per every 1000 days that a patient spends in the hospital. These infections cost the healthcare industry $4.5 billion and caused 88,000 deaths in 1995 [1]. These infections can result from patients developing bedsores from lying stationary for an extended period or wetting the bed. In other instances, the patient in the bed is mistaken for the wrong patient and given incorrect medication or treatment. To prevent these overlooked problems, the Smart Mattress verifies the correct patient is occupying the bed, detects patient movement, and senses the presence of moisture. 1.1 Objective The purpose of the project was to design an inexpensive mattress system that prevents bed-related nosocomial infection and identifies occupants. The proposed features were that the mattress should be able to detect occupant movement; the mattress cover should be able to detect the presence of moisture. Pressure and moisture sensors connected to a system that will notify hospital staff in the event of a problem. The mattress should also identify the patient and display the patient’s name and barcode on a monitor for easy and secure medicine distribution. This product’s target consumers were to be hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes. 1.2 Motivation According to the CDC, 2 million people are infected with nosocomial infections every year. Increasingly, patients are contracting MRSA infections, which are harder to treat with antibiotics, as they are more resistant than normal bacterial infections [2]. Infection rates vary between hospitals and nursing homes, but on average, 10 percent of hospital patients contract an infection, while the average rate in nursing homes is 25 percent [3].
  5. 5. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 2 Though other smart beds are available to hospitals, these beds have many extra features not required by hospitals that already have equipment to perform these functions. The Smart Mattress will operate using stand-alone devices to be cost-effective. 1.3 Background Several different designs for smart beds are used to reduce the pressure on the patient [4]. The problem with the smart beds on the market is they are expensive and only prevent bedsores by detecting patient inactivity, overlooking bed-wetting, which is also a major cause of bedsores. In recent years, expansive research in the commercial uses of RFID has led to major advances in the healthcare industry. The market for RFID tags and systems in healthcare is expected to grow to $2.1 billion by 2016 [5]. In the hospital environment, it is important for the doctor to be able to access a patient’s information as fast as possible in case of an emergency, or to ensure the correct patient is given the correct medication. 2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND GOALS The Smart Mattress was supposed to integrate seamlessly patient identification and bed sore prevention into a typical hospital bed by doing the following: • Identify patients using RFID • Display patient information and barcode on a PC monitor • Detect moisture and pressure that could create bed sores • Alert staff if patient is in danger of developing bed sores The Smart Mattress was to be equipped with a RFID receiver to communicate with wrist or ankle tags worn by the patient. Once the patient was identified, an external PC monitor displayed the name of the patient, patient ID, doctor’s name, and unique barcode that when scanned displays to hospital staff the correct medications to administer. Pressure and wetness sensors also located in the Smart Mattress detected the presence of fluid and monitor pressure changes. If the patient is
  6. 6. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 3 in danger of developing bedsores, the hospital staff was alerted. The expected unit price of the Smart Mattress is $2,030, which is cost-effective in the target market of hospitals and nursing homes. 3. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS The following table shows the proposed and actual technical specifications for the technology used to design the Smart Mattress. The previous passive RFID system did not meet our range detection specifications. An active RFID system proved to be a better alternative as it has a maximum antenna detection range of 35 ft. that is adjustable. A range of three feet was set for the tags, as this range was sufficient for the purposes of detecting the patient lying on the bed. The antenna for the RFID detection system was placed between a 2.5-inch thick high- density memory foam and 1.5-inch thick low-density foam pad. The placement of the RFID antenna in between the two-foam mattress pads and near the bottom of the bed provided the best orientation for detecting a tag worn by the patient around the ankle. The antenna’s large and adjustable maximum detection range of 35 ft secures that a three feet range is attainable. The frequency of 433 MHz was chosen due to the commonality of equipment at this specification. This high frequency is required so as to not interfere with other hospital equipment. Figure 1 shows the ranges that the RFID tags were detected based on the tag plane orientation; the degree measurements were made from the vertical (positive Y) axis. Table 1 shows the specifications that were proposed compared to the final specifications of the Smart Mattress.
  7. 7. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 4 Figure 1. RFID tag orientation Table 1. Technical Specifications The inactivity monitoring system was implemented using four Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) strips to measure the pressure applied by the patient to the mattress. The pressure strips
  8. 8. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 5 were placed between the two foam mattresses on a cardboard base. The sensitivity range of the pressure strips was calibrated by varying the voltage dividers connecting the strips to the Phidget interface kit. Modifying the pressure range allows the pressure strips to measure up to 1,000 lbs. 4. DESIGN APPROACH AND DETAILS 4.1 Design Approach The Smart Mattress project is comprised of patient identification and bedsore prevention features. Patient identification will be accomplished using an RFID system, and bedsores will be prevented by coupling movement and wetness monitoring systems. Each system will be implemented separately using previous groups’ design solutions, and then modified in order to combine them into a full product package. Patient Identification Proper patient identification will be assured by displaying the patient’s name, patient ID, doctor’s name, and unique medication ID barcode on a PC monitor using RFID. The RFID system will have four components: active RFID tags, antenna, a 433 MHz transceiver, and a patient ID database. Each tag has a unique ID corresponding to the tag’s owner. The RFID transceiver signals the tag through an antenna. Upon receiving the transmitted signal from the antenna, the inner circuitry in the tag returns the unique signal representing the binary ID assigned to each patient. The response signal is detected by the antenna, decoded in the transceiver, and then processed on a PC. Once the transceiver detects a tag, the serial number of the tag is compared to a patient ID database on the PC. In this database, information such as the patient’s name will be stored. A bar code will be generated based off the patient’s unique ID. The patient’s name, patient ID,
  9. 9. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 6 doctor’s name, and unique bar code will then be displayed on a PC monitor to help secure proper medication delivery. Bedsore Prevention An array of pressure sensors are used to monitor patient movement and warn hospital staff when a patient needs to be moved. Movements are monitored using the algorithm shown in Figure 2. The movement monitoring system serves three main purposes. The system prevents bedsores by detecting significant movements by the patient, or lack thereof. To accomplish this, the system utilizes the four Trossen Robotics Force Sensing Resistors, which are located equidistant from each other, to calculate the patient’s center of mass. The following is the center of mass equation used. (0*F1 + 1/3*F2 + 2/3*F3 + F4)/( F1 + F2 + F3 + F4) where FX is the force on strip X Eq. 1 In our system, a significant movement is defined as a 20 percent change, in either direction, from the stored center of mass calculation. Finally, the patient monitoring system displays an alarm on the monitor instructing staff to move the patient if the patient is inactive for more than 30 minutes.
  10. 10. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 7 Figure 2. Movement detection algorithm. The pressure sensing was carried out by several force sensing resistors (FSR) from Trossen Robotics. The FSR functions by decreasing its resistance with an increase in force. The sensitivity of the FSR was adjusted using a voltage divider, which was then interfaced with a PC using the Trossen Robotics Interface Kit; all three of these components are shown in Figure 3.
  11. 11. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 8 Figure 3. (a) TR Voltage Divider, (b) TR Phidget Interface Kit, (c) Force Sensing Resistor. Figure 4 shows how the FSRs were laid out in relation to the patient and the mattress. Figure 4. Pressure sensors on Smart Mattress. The middle area of the bed is the best spot to put the pressure sensors because this is the area of the body where bedsores are most likely to develop [6]. The FSRs will be placed in the bed so as not to allow the sensors to bend.
  12. 12. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 9 Wetness Detection System A mattress cover consisting of two conductive loops was created in order to detect wetness on the patient bed. The two conductive loops were made using conductive pieces of tape. These two conductive loops, which are located near the middle region of the bed, were the inputs into our wetness detection circuit. Combined with the patient inactivity monitoring system, the wetness detection system greatly reduces the chances of developing bedsores. The following sections describe how the conductive pattern and wetness detection circuit were designed. Conductive Pattern The conductive pattern and the wetness detection circuit used on the prototype can be seen in Figure 5 below. The two conductive loops are interfaced with the wetness detection circuit using four leads at the edge of the mattress. Wetness is determined by monitoring the output of the wetness detection circuit. Essentially, if the patient urinates on the bed (or wets the bed in some other manner) the two conductive loops are shorted. Once the loops are shorted, the output voltage of the wetness detection circuit is modified. The following section explains how the wetness detection circuit was constructed and how wetness between the two conductive loops affects its output. Figure 5. Picture of conductive loops on prototype.
  13. 13. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 10 Wetness Detection Circuit The wetness detection circuit is shown in Figure 6 on the next page. As seen in the figure, the wetness detection system consists of two 9V batteries, 6 resistors, and two comparators. The conductive loops are in series with R2. Once the bed becomes wet, essentially shorting the two conductive loops, R2 is bypassed. The shorting of R2 leads to a high output voltage for the top comparator. This high output voltage is then processed by the Phidget 8/8/8 interface kit analog input sensor and the PC, and a “wetness alarm” is displayed for nurses to view. Figure 6. Wetness and broken lead detection circuit. Phidget 8/8/8 Interface Kit A Phidget 8/8/8 interface kit was used to interface the inactivity monitoring system and the wetness detection system with the HP Slimline PC. Initially a PIC microcontroller was proposed to integrate all aspects of our design together. Due to time constraints, implementing the PIC microcontroller was not feasible, therefore the Phidget Interface Kit was utilized for the
  14. 14. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 11 prototype. Five of the eight analog inputs of the Phidget Interface Kit will be utilized to integrate the wetness and inactivity detection systems. Four of these analog inputs will be dedicated to monitor the 4 Trossen Robotics FSRs while one of them will be used to sample the wetness detection circuit output. 4.2 Codes and Standards The RFID technology implemented in the Smart Mattress system must meet the stringent codes and standards of typical hospital equipment. RFID antennas pose a threat to patients if they transmit a high-powered signal near patients. To minimize the power radiated by the RFID antenna, the distance between the antenna and its receiver needed to be minimized. Several tests were performed to determine the appropriate proximity of the antenna with respect to the receiver in order to avoid harm to medical patients occupying the Smart Mattress. Furthermore, the RFID system had to meet electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards to prevent the interference with other significant medical equipment [8]. Specifically, the RFID system must meet the standards specified by SC 31, which state that “device manufacturers claiming conformance to this standard shall self-certify that RF emissions and susceptibility comply with IEC 60601-1-2” [9]. The operating frequency of the RFID system integrated in the Smart Mattress is 433 MHz; therefore, it meets the EMC requirements for medical devices. The active RFID system also had to meet transmitting range standards. In order to make sure the RFID transceiver was not reading a patient tag in another room, testing was conducted to verify that the transmitting range was not too large. Furthermore, testing was also done to ensure that the transmitting range of the active RFID system would not read other patient tags in rooms with multiple patient beds. According to tests, which are highlighted in Figure 1, the
  15. 15. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 12 detection range was not greater than 4 ft. in either direction with respect to the transceiver. This range would allow the transceiver to read tags on the bed, but not around the bed where other patient beds might be located. 4.3 Constraints, Alternatives, and Tradeoffs Alternatives to moisture detection systems exist, while complete wetness detection systems requiring no assembly can be purchased. These systems often come with detailed instructions and software to interface with a PC. However, a moisture detection system built by the team will cost less because it can be created using cheap components that are easily obtainable. This system can also be modified to interface with different hardware components. Because cost and flexibility are important considerations in this project, the team-built moisture detection system offers more advantages than a retail system. Homemade RFID antennas present a different situation. Making an antenna is cheaper than buying one. However, buying an antenna decreases the amount of time needed to design and build the patient identification system because the antenna is ready to be used as soon as it arrives. This project is a prototype, so keeping the project within time constraints is more important than reducing costs. 5. SCHEDULE, TASKS, AND MILESTONES The prototype of the Smart Mattress was built according to the timeline given below. Table 2. Project Timeline WBS Task Name Duration Start Finish Difficulty Responsible Person 1 Define Project 21 days 8/18/2008 9/15/2008 Easy All Members 2 Acquire Parts 5 days 9/15/2008 9/19/2008 Easy All Members 3 Implement Microcontroller 11 days 9/22/2008 10/6/2008 Medium Tim 4 Implement Bed Sore Detection 29 days 9/22/2008 10/30/2008 High Bryan, Priyen, Xitij 5 Implement Patient Identification 24 days 9/29/2008 10/30/2008 High Dev, Tim 6 Complete Product 21 days 11/3/2008 12/1/2008 Highest All Members 7 Submit Deliverables 72 days 9/3/2008 12/11/2008 High All Members
  16. 16. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 13 The team was divided into two subgroups that worked concurrently. Bryan, Priyen, and Xitij focused on the bedsore prevention system. Dev and Tim concentrated on the patient identification system. The subgroups met several times a week to work on tasks, and the complete team met at least twice a week with the project adviser to discuss progress, problems, and solutions. Both subgroups separated the tasks into subtasks to define responsibilities. These are shown in the Gantt chart in Appendix A. Construction of the Smart Mattress began on September 22. The hardware was installed first. By October 13, both systems were ready to be tested and debugged independently. The full system was assembled and was ready for demonstration by December 5th, 2008. 6. PROJECT DEMONSTRATION The Smart Mattress was demonstrated in the senior design lab of the Van Leer building located on the Georgia Institute of Technology campus. The team initially gave a power point presentation explaining the background information, general functions and underlying technology of the Smart Mattress. The functionality of the mattress was then tested by simulating several possible scenarios that could occur in a typical patient room. Specifically, a test “patient” went through scenarios that test the functionality of the wetness detection system, the movement detection system, and the patient identification system. For example, to test the wetness detection system, a team member poured water on the mattress. When the system detected the wetness, the wetness alarm turned on to notify a nurse that the mattress was wet. The “patient” also simulated cases that tested how these different systems (wetness detection, pressure detection, RFID, and PC monitor) interact with each other.
  17. 17. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 14 7. MARKETING AND COST ANALYSIS 7.1 Marketing Analysis Many healthcare companies have developed “intelligent” patient beds in response to the increasing occurrence of nosocomial infections. For example, TRADEWIN manufactures an Alternating Pressure Mattress System that monitors pressure distribution and modifies airflow to help prevent bedsores. The TRADEWIN 3000 8” Alternating Pressure Mattress system is sold for $1,350 per unit [10]. MED-AIRE also manufactures a similar alternating pressure mattress for $1,099 per unit [11]. Although the Smart Mattress system costs more than the previously mentioned competitors, approximately $2,030 per unit, it possesses a unique set of features that distinguish it from any intelligent hospital bed in the market. The Smart Mattress system differs from many intelligent patient beds in the health care industry because of its versatility. The proposed mattress system not only measure pressure, but also measure wetness, which is a major contributing factor in the development of bed sores. Along with bed sore prevention technology, the Smart Mattress also utilizes an RFID system to display the patient’s name on a PC monitor located near the hospital bed. The monitor will also display important medication information to prevent any potential medicine distribution errors. 7.2 Cost Analysis Table 3 shows the cost of all the parts that will be used to make the Smart Mattress system. The grand total of the parts to make one Smart Mattress system is $1,055. The most expensive component is the RFID system, which includes the reader and the transmitter.
  18. 18. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 15 Table 3. Part Costs Part Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost FSR Robotics Sensor Kit 4 $27 $108 Phidget 8/8/8 1 $80 $80 Wires/Cables 1 $15 $15 9V Battery 2 $7.50 $15 RFID Tag and Reader 1 $307 $307 Conductive Fabric Tape 100 ft $80 $80 Mattress Foam 1 $150 $150 Bed Sheet 1 $30 $30 HP Slimline PC 1 $250 $250 PC Monitor 1 $50 $50 Total Equipment Cost $1,055 Table 4 shows a list of the costs of developing the Smart Mattress system. Including the labor to develop the system, the total cost of the initial Smart Mattress system is $34,350. The labor cost was estimated based on the starting salary of $52,200 for someone who graduated from the Georgia Institute of Technology with an electrical engineering degree [12]; this equals $26.10/hour based on the 40-hour workweek. Fringe benefits and overhead were calculated at 25 percent each.
  19. 19. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 16 Table 4. Development Costs Component Labor Labor Total Hours Cost Component Cost Pressure Sensor Testing 150 $3,915 $9,135 Wetness Detection Testing 200 $5,220 RFID Sensing 100 $2,610 $5,740 RFID PC Monitor 120 $3,130 Design Meetings 240 $6,265 $6,265 Total Labor 810 $21,140 Total Equipment Cost $1,055 Fringe Benefits, 25% Of Labor $5,285 Overhead, 25% Of Equipment, $6,870 Labor & Fringe Total Overhead $12,155 Total Project Cost $34,350 Table 5 shows the projected costs and revenue of when the Smart Mattress system is put on the market. When the system is mass-produced, the cost of each unit will be $1,765. With the system being so cheap, a profit margin of 15 percent was used for a final selling price of $2,030. The projected rate of sales over five years is 15,000 units, for total revenue of $30,450,000 and a total profit of $3,975,000.
  20. 20. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 17 Table 5. Profit Projection Equipment Cost $1,055 Assembly Labor $12 Testing Labor $8 Subtotal, Labor $20 Fringe Benefits, 25% of Labor $5 Subtotal, Labor & Fringe $1,080 Overhead, 25% of Material, Labor & Fringe $270 Subtotal, Input Costs $1,350 Sales & Marketing Expense, 20% of Production Price $270 Support & Warranty Expense, 10% of Production Price $135 Amortized Development Costs $10 Subtotal, All Costs $1,765.00 Profit, 15% $265.00 Selling Price $2,030.00 Total Revenue, Based on 15,000 Units over 5 years $30,450,000 Total Profit $3,975,000 8. SUMMARY The prototype for the Smart Mattress was successful. The patient inactivity monitoring, wetness detection and patient identification systems were successfully implemented and tested. The inactivity monitoring system detected patients who had remained inactive for too long, and the wetness detection system detected the presence of fluid. Both systems reported the current status of the patient on the monitor. The RFID system identified the patient and displayed the pertinent information on the monitor. The RFID tags were tested at different orientations and ranges and exceeded our expectations. Figure 9 shows the final system with all of the components.
  21. 21. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 18 Figure 9. Final prototype of the Smart Mattress. Future versions of this project should prioritize readying the product for manufacture by decreasing costs, reducing power consumption, and ensuring patient safety and comfort. Examples of ways to accomplish this are: replacing the Phidget 8/8/8 with a PIC18LF2321 (see the following additional section for more details about using a PIC instead of the Phidget Interface Kit), modifying the system to use an AC power supply instead of the two 9V batteries, using RFID tags that fit comfortably on a patient's wrist or ankle, and implementing the system on a printed circuit board. The product can also extend its applicability by using the RFID system to identify hospital staff in the proximity of the patient's bed, detecting patient egress, sending alerts directly to a nurse call station, and detecting fluids in other areas of the mattress to account for IV leaks, sweat, blood, and vomit.
  22. 22. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 19 PIC Microcontroller A microcontroller-based design could reduce costs, lower current consumption, increase patient safety, and provide a much more compact solution than a PC. Integrating patient identification and bedsore prevention features into one compact product could be accomplished using a PIC18LF2321 microcontroller as seen in Figure 7. The microcontroller could be used in place of a PC to control and process data from the RFID transceiver, FSRs, and wetness detection circuit. Using the onboard UART (universal asynchronous receiver transmitter) communication between the PIC and RFID transceiver could be accomplished via the RS232 standard. The FSRs could be monitored using the onboard ADC and four of the PIC’s analog inputs. Wetness detection circuit outputs could also be tied to analog input pins on the PIC.
  23. 23. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 20 9. REFERENCES [1] R.A. Weinstein. (July, 1998). Nosocomial Infection Update. Emerging Infection Diseases [Online]. 4(3). [cited 2008 Sep 11], Available: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol4no3/weinstein.htm [2] R. Moser, “Dirty Places, Part 12: Hospitals/Nursing Homes,” [Online Document], [cited 2008 Sep 11], Available: http://blogs.webmd.com/all-ears/2006/08/dirty-places-part-12-hospitalsnursing.html [3] M. Haggerty, Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, “Bed Sores” [Online], [cited 2008 Sep 11], Available: http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI =/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/bedsores.jsp. [4] R&D Products, LLC, “The Smart Bed,” [Company Website], [cited 2008 Sep 12], Available: http://thesmartbed.com/products.htm [5] A. Lewcock, “Healthcare RFID market forecast at $1.2B,” [Online Document], 2007 July 09, [cited 2008 Aug 30], Available: http://www.healthcareitnews.com/story.cms?id=7436 [6] P. Chung, Y. Hur, M. Wozniak, D. Yoon, "Disposable Mattress Cover with Wet Sheet Sensors," [Online Document], [cited 2008 Sep 11], Available: http://www.ece.gatech.edu/academic/courses/ece4007/08spring/ece4007l05/ak15/proposa l.pdf [7] J.B. Peatman, Coin-Cell-Powered Embedded Design, Atlanta, GA: Quick&Low Books, 2008, pp. 7-14 [8] W. Khawaja, M. Saleheen, S. Sanyal, B. Virk, and R. Eiswerth, “Intellibed Hospital Bed Add-On Kit For Improved Patient Safety,” [Online Document], [cited 2008 Sep 11], Available:http://www.ece.gatech.edu/academic/courses/ece4007/08spring/ece4007l05/ak 11/files/Proposal.pdf
  24. 24. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 21 [9] C. K. Harmon, “RFID: Update on Standards and Regulatory Initiatives,” [Online Document], [cited 2008, Sep 12], Available: http://www.aimglobal.org/members/news/templates/template.aspx?articleid=3302&zonei d=45 [10] IDT Marketing, “Tradewind 3000 8” Alternating Pressure Mattress System,” [Company Website], [cited 2008 Sep 12], Available: http://www.alternatingpressuremattress.com/3000.html [11] uCanHealth, “MED-AIRE 8” Alternating Pressure Mattress Overlay with Low Air Loss,” [Company Website], [cited 2008 Sep 12], Available: http://ucanhealth.com/goto.php?page=detail.php&graph1=14028&cat_page=alternating_ pressure_mattress [12] Georgia Institute of Technology, “Bachelor’s Degree Candidates by Major,” [Online Document], [cited 2008, Sep 12], Available: http://career.gatech.edu/students/bachelor.pdf
  25. 25. Smart Mattress (ECE4007L03) 22 APPENDIX A GANTT CHART
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