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  1. 1. Attachment #7 for Teachers Link #1: Relevant content: Controversies [edit] Privacy How would you like it if, for instance, one day you realized your underwear was reporting on your whereabouts? — California State Senator Debra Bowen, at a 2003 hearing [13] The use of RFID technology has engendered considerable controversy and even product boycotts by consumer privacy advocates such as Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre of CASPIAN who refer to RFID tags as "spychips". The four main privacy concerns regarding RFID are: • The purchaser of an item will not necessarily be aware of the presence of the tag or be able to remove it • The tag can be read at a distance without the knowledge of the individual • If a tagged item is paid for by credit card or in conjunction with use of a loyalty card, then it would be possible to tie the unique ID of that item to the identity of the purchaser • The EPCglobal system of tags create globally unique serial numbers for all products. Most concerns revolve around the fact that RFID tags affixed to products remain functional even after the products have been purchased and taken home and thus can be used for surveillance and other purposes unrelated to their supply chain inventory functions.[citation needed] The concerns raised by the above may be addressed in part by use of the Clipped Tag. The Clipped Tag is an RFID tag designed to increase consumer privacy. The Clipped Tag has been suggested by IBM researchers Paul Moskowitz and Guenter Karjoth. After the point of sale, a consumer may tear off a portion of the tag. This allows the transformation of a long- range tag into a proximity tag that still may be read, but only at short range – less than a few inches or centimeters. The modification of the tag may be confirmed visually. The tag may still be used later for returns, recalls, or recycling. However, this is not a realistic mitigation considering that read range is far more a function of the reader than the tag itself. Improvements to technology or simply having readers very close to the tags (such as the security readers at the doors of most major retail stores) will make even supposedly short range tags easy to read). All the abuses listed previously are therefore still viable. Another privacy issue is due to RFID's support for a singulation (anti-collision) protocol. This is the means by which a reader enumerates all the tags responding to it without them mutually interfering. The structure of some collision-resolution (Medium Access Control) protocols is such that all but the last bit of each tag's serial number can be deduced by passively eavesdropping on just the reader's part of the protocol. Because of this, whenever the relevant types of RFID tags are near to readers, the distance at which a tag's signal can be eavesdropped is irrelevant; what counts is the distance at which the much more powerful 1
  2. 2. Attachment #7 for Teachers reader can be received. Just how far this can be depends on the type of the reader, but in the extreme case some readers have a maximum power output of 4 W, enabling signals to be received from tens of kilometres away.[citation needed] However, more recent UHF tags employing the EPCglobal Gen 2 (ISO 18000-6C) protocol, which is a slotted-Aloha scheme in which the reader never transmits the tag identifying information, are not subject to this particular attack. Technical note: the anti-collision scheme of ISO 15693 will render this rather implausible. To eavesdrop on the reader part of the protocol - and gather the 63 least significant bits of a uid - would require the reader to send a mask value of 63 bits. This can only happen when the reader detects a collision up to the 63rd bit. In other words: One can eavesdrop on the transmitted mask-value of the reader, but for the reader to transmit a 63 bit mask-value requires two tags with identical least significant 63 bits. The probability of this happening must be near zero. I.e. the eavesdropper needs two virtually identical tags to be read at the same time by the reader in question.[citation needed] In any discussion of eavesdropping and skimming, it is important to make a distinction between inductively-coupled and radiatively-coupled tags. Protocols like ISO 15693 use 13.56 MHz radio frequencies and inductive coupling between the tag and reader. The signal power falls very rapidly to extremely low levels a few antenna diameters away from the reader when inductive coupling is used, so an attacker must be within a few meters to intercept the reader signal, and closer to read a tag. Protocols like 18000-6C, which use 900 MHz signals, usually use radiative coupling between tag and reader; a wave is launched, whose power falls roughly as the square of the distance. Tag signals can be intercepted from ten meters away under good conditions, and the reader signal can be detected from kilometers away if there are no obstructions.[citation needed] The potential for privacy violations with RFID was demonstrated by its use in a pilot program by the Gillette Company, which conducted a "smart shelf" test at a Tesco in Cambridge, England. They automatically photographed shoppers taking RFID-tagged safety razors off the shelf, to see if the technology could be used to deter shoplifting. [14] This trial resulted in consumer boycott against Gillette and Tesco.[19] In another incident, uncovered by the Chicago Sun-Times, shelves in a Wal-Mart in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, were equipped with readers to track the Max Factor Lipfinity lipstick containers stacked on them. Webcam images of the shelves were viewed 750 miles (1200 km) away by Procter & Gamble researchers in Cincinnati, Ohio, who could tell when lipsticks were removed from the shelves and observe the shoppers in action.[citation needed] In January 2004 privacy advocates from CASPIAN and the German privacy group FoeBuD were invited to the METRO Future Store in Germany, where an RFID pilot project was implemented. It was uncovered by accident that METRO "Payback" customer loyalty cards contained RFID tags with customer IDs, a fact that was disclosed neither to customers receiving the cards, nor to this group of privacy advocates. This happened despite assurances by METRO that no customer identification data was tracked and all RFID usage was clearly disclosed.[20] The controversy was furthered by the accidental exposure of a proposed Auto-ID consortium public relations campaign that was designed to "neutralize opposition" and get consumers to "resign themselves to the inevitability of it" whilst merely pretending to address their concerns.[21] 2
  3. 3. Attachment #7 for Teachers During the UN World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) between the 16th to 18th of November, 2005, founder of the free software movement, Richard Stallman, protested the use of RFID security cards. During the first meeting, it was agreed that future meetings would no longer use RFID cards, and upon finding out this assurance was broken, he covered his card in tin foil, and would only uncover it at the security stations. This protest caused the security personnel considerable concern, with some not allowing him to leave a conference room in which he had been the main speaker, and then the prevention of him entering another conference room, where he was due to speak. [edit] Human implantation The Food and Drug Administration in the US has approved the use of RFID chips in humans. [22] Some business establishments have also started to chip customers, such as the Baja Beach nightclub in Barcelona. This has provoked concerns into privacy of individuals as they can potentially be tracked wherever they go by an identifier unique to them. There are some concerns this could lead to abuse by an authoritarian government or lead to removal of other freedoms. On July 22, 2006, Reuters reported that two hackers, Newitz and Westhues, at a conference in New York City showed that they could clone the RFID signal from a human implanted RFID chip, showing that the chip is not hack-proof as was previously believed.[23] [edit] Religious opinion Critics from the Christian community believe that RFID tagging could represent the mark of the beast (666) mentioned specifically in the Book of Revelation (see Revelation 13:16). Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre, authors of Spychips: How Major Corporations and Government Plan to Track Your Every Move with RFID, wrote a new book on the subject from a Christian perspective.[24] John Conner, leader of an organization called "The Resistance of Christ" also believes there is a strong connection. Related subjects include eschatology (last things) and dispensationalism.[25][26][27] 3
  4. 4. Attachment #7 for Teachers Link #2: RFID Tags- Radio Frequency Identification Tags Contents Index/Home (3000 word report) The purpose of this report is to explore the history and examine the practical applications of RFID. This will be explained through the following sections: 1. Introduction to RFID 2. History of RFID - a look at the invention and innovation of RFID 3. Types of RFID Tags - the schematics and differences between active and passive RFID tags 4. RFID Systems - the technology and equipment required for an RFID system to exist 5. Current RFID applications - exploring the present and future applications of RFID 6. The Electronic Product Code (EPC) 7. RFID in Wal-Mart - examining the case studies and data provided by Wal-Mart on their RFID usage 8. RFID regulation - specifications and prohibitions 9. RFID Security Concerns - the illicit tracking of RFID tags 10. RFID Privacy and Controversy - conspiracy theories regarding privacy invasion 11. RFID Today - a summary Introduction Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has existed in some form or another for over 40 years. It is a method of automatically identifying a given object/ person by storing and remotely retrieving information from small transponders, called RFID tags. These tags have an antenna built into them, which allows for the transmission and reception of radio waves from an RFID transceiver. There are two types of RFID tags; active and passive. Passive tags require no power source, whereas active tags need a power source to function. Here is a RFID training Video which will help explain radio frequency identification technology. 4
  5. 5. Attachment #7 for Teachers History of RFID The history of RFID can be directly related to a similar technology employed by the Allies in World War 2 called IFF (Identification Friend or Foe). The function of this technology was to identify whether an incoming plane was a friend or foe by using coded radar signals. These signals would trigger the aircrafts transponder, and a correct reply indicated a friendly military or civilian aircraft. After the war, scientists and researchers began to explore the use of RFID to store and relay information. Radio Frequency Identification presented one major obstacle before it could become a feasible technology; finding a suitable power source. It took roughly thirty years for technology and research to produce internal power sources for RFID tags and chips. Types Of RFID Tags As mentioned above, there are two types of RFID tags: active and passive. Passive RFID tags have no internal power supply. Instead, a small electric current is created in the antenna when an incoming signal reaches it. This current provides enough power to briefly activate the tag, usually just long enough to relay simple information, such as an ID number or product name. Because passive RFID tags do not contain a power supply, they can be very small in size, sometimes thinner than a piece of paper. These tags can be activated from a distance of ten millimeters to over 6 meters away. Active RFID tags do contain an internal power source, which allows for a longer read-range and for a bigger memory on the tag itself. The power source also makes it possible to store information sent by the transceiver. Active RFID tags are larger than passive tags, usually slightly bigger than a coin. They can be read from many meters away, and generally have a battery life of about ten years. Advantages of active tags include accuracy, reliability, and superior performance in adverse environments, such as damp or metallic. Being cheaper to manufacture, most RFID tags are of the passive variety. Analysts predict that ever-lowering costs and growing demand will eventually lead to the widespread usage of RFID technology on a global scale. The four most common tags in use are categorized by radio frequency: low frequency tags (125 or 134.2 kHz), high frequency tags (13.56 MHz), UHF tags (868 to 956 MHz), and microwave tags (2.45 GHz). 5
  6. 6. Attachment #7 for Teachers RFID Systems RFID systems consist of numerous specialized components, such as tags, rfid readers, edge servers, middle ware, and software. An RFID system allows for data to be transmitted from the tag to the reader, which in turn processes it for a particular use. The data sent can include identification, location information, price, color, and date of purchase. Radio Frequency Identification systems can also be employed for tracking purposes, which some point out as an invasion of privacy. An RFID system works in stages. Items are equipped with a tag, which has a transponder that is assigned a unique electronic product code. The accompanying antenna has a transceiver and a decoder, which emits a signal and activates the tag. Once activated, data can be read and written to the tag. If a reader is in range, it decodes the data being transmitted by the tag’s computer and relays it to a host computer for processing. Current RFID Applications Current RFID use has spread to many, many varied fields: • Medical: tags are placed on prescription pill bottles for the visually impaired. A special reader provides audible information on the name, instructions and warnings of the prescription. • Animal Identification: low frequency tags are implanted in animals, wild or domestic, which can be read to provide information such as gender, name, diseases etc. As well, these tags allow lost pets to be returned to their owners. • Tracking: High frequency RFID tags are used to track library books, baggage, ID tags, warehouse inventory and even credit cards. American Express has a new service called Express Pay, featured on the American Express Blue credit card, which utilizes RFID technology. • Geology/Vulcanology - RFID transceivers relay seismic information to specialized readers, greatly simplifying the collection of data. • Automotive: Michelin has spearheaded a program to embed RFID tags in their tires. This will help track down problems should a recall have to be utilized. As well, some Toyota and Lexus models feature a Smart Key option, which uses an active RFID tag to allow the driver to unlock doors and roll down windows without having to take the key out of their pocket. • Human: As frightening as it may seem, RFID technology is already tracking human beings. Inmates at select prisons around the United States are issued special wristbands with RFID tags embedded within. These tags constantly relay the location of the prisoner to a 6
  7. 7. Attachment #7 for Teachers computer, as well as raise an alarm should the band be tampered with. In more extreme cases, RFID chips have been implanted into arms, legs etc. of various individuals. For example, the Mexico police department has had over 170 members of its force implanted with the Verichip. This allows them to access databases and, in rare instances, track an officer in case of a kidnapping. • Border Security - RFID Chips implemented for the USA Canada Nexus program Research and technological advances will lead to prolific achievements in RFID devices. The ultimate goal is to eventually replace all UPC and barcodes with RFID tags, but that is highly unlikely in the near future due to expenditure needed. Another goal is to utilize the uniqueness of each individual RFID code for combating theft of merchandise by tracking it as it moves form location to location. Research is also being undertaken to create an ink with RFID properties. Representatives from EPCGlobal, which includes major companies around the world such as Wal Mart and The Gillette Company, are working on an international standard of use for RFID. The objective is to eventually use the EPC (Electronic Product Code) and RFID to identify any item, in any industry, anywhere in the world. Experts in the medical community have suggested numerous potential uses for RFID tags. Special tags could keep track of patient records and allow relevant medical staff to access them with the wave of a reader. Chips could even be embedded into patients containing medical information, greatly easing the strain of home care workers and potentially saving lives. There are plenty of home uses as well. “Talking” fridges may one day inform the owner of expiry dates, and implanted RFID tags will allow a house to recognize which individual is in which room, thereby adjusting the lighting and heat of that room to the individual’s preferences. The Electronic Product Code (EPC) The Electronic Product Code is the next evolution of product identification, utilizing RFID technology to identify objects in a supply chain. Based on current numbering schemes (EAN, VIN etc.), EPC is divided into numbers that differentiate the product and manufacturer of a given item. The difference between EPC and previous numbering systems lies in the usage of an extra set of digits to uniquely identify one object. According to the EPCGlobal company website, An EPC number contains: 7
  8. 8. Attachment #7 for Teachers • A Header, identifying the length, type, structure, version and generation of EPC • The Manager Number, which identifies the company or company entity • Object Class, similar to a stock keeping unit or SKU • Serial Number, which is the specific instance of the Object Class being tagged The Electronic Product Code promises to become the standard for global RFID usage. RFID in Wal-Mart Wal-Mart is one of the strongest advocates for widespread use of RFID tags; they have announced sweeping changes in most of their stores which will eventually equip all company inventory with RFID tags. With this initiative, Wal-Mart will save uncountable dollars in labor and product cost due to find ability and increased market awareness. As such, numerous case studies exist showing the success of Wal-Mart’s RFID experiment. A study undertaken by the University of Arkansas showed that Wal-Mart stores with RFID tags in use could boast a greater success rate of customer satisfaction with the availability of desirable products. It also served to show that those Wal-Mart stores with RFID technology could replenish out-of-stock items three times faster than those using a bar code system. A major part of the Wal-Mart RFID edict states that by a pre-determined date (initially January 1st, 2005, but Wal-Mart has recently stated that said date will not be possible), all Wal-Mart suppliers will have to employ RFID tags to identify their shipments. There is speculation that this is largely responsible for the sudden boom in RFID production, profit and technological advances. Not everyone is happy with Wal-Mart’s RFID plan, though. The purchase of Gillette by consumer giant Proctor and Gamble has been seen as a direct challenge to Wal-Mart’s edict requiring that their suppliers use RFID. RFID Regulation There is no global body that has set RFID regulation in stone; every country has its own rules. Low frequency and High frequency RFID tags can be used globally without a license, but UHF may not be used globally due to the lack of accepted standards. For example: in North America, limitations exist on UHF usage, specifically targeting transmission power. These limitations are not accepted by France because UHF interferes with military bands. 8
  9. 9. Attachment #7 for Teachers As well, there are regulations for health and environmental issues. In Europe, it is illegal to dispose of boxes with RFID tags because of the possibility of damaging sensitive recycling machinery. Potential health risks are associated with the Electromagnetic Field surrounding RFID tags; every country has specific regulations regarding this concern. The following is a list of many standards that apply to RFID technology: ISO 11784 & 11785 - These standards regulate the Radio frequency identification of animals in regards to Code Structure and Technical concept ISO 14223/1- Radio frequency identification of Animals, advanced transponders - Air interface ISO 10536 - Close coupled cards ISO 14443 - Proximity cards ISO 15693 - Vicinity cards ISO 18000 - RFID for item Management; Air Interface EPCGlobal RFID Security Concerns One of the major RFID security concerns is the threat of illegal tracking. RFID tags could be read from a distance without the owner’s knowledge, leading to the disclosing of location or other sensitive information contained in the RFID tag’s memory. Another security concern is the cloning of RFID tags. This poses a problem for companies employing RFID technology for entry into their building, or for compromising payment methods, such as the Esso Speed pass. Unfortunately, the technology does not currently exist to practically encrypt commercial RFID tags, though proposed low-encryption solutions include backward channeling and third-party agents. An industry standard label has also been suggested as a way to alleviate RFID security concerns. RFID Privacy and Controversies Obviously, RFID privacy and the controversies surrounding the technology need to be resolved if RFID tags are ever going to be implemented on a global scale. The single greatest fear is one born of privacy invasion; the tags can be activated without the knowledge of the consumer. This would 9
  10. 10. Attachment #7 for Teachers lead to targeted marketing and illicit tracking through tags the consumer may not even be aware of. In cases where RFID is used in credit or store cards, it could be possible to determine the identity of that particular consumer. Another privacy controversy is that many RFID tags remain functional post-purchase, possibly allowing for surveillance and household inventories. As well, distance would not hinder the ability to read the tags; anyone with access to a high-gain antenna would be able to activate these RFID tags from a distance. RFID technology may soon show up in passports and driver’s licenses, creating further controversies. Many countries want to utilize RFID to facilitate readability of passports and to expatiate customs procedures, which could lead to a compromise of an individual’s identity. The same technology has been proposed for use in driver’s licenses, with the purpose of hastening police checks, but would carry the same privacy issues as passport implantation. 10
  11. 11. Attachment #7 for Teachers Link #3: RFID: To Tag or Not to Tag Kim Zetter 08.09.05 | 2:00 AM Retailers love them, privacy advocates eye them with suspicion and some Christians think they're the "mark of the beast." For such tiny devices, RFIDs are stirring up huge controversies. But even as the tags infiltrate a range of things from clothing and pets to passports and license plates, confusion abounds over how the devices work, and what problems and advantages they bring. Here are answers to some of the most common questions about this increasingly ubiquitous technology. What is RFID? RFID stands for radio frequency identification. A computer chip is attached to an antenna, and they are often referred to together as an RFID tag. Data stored on the chip transmits wirelessly through the antenna to an RFID reader or scanning device that operates on the same frequency as the antenna. Are all RFID tags and readers the same? Makers of RFID tags and readers use proprietary technology and design their systems to run on different frequencies (anywhere from 125 KHz to about 915 MHz). Tags designed by one company generally cannot be read by readers made by another company or by readers running on different frequencies. That may not be an issue in the future as industry standards are more broadly adopted. RFID devices can be active or passive. Active RFID tags have a battery that provides power to transmit data on the chip, and can transmit data 100 feet or more. Passive RFID tags get their power from the RFID reader. When an RFID reader is directed at a passive RFID tag running on the same frequency, the reader sends an electromagnetic wave to the tag. This powers the tag to send data to the reader. Passive RFID usually requires a reader to be within a foot of the chip, but depending on the frequency, can be read from up to 20 feet away. What's stored on the chip? This depends on the storage size of the chip. Most RFID tags used by manufacturers to track products store only about 2 KB of data, which usually consists only of a unique serial number identifying the product. But RFID chips proposed for new electronic passports can store more data, such as a person's name, address, birth date and biometric data like a digital photo or fingerprint and iris scans. What is RFID used for? RFID tags store data about a product or person who carries the tag. The tag can be embedded in product packaging, in library books, in credit cards or in an ID badge or document, such as a driver's license or passport. The tags can track products and pallets in warehouses and on store shelves. They're also used in electronic toll passes and key fobs. They've tracked cows and cadavers, and people are increasingly implanting them in pets. RFID chips have been embedded in bracelets worn by Alzheimer's patients, prison inmates and guards, and children in hospitals to make sure intruders don't abduct them. Earlier this year, a California school required students to wear an ID tag embedded with an RFID chip to track their movements and monitor attendance. The move caused controversy, however, because the school neglected to tell students or parents that the badges contained a tracking device. 11
  12. 12. Attachment #7 for Teachers An implantable RFID chip, called the VeriChip, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for security and health-care applications. The VeriChip is designed to be planted beneath the skin and would contain a serial number or password that medical personnel could obtain by scanning a patient's arm. The serial number could then be entered into a computer database to access a medical file set up by the patient. Why is it becoming so popular? Low-frequency RFID has been around for about 30 years, but it hasn't been practical for widespread use because manufacturing the chips and readers has been expensive. Also, a lack of standards that would allow any RFID reader to scan any chip kept the technology from being widely adopted, but proposed standards could help change that. Some RFID tags now cost less than 50 cents. Manufacturers like RFID because the technology is more convenient and durable than bar codes, which can be difficult to read if not passed directly in front of a scanner or if the bar code has faded or is torn on the product package. An RFID tag can also hold more useful information than a bar code, such as the expiration date of a perishable product like milk. What are the concerns about RFID? Privacy activists worry that RFID tags on individual products, rather than warehouse pallets, could track consumers inside and outside stores. Companies could collect information about customer interests based on where they go, especially if the serial numbers on tags are tied to an individual through purchases. Activists also warn that if tags are used widely in consumer products, police or FBI agents monitoring a political rally or religious service could scan a room with an RFID reader to determine quickly who is present or with whom the person carrying a tag associates. What about using RFID on identification documents? Activists are afraid an identity thief or terrorist could surreptitiously read the data on an RFID tag in a driver's license or passport and use it to create a duplicate document. Or an intruder could pick up data on a chip through "eavesdropping," which occurs when one reader picks up data as it is transmitted from a tag to another reader. Can anyone hack an RFID chip to change information stored on it? They conceivably could if the tag is a read-write tag as opposed to a read-only tag and the data stored on it is not encrypted. (Read-write means you can read data on the tag as well as write over or add to the existing data.) What do RFID proponents say? Businesses using RFID tags say they have no interest in gathering information on consumers and simply want to use the devices to increase efficiency and reduce data entry. They also claim RFID tags could be manufactured so they can be killed once they leave a store. It would also be difficult for law enforcement to obtain personal information about people based on RFID tags embedded in consumer products without having access to a store database that connects the data to a person. Data stored on ID badges could be encrypted to protect it from surreptitious scanning. Does any legislation govern the use of RFID tags and information stored on them? There isn't federal legislation specifically covering RFID, but other laws covering the privacy of data and law enforcement access to it would apply to RFID tags. Pending legislation in California would prohibit the use of RFID technology in state-issued documents, with some exceptions. 12
  13. 13. Attachment #7 for Teachers Link #4: %20test/rfid_controversy.htm Controversy: Supporter: People who believe in the benefits RFID technology can bring to the society. Anti-Supporter: People who see privacy more importantly than the benefits RFID technology can bring to the society Privacy is one central controversy on whether or not RFID should be greatly applied to daily life applications. Since RFID technology does not require RFID tag inserted into another system in order to access the information and all a person needs to read information from RFID tag is a RFID reader, this could mean that there are already people whose privacies are already endangered by people who has RFID readers. Let us take RFID books as an example. People who advocate RFID technology would say that RFID technology helps the transaction of borrowing and returning books a lot easier, faster. Moreover, the feature of automatic data collection RFID technology has help librarian get rid off all the paper works. However, people who against RFID technology would say that RFID tags sometimes contains people’s personal information. In the case of RFID books, they would think information from these RFID tags contains individuals’ book selections, which are considered as privacy. Applying RFID technology to the books simply give people who can access the RFID readers chances to read people’s personal information; therefore, we should get rid of RFID technology immediately. Also another RFID controversy involves in privacy sparked while an elementary school in California require students to wear RFID tags with their name, picture and grade on school property. Parents and civil liberties groups are concern about who has access to collected data. [7] 13
  14. 14. Attachment #7 for Teachers Link #5: default.asp RFID Advantages • With RFID technology, patients can not only be correctly identified, but all interactions can be monitored and logged with exact detail. Every staff member who visits a patient is logged, including duration. • Any medications or procedures that are done to the patient is recorded, including who performed it, what was given or performed and at what time. • Patient records can be updated immediately as they are taken throughout the hospital and are given medications or operated upon. • Exact medication batch number and the exact equipment inventory or control number is recorded. • Information like this becomes vitally important to know should questions ever arise about the care of the patient. Imagine being able to identify the exact scalpel or clamp used in an operation or the exact bottle, manufacturer and batch that a pill came out of. • By implementing RFID technology within your organization you can greatly eliminate administrative tasks and free up personnel to deal directly with patients while enhancing your documentation process. • Easy access to patient information. • If patients need to be sent for lab work or other diagnostics, the RFID wristbands they wear identify them immediately to lab personnel who no longer have to wait for paperwork. • RFID reports give you a look at usage patterns and trends of hospital equipment. These reports will let you know which equipment you may need more of, as well as which equipment you could scale back on purchasing as often to save money. • RFID solutions allow you to improve workflow by being better able to track personnel, patients, equipment and procedures. • When medical treatment caregivers no longer have to perform as much manual paperwork, they can see more patients which results in higher overall satisfaction as well as decreased turn-around time for every patient seen. • Alerts to upcoming preventative maintenance that assets and biomedical equipment may need. • Reduced theft and unauthorized use of medical equipment. • Reduced risk of costly lawsuits by using RFID to track every aspect of hospital and patient management. 14
  15. 15. Attachment #7 for Teachers Teachers can use the table below to summarize students’ data on the screen. Pros Cons 1. __________________________________ 1. __________________________________ 2. __________________________________ 2. __________________________________ 3. __________________________________ 3. __________________________________ 4. __________________________________ 4. __________________________________ 5. __________________________________ 5. __________________________________ 15