Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

A PROPOSAL.doc.doc


Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

A PROPOSAL.doc.doc

  1. 1. A PROPOSAL DESIGN TEAM NO. 74 SUBMITTED TO Professor Timothy Kurzweg, Professor Pat B. Malay, Professor Andrew J. McCann AND THE TDEC 131 PROJECT DESIGN FACULTY OF DREXEL UNIVERSITY ENTITLED: A Cost-Effective Method of Tracking in the Healthcare Field TEAM MEMBERS/HUM SECTION/INSTRUCTOR James Fasoline / 020 / Professor Christine Qualtieri Michael Kilgarriff / 009 / Professor Andrew J. McCann Stephen Miller / 012 / Professor Pat B. Malay John Mullen / 012 / Professor Pat B. Malay Danielle Siegel / 013 / Professor Ken Bingham Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Engineering Design and Laboratory, TDEC 131, Design Project Submitted on 27 Feb 2004 1
  2. 2. I. Problem Statement Tracking important objects and persons within buildings is a necessary service required in many worldwide operations, especially in the field of healthcare. Many organizations require the ability to track persons inventory on a daily basis, and they would profit greatly from the development of an affordable tracking technology that provided precise, constant tracking. Nursing homes and hospital wards, for example, could monitor residents and patients who require additional care. With the current state of the art, however, there are no cost-effective methods of precise, constant tracking within buildings such as hospitals. II. Introduction and Background Due to the baby boomer generation entering senior citizen status and beginning to require extra care, the market for tracking people in areas such as hospitals and nursing homes has increased dramatically. For example, Brian Hance of the Alzheimer's Association states that over 60% of patients with dementia get lost during the progression of their disease (Kuhn and Wilson). This statistic illustrates the need for monitoring of patients who are at risk of getting lost. The topic is discussed as much in popular media as it is in scholarly journals. Many companies are scrambling to provide affordable methods of tracking, converting existing tracking technology to meet the demand. For example, Digital Angel has begun to convert their tracking devices from object and animal based to human based (“Digital Tracking”). These companies use a variety of methods for their systems, including wristbands, implants, radio frequencies, Wi-Fi technology, GSM technology, and GPS. Currently, the most precise method GPS satellites send RF signals to GPS devices on the ground that calculate position based on time of tracking an object’s location anywhere measurements. < in the world is the Department of java/Arknoid/science/AS/ResUpdates/2002/YB_020460_f Defense’s Global Positioning System, or rameset.html?searchtext=GPS;> GPS. GPS technology generates 2
  3. 3. measurements accurately to one centimeter. However, GPS is a military operated service, and the accuracy of GPS service available to civil users is intentionally degraded by the Department of Defense. Furthermore, obstacles like walls and ceilings obstruct GPS satellites’ radio waves and alter the calculated position of the target. Thus, the technology required to determine one’s exact location in a multi-layered structure has not yet been developed. Furthermore, it is not cost-efficient for most organizations to equip personnel with GPS receivers (Dana). The articles “Wireless interference in healthcare is real but manageable,” and “Wi-Fi Wireless Networks, Hospitals and the Medical Profession” provided information about using wirless networks in hospitals and overcoming the interference which they can cause. They mention that hospitals can use wireless networks and show that interference from radio waves can be avoided. “Wireless-based location tracking” provided information about one of the possible tracking systems and the implementation of a similar tracking system in a business to track employees. Larry Bogan’s Global Positioning System website provides a detailed description of how global positioning uses satellites and vectors to determine a location. Edgar H. Callaway Jr.’s “Wireless Sensor Networks: Architectures and Protocols,” available at online database ENGnetBASE, contained information regarding the specifications of the IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi standard. “What is a Geometer?” states that this device be easily tracked worldwide, making it extremely useful in situations where an object must be located. “GPS Solutions” describes a development of GPS which uses lower signal strengths than normal, making it useful in confined areas. III. Proposed Design A. Criteria This project will be considered successful if it results in a reliable tracking system for people and objects. The tracking system will be effective for use in hospitals, and it will not interfere with the operation of other instruments and devices. Since it is intended for use inside buildings with multiple levels, the system will be capable of determining locations three dimensionally. Also the system will be reasonably priced compared with current solutions like GPS. Our proposed tracking system will use radio frequency (RF) waves to transmit information between target tracking devices that are to be tracked and system’s infrastructure. 3
  4. 4. Some frequencies and wavelengths of RF waves can interfere with other equipment and electronic devices. As a result, in environments such as hospitals where equipment failure can be life threatening, interference from the tracking system must be eliminated. Modern medical equipment, including most monitoring devices, is shielded to protect it from electromagnetic radiation, and radio waves do not usually have a significant effect on its operation. However, it is still necessary to ensure that the tracking system will not interfere with other equipment in any way (Kleinberg). Depending on the implementation tracking system, the price will, but it will cost less than current methods of tracking. The price to initially deploy it might be higher than the prices for other competing technology; however, its increased accuracy would prevent costly mistakes. One proposed solution involves using an already installed wireless network. This approach would only need the tracking devices added to the system, and would be significantly cheaper than similar technologies (Stone). To be successful, this project should result in technology or information to create an accurate and reliable, cost-effective tracking system. The system should be effective inside buildings and address the weaknesses of current tracking methods, such as the inability of GPS to determine height. Also, the system should not cause interference with other electronics found in hospitals. B. Alternatives Our project aims to track objects cheaply and effectively. Common methods of tracking that use GPS and GSM technologies are expensive and cannot be deployed on large scales. The alternatives that we are Demonstration of tringulation using three base investigating are relatively inexpensive and stations. < are easy to install. A method that we are java/Arknoid/science/AS/ResUpdates/2000/YB_0015 41_frameset.html> investigating uses Wi-Fi access points. Wi-Fi is the trademark name for 802.11, a wireless standard that is commonly used to provide computers with wireless internet and network connections. The target that is being tracked 4
  5. 5. receives radio signals from the Wi-Fi access points. The locations of access points are known and constant, so the receiver on the target associates the strength of the signal with distance from the access point from which it received the signal. When the receiver knows its approximate distance from at least three access points, it uses triangulation to determine its location based on the locations of the access points. This method of tracking can utilize existing hardware because Wi-Fi technology is very common and inexpensive. Another alternative that we are investigating involves the use of “leaky” wire antennas for radio transmissions within a building. “Leaky” wires are antenna wires that are put in place in buildings to provide distributed radio signals throughout buildings. When the technology is used in conjunction Wi-Fi, it allows users to receive stronger wireless signals by putting antennas closer to users and allowing single access points to provide coverage over larger areas than they would normally cover. This method of signal transmission may be more effective because it reduces the obstruction of the radio signals by walls and other physical obstacles (Callaway). One emerging technology is Radio Frequency Identification, or RFID. RFID involves two components: a reader and a card or tag. When an RFID tag comes in close proximity of the reader, it transmits data between the unit and the reader. However, RFID tags are currently expensive relative to their effective range. Common RFID tags cost as little as $0.05, but are not effective at ranges greater than three feet. However, more expensive RFID tags can operate at ranges up to 300 feet. RFID tags are usually read when they are in close proximity with an RFID reader and therefore are not a reliable method of tracking (RFID Products). However, RFID technology may be used in conjunction with other tracking technologies to add redundancy to the tracking system (Solutions – Overview). In order to locate a target device using signals, the signal must travel to the tracking from the target device. Upon arrival at the tracking device, such as a wireless access point, the strength of the RF wave and the time of travel will be translated into an approximate distance between the target and the tracking device. However, a problem arises because if the speed of the signal is too fast, the time will be very small and the distance between two devices will be insignificant. When a relationship between the signal strength and time and the distance between devices is made, the location of the target device is calculated by triangulation. 5
  6. 6. C. Constraints There are many constraints that face our project, including interference with hospital technologies, wavelengths of waves to be used, and translating RF signal strength and time into distance. In hospitals, many different machines operate on different signals. Those machines can be damaged and the information they read can be altered when RF waves of certain wavelengths move through them. The wave can change the reading by being absorbed in the machine in place of a different wave. The difference in reading can mean a difference between life and death sometimes. We will have to work around that in order to be able to manufacture our product for hospital use (Kleinberg). Our design requires RF waves with wavelengths large enough to travel through walls in a hospital. The wavelength should be large so that signals can be transmitted to any location in a building. If the signal is not received by the target device, the device cannot be accurately located. GPS technology suffers the same downfall as RF signals from the GPS satellites are obstructed when they travel through buildings. IV. Statement of Work and Method of Solution In order to complete our research in the field of local tracking and location, one experiment must be performed in order to test the strength of signal waves transmitted from one location to another. This experiment will be performed with the aid of Drexel University’s wireless communications network, DragonFly. It will focus on using Wi-Fi radio signals from access points at known locations to determine our position on campus. We will determine the locations of these access points with help from Drexel’s Information Resources and Technology department (IRT). Using Network Stumbler, a computer program which provides information regarding local wireless access points, we will be able to locate a given point through triangulation. Each of our considered alternatives of local tracking has its own advantages and drawbacks. However, in a workplace where safety is an extremely high priority, certain precautions must be taken to ensure that no harm or detriment comes from the use of equipment. In order to determine which method of global tracking will suit the needs of a hospital best, we will research several types of signal transmissions and how they affect the human body hospital instrumentation, such as defibrillators or life support systems negatively. In addition, we will 6
  7. 7. continue to research which of our methods will me the most cost effective in a medical environment to prevent any unnecessary spending. At this point in our research, it is still unclear whether we will present a working model of our design or simply the furthering of an idea, but it is safer to assume we will complete a document outlining what we have accomplished in our research given the fact that few hospitals would agree to implement such a method of tracking without much more research, testing, and time. V. Summary The state-of-the-art of tracking systems does not provide a cost-effective solution for deploying an accurate system of tracking assets on a large scale, such as in hospitals. Our project aims to design a tracking system that meets this goal. We will use Wi-Fi, the trademark name of a popular wireless communication standard denoted by IEEE as 802.11, in conjunction with another method of tracking to provide an accurate and redundant method of tracking the locations of assets within buildings at all times. Our design is intended for use in the healthcare industry, and technologies developed as a result of this design will not interfere with existing hospital instrumentation. VI. Qualifications Each engineer is qualified to participate in the completion of this proposed design. Please see Appendix A for detailed resumes from each engineer. VII. Budget for Engineering Services Five engineers will work on this project, each at a rate of $28 per hour. It is estimated that each engineer will work for 40 hours. Therefore, an estimated fee to cover the services provided by each engineer is $5600. This fee is multiplied by 2.5 to cover expenses of the engineering firm. Thus, the estimated total cost of the services of these engineers and the support provide by their firm to plan and install is $14,000. VIII. Schedule Please see Appendix B for Gantt Chart outlining our schedule of work. 7
  8. 8. IX. References Bogan, Larry. Global Positioning System – How it Works. 7 Feb. 2004 <> Callaway, Edgar H., Jr. “Wireless Sensor Networks: Architectures and Protocols.” ENGnetBASE. Boca Raton: Auerbach Publications, 2004. 2004. 20 Feb 2004. <>. Dana, Peter H. “Global Positioning System Overview.” 01 May 2000. 04 Feb 2004. <>. “GPS Solutions.” 11 Feb 2004. Qinetiq. <> Kleinberg, Kenneth. “Wireless interference in healthcare is real but manageable.” TechRepublic. 21 Feb. 2004 < 5034728-1.html>. Kuhn, Cynthia and Wilson, Wilkie. "'Tagging' Alzheimer's Patients". WebMD (Health). 17 October 2002. WebMD Inc. 2 Feb 2004. <>. “New Digital Tracking Devices.” 5 August 2001. About Inc. 2 Feb 2004. <> RFID Products. RFID Inc. 4 Feb 2004. <>. Solutions – Overview. SMARTCODE Corp. 04 Feb 2004. <>. Stone, Adam. “Wi-Fi Wireless Networks, Hospitals and the Medical Profession.” Wi-Fi Technology. 21 Feb 2004 <>. “What is a Geometer?” www, 9 Feb. 2004. IQObjects. <,5,76> X. Appendices Index of Appendices Resumes of Project Engineers * Peer Reviews Schedule of Work: Gantt Chart Appendix A 8
  9. 9. Appendix B Appendix C * For the privacy of my team members and I, I have removed the contact information from each resume. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Appendix A Resumes of Project Engineers James Fasoline Education Drexel University PhD in Computer Engineering Anticipated Graduation-June 2010 Concentration: Computer Engineering Coursework Mathematical Foundations of Engineering Physical Foundations of Engineering Chemical and Biological Foundations of Engineering Humanities for the Engineering Curriculum Principles of Economics I Computer Skills Hardware: Dell, Gateway, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, ABS, Macintosh Software: Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, JASC Paint Shop Pro, AutoCAD, Maple 9, LabVIEW Language: Visual Basic 6.0, C, C++, HTML, JavaScript Skills: Website Design, Computer Repairs Operating Systems: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Macintosh OS X Job Experience Philadelphia Traffic Court Philadelphia, PA Staff member for President Judge June 2003 – Present - Handle filing and letter writing duties - Assist Court Officers during court proceedings - Process returned mail for address corrections - Answer public’s inquiries over telephone and in person Activities/Community Service Operation Santa Claus: Wrapped and delivered Christmas gifts to families in Philadelphia. 2000 – 2003. 11
  12. 12. Michael Kilgarriff Education Drexel University Philadelphia, PA 19104 Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering Anticipated Graduation-June 2008 Concentration: Computer Engineering Coursework Engineering Design and Lab University 101 Mathematical Foundations of Engineering I and II Physical Foundations of Engineering I and II Humanities (Engineering) Chemical Foundations of Engineering I and II Computer Skills Hardware: Dell, Compaq Software: Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, Internet Explorer, Maple 9 Language: C++ Operating Systems: Microsoft Windows Activities/Community Service Grade School Tutoring, 2000-2003 Grade School Mentoring, 2004 National Honors Society, 2001-2003 High School Tutoring, 2000-2003 12
  13. 13. Stephen Miller Education Drexel University Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering Anticipated Graduation-June 2008 Concentration: Computer Engineering Coursework Mathematical Foundations of Engineering Physical Foundations of Engineering Chemical and Biological Foundations of Engineering Humanities for the Engineering Curriculum Introduction to Entrepreneurship Computer Skills Hardware: Hewlitt-Packard, Dell, Gateway, Compaq, Packard Bell, IBM Software: Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access, Microsoft PowerPoint, Adobe Photoshop, JASC Paint Shop Pro, Macromedia Dreamweaver, Macromedia Flash, AutoCAD, Maple 9 Language: Visual Basic 6.0, C++, HTML Skills: Networking, Web Design, Computer Upgrades/Repairs Operating Systems: Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Professional, Windows 98, Linux, Macintosh OS X Job Experience De La Salle in Towne Philadelphia, PA Network Administrator June 2003 – Present - Manage and maintain school network. - Repair computers as needed. - Assist and train students and faculty using computers. La Salle College High School Wyndmoor, PA Network Administrator January 2002 – July 2003 - Managed and maintained 1200 user network. - Backuped servers on daily basis. - Assisted students, teachers, and staff with computer problems and questions. - Directed teams of Lab Managers to fix problems and assist teachers. Maplewood Swim Club Southampton, PA Lifeguard, Swim Instructor May 2000 – July 2002 - Supervised swimmers in pools and enforced rules of the club. - Maintained pools and grounds, and cleaned facilities when necessary. - Taught swim lessons to young swimmers. - Opened and closed facility on scheduled days. Activities/Community Service - TechSERV: Refurbish computers to be put in place in impoverished parts of Philadelphia. 2003 – Present. - Sarnelli House: Served at weekly soup kitchen in Kensington section of Philadelphia. 2002 – 2003. - Project H.O.M.E.: Taught children in after-school program useful computer skills. 2003. 13
  14. 14. John Mullen Education: Drexel University Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering Graduation: June 2008 Concentration: Computer Engineering GPA: 3.78 Coursework: Mathematical Foundations of Engineering Physical Foundations of Engineering Chemical and Biological Foundations of Engineering Humanities for the Engineering Curriculum Engineering Design Lab Computer Skills: Hardware: Toshiba, Compaq, Hewlett-Packard Software: Microsoft Office,, Autocad, Maple, Maxima, Labview Languages:Perl, html Operating Systems: Windows, Linux, FreeBSD Employment: Project 2000 Norristown, PA - Volunteered November 2000 - May 2003 - Worked June 2003 – September 2003 - Repaired and built computers - Installed software - Trained other employees Honors/Awards: AJ Drexel Scolarship 2003-present Member of Pennoni Honors College 14
  15. 15. Danielle P. Siegel Objectives To obtain real-world work experience in medical and biological research. Education Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa. Bachelor/Masters in Biomedical Engineering, anticipated graduation- June, 2008 Plymouth Whitemarsh high school, Plymouth Meeting, Pa. (2000-2003) Kaduri, Israel (1999-2000) High school diploma- 1999-2003 Cumulative GPA: 3.4 Honors Scholastic and distinguished honor roll 2000-2003 Honors choir AP Calculus AP Biology AP Statistics Activities Girl’s soccer, 2000-2003 High school productions, 2001-2003 Choir and Tri-county chorus, 2000-2003 World Affairs Club and Model UN representative, 2003 Currently, Publicity Chair of Biomedical Engineering Society Chapter at Drexel University, Commuter Assistant for Hillel at Drexel University. Skills AutoCAD MS Word MS Excel MS Power Point Lab View Maple Experience Teacher’s assistant at Temple Beth El/Beth Hillel as a volunteer, 2000-2003 Hebrew teacher at Temple Beth Am, 2003-present Hobbies/Interests Soccer, Music. 15
  16. 16. Appendix B Schedule of Work: Gantt Chart 16
  17. 17. Appendix C Peer Review 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23