Gamification

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Presentation given on gamification at Utah Valley University on Feb. 14, 2014.

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Gamification

  1. 1. Gamification is not the creation or use of games in learning. Rather, it’s the use of game-like features in non-gaming contexts. 1 A lot of students have the wrong idea about grades and learning. They think they start with 100 percent and lose points for wrong answers. In reality, it’s just the opposite. All students, in all classes, really start at 0 and work their way up. [TELL STORY ABOUT CRISTIAN AND HIS COMMENT ABOUT HIS CHINESE QUIZZES] 2
  2. 2. 3 4
  3. 3. How many times have you heard students say something like this? 5 Points are a way of motivating individuals to participate. For some this may be motivating in and of itself [TELL STORY OF SAMUEL AND POINTS FOR MULTIPLICATION GAME]. Points for the sake of points, however, seems to be a weak use of the notion. Rather, use points for a currency replacement. [PROZ.COM example] BROWNIZ. Give back to community 6
  4. 4. 7 DuoLingo 8
  5. 5. 9 Points are a way of motivating individuals to participate. For some this may be motivating in and of itself [TELL STORY OF SAMUEL AND POINTS FOR MULTIPLICATION GAME]. Points for the sake of points, however, seems to be a weak use of the notion. Rather, use points for a currency replacement. [PROZ.COM example] BROWNIZ. Give back to community 10
  6. 6. Badges are a way of recognizing people’s efforts for the skills they’ve obtained. They may not only be used as a way of showing what skills one has obtained, but of providing access and privileges to different parts of a site 11 http://erinknight.com/post/ 29830945702/webmaker-badges 12
  7. 7. 13 Badges might come together to form constellations 14
  8. 8. The IP&T courses for technology integration in teaching have incorporated a badging system composed of smaller challenges, amounting to larger challenges. http://iptedtec.org/tsa_1/IP&T EdTec 15 16
  9. 9. Challenges encourage users to take on extra tasks.! 17 18
  10. 10. DuoLingo 19 20
  11. 11. 21 DuoLingo is a great example of Gamification. In addition to points, badges, and challenges, here we see how they incorporate the notion of a leaderboard. We can see here that in my own private circle, my brother is kicking my trash in his language practice (granted, he’s practicing a language he already knows and I’m learning a new one ;) So, how well do these gamification techniques work? Here are a few testimonials from today’s public forums 22
  12. 12. 23 24
  13. 13. 25 We’ve used rewards since we were children. Through the use of stars, stickers and the like. The same principle can be used with learning environments. BUT, the rewards need to be something the group will actually want to seek after. 26
  14. 14. 27 I’m going to pull out my Ed. Psych background on this one to provide an example of why feedback is so important in the learning process. 28
  15. 15. 29 Recent research has shown that students are not good at predicting what study habits will most benefit them. Though they feel that recall will be the least effective, it is shown time and again to be the most effective. The message? Learners need to be quizzed on their understanding and get feedback on their progress as often as possible. Several years ago Richard Swan (BYU) studied game mechanics to find out what we could learn from games that would be useful in learning. One idea he uncovered was that of feed-forward. 30
  16. 16. Swan, R. H. (2008). Deriving operational principles for the design of engaging learning experiences. BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY. 31 Predictive feed-forward systems are like sprinklers. They predict when they’ll be needed and fire at a designated moment. Preventative systems seek to anticipate a user’s actions and intercept those. 32
  17. 17. 33 34 Feedback [TELL STORY OF IT STUDENT WHO NEVER KNEW HIS GRADES] Purdue—Course Signals detects early warning signs and provides interventions to students who may not be performing to the best of their abilities before they reach a critical point. The Course Signals program works best when instructors want to provide A third, more complex form of feed-forward is the adaptive system. Consider the new Student Assessment of Growth and Excellence (SAGE) that is being used in Utah. Computer-adaptive tests have been in existence for decades, used in graduate-level tests such as the GRE, LSAT, and MCAT.
  18. 18. Mastery learning 35 Mastery learning may require that we allow students to fail. This often means more work for the teacher, so caveat emptor. Consider the difference between these two scenarios [SHARE 20% WILL FAIL vs. YOU GET A SECOND CHANCE story] 36
  19. 19. I offer my students the opportunity to re-do their assignments. This means more work for me. But what it means for my students is that, if they mess up the first time, there is redemption, IF THEY ARE WILLING TO WORK FOR IT. 37 Avatars and instructional agents (Clark and X book). Mike Griffiths’ experiment with video. 38
  20. 20. Avatars are a way of motivating people to put a little bit of their personality into their own learner profiles. It’s amazing the time people will spend working on their avatar. My own experience with this has been mixed. 39 40 Pedagogical Agents or guides, on the other hand, have been shown to make a significant difference in learner engagement. For example, researchers found over multiple studies that learners presented with a pedagogical agent produced 24-48% more correct answers on transfer tests than those presented the same
  21. 21. 41 42 Encourage exploration (Easter Eggs). Easter eggs are hidden items that someone needs to go the extra mile to look for. Hiding an easter egg adds a component of exploration to learning that encourages learners to go beyond their normal behaviors and try to find interesting or new information. One way of hiding an

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