Overview of cable (coax) network access.
Traditional TV cable networks were primarily used for distributing TV signals to residential users.
Cable networks have a tree topology that supports the broadcast nature of TV signals.
Coaxial cables are ideal for that purpose because they allow high speed signal transmission and easy branching by splitting the cable.
The rise of the Internet in the 1990ies raised the interest of cable network providers to offer Internet service on their networks. In order to do so they needed to overhaul the networks to allow bi-directional data transmission. Additionally, a certain portion of the network had to be replaced with fibers to support the much higher data rates.
Due to their branch and tree topology, cable networks require a precise time synchronization between cable modems and the cable modem termination system (CMTS).
Most cable networks use standards from the DOCSIS (Data Over Cable System Interface Specification) family of recommendations developed by CableLabs. EuroDOCSIS is an adapted version of the DOCSIS standards suite to comply with European frequency regulations.