History of Epidemics & Pandemics of World & India- A case study-peterpd
1. Peter P. Debbarma
Asst. Professor, Department of Geography
Image procured -Compiled, Edited & Arranged from various
internet sources, google, Wikipedia, WHO, National Health
profile and Disease websites etc.Some images are copied from
various copyright sources. I do not claim to create and posses
such images and information provided in this presentation.
Dated: May, 2020
2. EPIDEMIC VS PANDEMIC
An epidemic is an outbreak of disease that
affects many in a population and begins to
Pandemic is a larger epidemic. A pandemic
covers several countries or spreads from one
continent to another.
An outbreak of disease is considered an
epidemic if it affects a certain number of people
within a short period of time, typically within 2
In pandemic outbreaks, the number of people
affected or killed doesn’t matter as much as the
rate of spread and how far it has spread.
One of the few examples of epidemic diseases
is the West African Ebola
A few examples of pandemic diseases are HIV
AIDS, Asian Influenza and Cholera
3. TERMS & CONCEPTS
Sporadic refers to a disease that occurs infrequently or
irregularly.Foodborne pathogens, such as Salmonella or E. coli,
can often cause sporadic disease outbreaks
Cluster refers to a disease that occurs in larger numbers even though the
actual number or cause may be uncertain. An example is the cluster
of cancer cases often reported after a chemical or nuclear plant
Endemic refers to the constant presence and/or usual prevalence of a disease
in a geographic population
Hyperendemic refers to persistent, high levels of disease well above what is seen
in other populations. For example, HIV is hyperendemic in parts of
Africa, whereas many as one in five adults has the disease, and
endemic in the United States, where roughly one in 300 is infected.
Outbreak carries the same definition as an epidemic but is often used to
describe a more limited geographic event
Epidemic refers to a sudden increase in the number of cases of a disease
above what is normally expected.
7. The World Health Organization (WHO) provides an influenza pandemic alert system, with a
scale ranging from Phase 1 (a low risk of a flu pandemic) to Phase 6 (a full-blown
Phase 6: Community-level outbreaks are in at least one additional country in a different
WHO region from phase 5. A global pandemic is under way.
Phase 5: Spread of disease between humans is occurring in more than one country of
one WHO region.
Phase 4: The risk for a pandemic is greatly increased but not certain
Phase 3: Sporadic cases or small clusters of disease occur in humans. Human-to-
human transmission, if any, is insufficient to cause community-level outbreaks.
Phase 2: An animal flu virus has caused infection in humans.
Phase 1: A virus in animals has caused no known infections in humans.
9. What is Plaque Epidemic/
Plague is an infectious disease caused by
the bacterium Yersinia pestis., animals and
rodents…Symptoms include fever, rashes, swollen, skin colour
weakness and headache and also dysentry. ….
10. Major Plaques of the World
Prehistoric epidemic: Circa 3000 B.C.(China)
Plague of Athens: 430 B.C
Antonine Plague: A.D. 165-180
Plague of Cyprian: A.D. 250-271
Plague of Justinian: A.D. 541-542
The Black Death: 1346-1353
Cocoliztli epidemic: 1545-1548
American Plagues: 16th century
Great Plague of London: 1665-1666
Great Plague of Marseille: 1720-1723
Russian plague: 1770-1772
Typhus(Europe): Typhus is sometimes called "camp fever" because of its pattern of flaring
up in times of strife. (It is also known as "gaol fever" and "ship fever",
11. Great Pandemics of the world- Historical Prospects
1 PLAGUE OF ATHENS (430 to 426
During the Peloponnesian War, typhoid fever killed a quarter of the Athenian
troops and a quarter of the population
2 ANTONINE PLAGUE (165 to 180
AD): hit Europe
Possibly measles or SMALLPOX brought to the Italian peninsula by soldiers
returning from the Near East, it killed a quarter of those infected, up to five million
3 PLAGUE OF CYPRIAN (251–266
AD): Hit Rome and Europe
A second outbreak of what may have been the same disease as the Antonine Plague
killed (it was said) 5,000 PEOPLE A DAY IN ROME.
4 PLAGUE OF JUSTINIAN (541 to 750
AD): started in Egypt but Hit Europe
The first recorded outbreak of BUBONIC PLAGUE STARTED IN EGYPT and
reached Constantinople the following spring, killing (according to the Byzantine
5 BLACK DEATH (1331 to 1353):
Starting in Asia but Europe biggest hit(worst
plaque of the world0
The total number of deaths worldwide is estimated at 75 to 200 million. Eight
hundred years after the last outbreak, the plague returned to Europe. Starting
in Asia, the disease reached the Mediterranean and western Europe in 1348
(possibly from Italian merchants fleeing fighting in Crimea), and killed an
estimated 20 to 30 million Europeans in six years;
6 THIRD PLAGUE PANDEMIC (1855):
Started in China but hit India and World
Starting in China, it spread into India, where 10 million people died. During this
pandemic, the United States saw its first outbreak: the San Francisco plague
of 1900–1904. Today, isolated cases of plague are still found in the western
7 SPANISH FLU, The 1918 flu
started in Kansas, USA (1918-1920)
(worst Flu of the World…till date)
, infected half a billion people: around the world, including on remote Pacific islands and
in the Arctic—killing 20 to 100 million..Most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill
the very young and the very old, with higher survival rates for those in between, but that
one had an unusually high mortality rate for young adults.Mass troop movements and
close quarters during World War I caused it to spread and mutate faster,
8 THE 2019, CORONOVIRUS, A new strain of coronavirus which originated in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in
late December 2019, has caused a cluster of cases of an acute respiratory disease,
12. Other Notable Pandemics in History
CHOLERA PANDEMIC(INDIA)(1817-1976 ) 7 pandemic
waves spreading world wide) concentrated outbreak in Central America &
last in Yemen,2016
POLIO,short for poliomyelitis, is an infectious disease caused by
the poliovirus. In about 0.5 percent of cases, there is muscle
weakness resulting in an inability to move.
HIV-AIDS: n addition to HIV, which has killed over 39 million people
since 1982, there have been other equally devastating pandemics
SmallPoxThe smallpox pandemic of the 20th century claimed
between 300 to 500 million lives. Edward Jenner confirmed that
cowpox provided protection against smallpox infection in 1798. In
1959, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a huge
campaign to globally eradicate smallpox. In 1980, smallpox was
declared eradicated - the only human disease that has been
eradicated to date.
:Tuberculosis The ongoing tuberculosis pandemic continues to kill
over 1.5 million people annually. Despite the availability of the
effective treatment, multi-drug resistance has staved efforts to
reverse the progression of the pandemic.
Malaria- tropical endemic & world wide
13. Major Cholera(asiatic Cholera) Outbreak of the World
in 200 years 7 pandemic waves, small waves, Central America last in Yemen,2016 outbreak
1. 1817–1824 CHOLERA
PANDEMIC( Jessore, Ganga
Delta, undivided Bengal &
undivided India, from contaminated
rice & water)
Previously restricted to the Indian subcontinent, THE PANDEMIC BEGAN IN BENGAL, then
spread across India by 1820. 10,000 British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic. It
extended as far as China, Indonesia (where more than 100,000 people succumbed on the island
of Java alone) and the Caspian Sea before receding. Deaths in the Indian subcontinent between 1817 and
1860 are estimated to have exceeded 15 million. Another 23 million died between 1865 and
1917. Russian deaths during a similar period exceeded 2 million
2. 1826–1837 CHOLERA
Reached Russia (see Cholera Riots), Hungary (about 100,000 deaths) and Germany in 1831, London in
1832 (more than 55,000 persons died in the United Kingdom), France, Canada (Ontario), and United States
(New York City) in the same year, and the Pacific coast of North America by 1834. It is believed that more
than 150,000 Americans died of cholera between 1832 and 1849
3. 1846–1860 CHOLERA
Deeply affected Russia, with more than a million deaths. A two-year outbreak began in England and
Wales in 1848 and claimed 52,000 lives.Throughout Spain, cholera caused more than 236,000 deaths in
1854–55.It claimed 200,000 lives in Mexico
4.1863–75 cholera pandemic Spread mostly in Europe and Africa. At least 30,000 of the 90,000 Mecca pilgrims fell victim to the
disease. Cholera claimed 90,000 lives in Russia in 1866. In 1866, there was an outbreak in North America. It
killed some 50,000 Americans.
5. 1881–96 cholera pandemic The 1883–1887 epidemic cost 250,000 lives in Europe and at least 50,000 in the Americas. Cholera claimed
267,890 lives in Russia (1892);120,000 in Spain;90,000 in Japan and 60,000 in Persia
6. 1899–1923 cholera
started in Indonesia then
spread to Bangladesh
Had little effect in Europe because of advances in public health, but Russia was badly affected again (more
than 500,000 people dying of cholera during the first quarter of the 20th century).The sixth pandemic killed
more than 800,000 in India. The 1902–1904 cholera epidemic claimed more than 200,000 lives in
15. Influenza Flu pandemics
Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals. It was thought to be caused by comets,
earthquakes, volcanoes, cosmic dust, the rising and setting of the sun, vapors arising from the air and ground, or a blast from the
stars.Now we know that it is caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). In humans,
common symptoms of influenza infection are fever, sore
Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the
virus, and from infected birds through their droppings. Influenza can also be transmitted by saliva, nasal secretions, feces and
The Influenza A virus subtypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths,
H1N1 caused Spanish flu and the 2009 swine flu pandemic (novel H1N1)
H2N2 caused Asian flu
H3N2 caused Hong Kong flu
H5N1 is bird flu, endemic in avians
H7N7 has unusual zoonotic potential
H1N2 is currently endemic in humans and pigs
H9N2, H7N2, H7N3, H10N7
The Greek physician Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine", first described influenza in 412 BC.
The first influenza pandemic to be pathologically described occurred in 1510. Since the pandemic of 1580, influenza
pandemics have occurred every 10 to 30 years.
16. Major Influenza Flu Pandemics of the World
1. The 1889–1890 flu pandemic or
Russian Flu, or Asiatic Flu, was first reported in May 1889
in Bukhara, Uzbekistan. By October, it had reached Tomsk and
the Caucasus. It rapidly spread west and hit North America in
December 1889, South America in February–April 1890, India in
February–March 1890, and Australia in March–April 1890.
The H3N8 and H2N2 subtypes of the Influenza A virus have each
been identified as possible causes. It had a very high attack
and mortality rate, causing around a million fatalities.
2. The "Spanish flu", 1918–1919. First
identified early in March 1918 in U.S. troops training at Camp
FUNSTON, KANSAS. By October 1918, it had spread to become a
worldwide pandemic on all continents, and eventually infected about
one-third of the world's population .
3. The "Asian Flu", 1957–58. A H2N2 virus first
identified in CHINA in late February 1957. It caused about two million
4. virus first detected in The "Hong Kong Flu",
1968–69. A H3N2 Hong Kong in early 1968 and spread
across the world, lasting until 1972. This pandemic killed
approximately one million people worldwide.[
5. The "Swine Flu", 2009–10. An H1N1 virus
first detected in Mexico in early 2009. Estimates for the mortality of
this pandemic range from 150 to 500 thousand.
6. Coronaviruses Disease (COVID-
19)(Wuhan wet market or not known, China).
17. Viral hemorrhagic Fevers
are highly contagious and deadly diseases, with the theoretical potential to
Viral hemorrhagic fevers such
West African Ebola virus disease(EVD) 2014-2016), New
Guinea: The first EVD outbreaks occurred in remote villages in Central Africa,
near tropical rainforests. The 2014–2016 outbreak in West Africa was the largest and
most complex Ebola outbreak since the virus was first discovered in 1976. There were
more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined. It also spread
between countries, starting in Guinea then moving across land borders to Sierra
Leone and Liberia.
Rift Valley fever,
Marburg virus disease
and Bolivian hemorrhagic
18. Skin related Diseases & Formation of Body
SMALLPOX C. 1908 (variola virus major & minor)
Smallpox was a contagious disease caused by the variola virus major & Minor. The disease killed
an estimated 400,000 Europeans per year during the closing years of the 18th century. During the
20th century, it is estimated that smallpox was responsible for 300–500 million deaths.As recently
as the early 1950s, an estimated 50 million cases of smallpox occurred in the world each year.
After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified
the eradication of smallpox in December 1979. To this day, smallpox is the only human
infectious disease to have been completely eradicated,and one of two
infectious viruses ever to be eradicated, along with rinderpest.
Historically, measles was prevalent throughout the world, as it is highly contagious. According to
the U.S. National Immunization Program, 90% of people were infected with measles by age 15.
Measles is an endemic disease, meaning it has been continually present in a community,
and many people develop resistance. In populations that have not been exposed to measles,
exposure to a new disease can be devastating. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-
thirds of the natives who had previously survived smallpox. The disease had
ravaged Mexico, Central America, and the Inca civilization.
LEPROSY (bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae )
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is caused by a bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae. It is
a chronic disease with an incubation period of up to five years. Since 1985, 15 million people
worldwide have been cured of leprosy.
Historically, leprosy has affected people since at least 600 BC.Leprosy outbreaks began to occur in Western
Europe around 1000 AD. Numerous leprosoria, or leper hospitals, sprang up in the Middle Ages; Matthew
Paris estimated that in the early 13th century, there were 19,000 of them across Europe.
POLIO OR POLIOMYELETIS : diabling body caused by POLIO VIRUS…deformed hand and leg, In India
and Amercan Polio epidemic 1916
19. Insects- transmitted
MALARIA (tropical): An Anopheles stephensi mosquito.Past and
current malaria prevalence in 2009 Malaria is widespread in tropical and subtropical
regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Each year, there are
approximately 350–500 million cases of malaria. Drug resistance poses a growing
problem in the treatment of malaria in the 21st century, since resistance is now
common against all classes of antimalarial drugs, except for the artemisinins.
Malaria was once common in most of Europe and North America, where it is now for
all purposes non-existent. Malaria may have contributed to the decline of
the Roman Empire. The disease became known as "Roman
fever". Plasmodium falciparum became a real threat to colonists and indigenous
people alike when it was introduced into the Americas along with the slave trade.
Malaria devastated the Jamestown colony and regularly ravaged the South and
Midwest of the United States. By 1830, it had reached the Pacific Northwest. During
the American Civil War, there were more than 1.2 million cases of malaria among
soldiers of both sides.The southern U.S. continued to be afflicted with millions of
cases of malaria into the 1930s.
YELLOW FEVER 1793,Philadelphia, USA:
jaundice Yellow fever has been a source of several devastating epidemics.Cities as
far north as New York, Philadelphia, and Boston were hit with epidemics. In 1793,
one of the largest yellow fever epidemics in U.S. history killed as many as 5,000
people in PHILADELPHIA—roughly 10% of the population. About half of the
residents had fled the city, including President George Washington. In colonial
times, West Africa became known as "the white man's grave" because of malaria and
ZIKA VIRUS: 2015–16 Zika virus epidemic, Zika virus,
and Zika fever
An outbreak of Zika virus began in 2015 and strongly intensified throughout the start
of 2016, with more than 1.5 million cases across more than a dozen countries in the
Americas. The World Health Organization warned that Zika had the potential to
become an explosive global pandemic if the outbreak was not controlled.
20. RESPIRATORY & PNEUMONIA
(MERS-CoV) Syndrome(2012), Arabian Peninsula Middle East
Respiratory Syndrome also known as camel flu is a viral respiratory infection caused by
the MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe.Typical symptoms
include fever, cough, diarrhea, and shortness of breath.The disease is typically more severe in those with other health
problems. The first identified case occurred in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and most cases have occurred in the Arabian
(SARS), 2002, CHINA,S evere Acute Respiratory Syndrome:
outbreak or SARS-CoV-1). The outbreak was first identified
in Foshan, Guangdong, China, on November 16, 2002.
In 2003 the Italian physician Carlo Urbani (1956–2003) was the first to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as a
new and dangerously contagious disease, although he became infected and died. It is caused by a coronavirus dubbed SARS-
(COVID-19) Coronaviruses disease wuhan, China). 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic:
Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such asand Severe
Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A new strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-
19. new strain of coronavirus which originated in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in late December 2019, has caused a cluster of cases of an
acute respiratory disease, which is referred to as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). According to media reports, more than 200 countries
and territories have been affected by COVID-19, with major outbreaks occurring in central China, Iran, Western Europe and the United States.
On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization characterized the spread of COVID-19 as a pandemic.
21. PREVALENT WORLD PANDEMICS
Tuberculosis(TB) Tuberculosis kills five thousand people
every day in the world. Caused by MTB(Mycobacterium tuberculosis
In 2007, the prevalence of TB per 100,000 people was highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, and was also
relatively high in Asian countries, e.g. India.
One-quarter of the world's current population has been infected with MTB(Mycobacterium
tuberculosis), and new infections occur at a rate of one per second. About 5–10% of these latent
infections will eventually progress to active disease, which, if left untreated, kills more than half its
victims. Annually, eight million people become ill with tuberculosis, and two million die from the disease
worldwide.In the 19th century, tuberculosis killed an estimated one-quarter of the adult population of
Europe; by 1918, one in six deaths in France were still caused by tuberculosis. During the 20th century,
tuberculosis killed approximately 100 million people.TB is still one of the most important health
problems in the developing world.
HIV/AIDS(Africa) : AIDS pandemic and epidemic:
Their studies concluded that the first transmission of SIV to HIV in
humans took place around 1920 in Kinshasa in the Democratic
Republic of Congo (DR Congo). HIV crossed from chimps to
humans in the 1920s in what is now the Democratic Republic of
Congo. This was probably as a result of chimps carrying the Simian
Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), a virus closely related to HIV, being
hunted and eaten by people living in the areaScientists identified a
type of chimpanzee in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in
Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
Estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence among young adults (15-49) by
country as of 2008
Although the WHO uses the term "global epidemic" to
describe HIV ("WHO HIV/AIDS Data and Statistics". Retrieved 12
April 2020.), some authors use the term "pandemic".HIV is believed
to have originated in Africa. AIDS is currently a pandemic, with
infection rates as high as 25% in southern and eastern Africa. In
2006, the HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women in South
Africa was 29%.Effective education about safer sexual practices
and bloodborne infection precautions training have helped to slow
down infection rates in several African countries sponsoring national
22. "EPIDEMICS IN INDIA"
1817–1824 cholera pandemic
1826–1837 cholera pandemic
1863–1875 cholera pandemic
1896- Bombay plague epidemic
1899–1923 cholera pandemic
1918 flu pandemic in India
1974 smallpox epidemic in India
1994, Surat, Gujrat plague in India
2009 swine flu pandemic in India
Covid 19, Corona virus disease
What Is Cholera?
Bacteria intestinal infections.Cholera is an
infectious disease caused by a bacterium
called Vibrio cholerae. The bacteria typically live in
waters that are somewhat salty and warm, such as
estuaries and waters along coastal areas. People
contract V. cholerae after drinking liquids or eating
foods contaminated with the bacteria, such as raw
or undercooked shellfish.
There are hundreds of strains or “serogroups” of the
cholera bacteria: V. cholerae serogroups O1 and
O139 are the only two strains of the bacteria known
to cause outbreaks and epidemics.
23. Prominent Epidemics that haunted India
Sixthcholera(1910-1911):The sixth cholera outbreak began in India, subsequently spreading to the Middle East, North Africa, Eastern Europe and
Russia. The outbreak killed 8,00,000 people.
SpanishFlu(1918– 1920):Spanish flu was caused by the deadly strain of avian influenza and was spread due to World War I. In India, the Indian soldiers who were a part of World
War I became the carriers of this disease. The influenza killed between 17 and 18 million Indians, more than all the casualties in World War One. More women, relatively
undernourished and nursing the sick died than men. The pandemic is believed to have infected a third of the world’s population and claimed between 50 and 100 million lives.
SmallpoxEpidemic(1974): 60% of the smallpox cases globally were reported in India and were more virulent as compared to other parts of the world. Though India launched
the National Smallpox Eradication Program (NSEP) it failed to get the desired results. However, WHO along with the Soviet Union sent some medical assistance to India and in
March 1977 India was free from smallpox.
Plaguein Surat(1994):In September 1994, the plague hit Surat and people fled from the city in large numbers. This mass migration from Surat to other parts of the country spread
the disease across India. The main cause of the Plague was unhygienic conditions in the city such as open drains, poor sewage system etc. The then local government of Surat cleared
the garbage and clogged drains, thus, managing the Plague.
SARS(2002-2004): After the 21st century, SARS was the first severe disease which was transmissible from one person to another through coughing and sneezing. It was a
severe acute respiratory syndrome (and the cause of SARS was similar to COVID-19, named SARS CoV). This virus had frequent mutations.
DengueandChikungunyaOutbreak(2006):Both were mosquito-borne tropical diseases which affected people across India. Several parts of the country were impacted and
the highest number of patients were reported in Delhi.
Swinefluoutbreak(2014-2015): Swine flu is a type of influenza virus H1N1 and in 2014, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Delhi, Maharashtra and Telangana were among the worst affected
states due to the virus. About 33,000 cases were reported across the country and about 2000 people lost their lives.
NipahVirusoutbreak(2018)In May 2018, an infection caused by fruit bats was reported in Kerala which became epidemic within a few days. Due to the preventive measures, by
the month of June, the outbreak was curbed within Kerala.
CHOLERA Since 1878) & SIXTH
The sixth cholera outbreak began in India, subsequently spreading to the
Middle East, North Africa, Eastern Europe and Russia. The 6th cholera
killed 8,00,000 people Indians
(1817 to 1860-three pandemics-15 million & (1865 to 1917-23 million
SPANISH FLU (1918 – 1920):
The influenza killed between 17 and 18
Spanish flu was caused by the deadly strain of avian influenza and was spread due to World War I. In India, the Indian
soldiers who were a part of World War I became the carriers of this disease. , more than all the casualties in World War
One. More women, relatively undernourished and nursing the sick died than men. The pandemic is believed to have
infected a third of the world’s population and claimed between 50 and 100 million lives
SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC (1974):
60% of the smallpox cases globally were reported in
and were more virulent as compared to other parts of the world. Though India launched the National Smallpox
Eradication Program (NSEP) it failed to get the desired results. However, WHO along with the Soviet Union sent some
medical assistance to India and in March 1977 India was free from smallpox.
PLAGUE IN SURAT, GUJRAT (1994) : In September 1994, the plague hit Surat and people fled from the city in large numbers. This mass migration from
Surat to other parts of the country spread the disease across India. The main cause of the Plague was unhygienic
conditions in the city such as open drains, poor sewage system etc. The then local government of Surat cleared the
garbage and clogged drains, thus, managing the Plague.
SARS (2002-2004) After the 21st century, SARS was the first severe disease which was transmissible from one person to another through
coughing and sneezing. It was a severe acute respiratory syndrome (and the cause of SARS was similar to COVID-19,
named SARS CoV). This virus had frequent mutations.
DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA
Both were mosquito-borne tropical diseases which affected people across India. Several parts of the country were
impacted and the highest number of patients were reported in Delhi.
SWINE FLU OUTBREAK (2014-2015): Swine flu is a type of influenza virus H1N1 and in 2014, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Delhi, Maharashtra and Telangana were
among the worst affected states due to the virus. About 33,000 cases were reported across the country and about
2000 people lost their lives.
NIPAH VIRUS OUTBREAK (2018 ),
In May 2018, an infection caused by fruit bats was reported in Kerala which became epidemic within a few days. Due to
the preventive measures, by the month of June, the outbreak was curbed within Kerala.
25. Some Prevalent Diseases in India
AIDS in India: ranks third in the world in
infections. India is estimated to have around 87.58 (36.45 – 172.90)
thousand new HIV infections in 2017, showing new HIV infection decline by 85%
since the peak of 1995 and by 27% between 2010-2017. Women are accounted for
40% of annual new HIV infection in 2017. Annual new HIV infections are increasing in
three states of the north-east region- Assam, Mizoram and Meghalaya and also in
Uttarakhand, while in Nagaland, Manipur, Delhi, Chhattisgarh and Jammu & Kashmir
Decline is less than 10% in last 7 years. Ten states accounts for 71% of total annual
new HIV infection: Telangana, Bihar, west Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujrat, Tamil Nadu and Delhi.
Tuberculosis: India’s Silent Epidemic:
rank one in the world, one-fourth of total Tb cases in the world. As of 2018,
India is home to the world’s largest number of patients suffering from tuberculosis.
Polio in India: However, in 2014, India was officially declared
polio-free, along with the rest of the South-East Asia Region. Thanks to the
singular commitment of the Indian Government at all levels, partners of the Global
Polio Eradication Initiative, notably WHO, Rotary International and UNICEF, polio was
tackled head-on. India has not had a case single case of wild polio virus since 2011.
Malaria & Dengue( Tropical region part, cities of
India, Tripura, NER.
Diarrhea not a disease but still kills young
infants in south Asia
26. The Epidemic Diseases Act,
is a law which was first enacted to tackle bubonic plague in Mumbai (formerly Bombay) in former British
India. The law is meant for containment of epidemics by providing special powers that are required for the
implementation of containment measures to control the spread of the disease.
1896-The Bombay plague epidemic was a bubonic plague epidemic that
struck the city of Bombay (present-day Mumbai) in the late nineteenth century.
The plague killed thousands, and many fled the city leading to a drastic fall in
the population of the city.
27. Epidemics and Pandemics Org.
The Indian Council of Medical
Research (ICMR), New Delhi, the apex
body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of
biomedical research, is one of the oldest medical research bodies
in the world. As early as in 1911, the Government of India set up
the Indian Research Fund Association (IRFA) with the specific
objective of sponsoring and coordinating me
World Health Organization (WHO),
Geneva, Switzerland is a specialized agency of
the United Nations responsible for international public health.The
WHO Constitution, which establishes the agency's governing
structure and principles, states its main objective as ensuring "the
attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. It
is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, with six semi-
autonomous regional offices and 150 field offices worldwide. dical
research in the country
28. Some important Days to be
Significance of Doctor’s Day in India
Doctor's Day in India was established by the Government of India in 1991 to be
recognized and celebrated every year on 1st of July as National
Doctors day. It is celebrated to value doctors and their role in country’s
development. National Doctors day in India is a big awareness campaign offering
great opportunities to all to get aware about the roles, importance and
responsibilities of the doctors as well as promote medical professionals to come
closer and follow the responsibilities of their profession very dedicatedly.