Transdermal Systemic Laser Therapy Study 2008 Regenerative Health Clinic Ageless Technologies Ltd. Dirk Budka, MSc  Peter ...
LASER L R A S E ight mplification by timulated mission of  adiation
LASER  LIGHT   A unique electomagnetic wave PHOTON  is the smallest effective entity
<ul><li>Energy Transfer / Stimulation </li></ul>EN 2 EN 2 EN 1 EN 1 EN 1 Stimulated Emission s ame phase! s ame direction,...
<ul><li>Laser </li></ul>Reflective mirror EN 1 E = EN 2 Active laser material Semi- transparent  mirror Energy pumped
Characteristics of Laser Light   <ul><li>Monochromatic  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow band wave length </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Three Basic Techniques Intravenous   laser blood irradiation (ILBI) by HeNe laser in the red spectrum   Percutaneous laser...
Light Absorption Absorption  ( % ) 500 750 1000 nm 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 100 90 LASER- optic window Haemoglobin Melanin ...
T Moshkovska and  J Mayberry  Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK  Postgraduate Medical Journal2005;81:436-441 Prost...
Transdermal Systemic Laser Therapy Study 2008 Regenerative Health Clinic Ageless Technologies Ltd.
Introduction <ul><li>Although Trans-Dermal Laser Therapy (TDSL) can be used for many applications, Ageless Technologies/Re...
Short overview CFS <ul><li>Different names for ONE problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Myalgic Encephalomyelitis </li></ul><ul><li>...
Short Overview <ul><li>Different names for ONE problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Myalgic Encephalomyelitis </li></ul><ul><li>Atyp...
Short Overview <ul><li>Medical Aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>- Biochemistry disturbance </li></ul>...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>Participants: 47 patients </li></ul><ul><li>Period: Feb 08 – Nov 08 </li></ul><ul><li>Devices:   TDSL...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>14 patients had no previous diagnosis and presented only various symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>20 patie...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>ALL 47 patients presented the (main) symptom/diagnosis: </li></ul><ul><li>CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME </...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>Possible type of CFS in these 43 patients: </li></ul><ul><li>Post-viral fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Bur...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>All 47 patients had more than one symptom. </li></ul><ul><li>In 39 cases the patients believed that t...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>Presentation of diseases/symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Fibromyalgia </li></ul><ul><li>(IBS) Irritable B...
TDSL <ul><li>Of the 43 patients (4 cancer patients excluded) </li></ul><ul><li>- 14 patients suffered from CFS (and relate...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>OWN TESTS BEFORE STUDY: </li></ul><ul><li>All: Glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol/...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>OWN TESTS BEFORE STUDY: </li></ul><ul><li>SOME   LFT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U & E </li></u...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>LASER THERAPY </li></ul><ul><li>The first 10 patients started on 40mW for approx. 30 min. (72 joules)...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>LASER THERAPY </li></ul><ul><li>Laser was administered to all patients in the morning hours (6.30 am ...
TDSL Study <ul><li>Laser Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Except the cancer patient, no study-participant had multi-therapy dur...
TDSL Study <ul><li>Laser Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure was lower at the end of a laser treatment.  </li></ul>...
TDSL-Study <ul><li>Outcome: </li></ul><ul><li>No benefits were reported after the first session.  </li></ul><ul><li>Side-e...
TDSL-Study <ul><li>Outcome: </li></ul><ul><li>Patients reported the following benefits of the laser therapy: </li></ul><ul...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>Outcome: </li></ul><ul><li>Other reported benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>“ feel detoxified” </li></ul><u...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>10 of 15 patients with low Cortisol level had normal levels after re-tests ...
TDSL-Study <ul><li>Outcome in relation to GENDER and AGE </li></ul><ul><li>Success of TDSL therapy did not show difference...
TDSL - Study <ul><li>Two case studies: </li></ul><ul><li>Geoffrey S. </li></ul><ul><li>Kate O. </li></ul>
TDSL - Study <ul><li>Study will be available from May 2009 </li></ul>
Increase of  ATP – Production  (Adenosintriphosphate ) by up to 150% Effect via  cell membrane and/or mitochondria Physiol...
Difference of the  Effect of Red and Infrared Laser RED Infrared Cell membrane Prophyrine  Ca  ++  influx Mitochondria Cyt...
Mitochondria Power plants of the cell Nucleus Cellular energy ATP –  Adenosintriphosphat Quelle:Dr. Wilden Bad Füssing ATP...
Quelle:Dr. Wilden Bad Füssing The cellular power plant with i ts antenna pigments  Effect of Laser Light Antenna- Pigments...
<ul><ul><li>Cellular metabolic activation and increased functional activity   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ATP synthesis is...
<ul><ul><li>Immunostimulation with correction of cellular and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>humoral   immunity </li></ul></ul...
T Moshkovska and  J Mayberry  Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK  Postgraduate Medical Journal2005;81:436-441 Prost...
Contraindications For  Laser Therapy Malignant tumours located in an irradiated area   E pilepsy (only in the use of pulse...
Review:  It is time to test low level laser therapy in Great Britain  T Moshkovska and J Mayberry  Leicester General Hospi...
“ has been used in Eastern Europe   and Asia for the treatment of a wide range of conditions for   many years.  Its  conti...
Among the 100 selected   for evaluation in this review, only 28 could be found on Medline.   Many studies have been publis...
Most reports are in Russian and the basis for clinical research   and practice was first established in Moscow in 1986.  T...
As a result  clinicians in Russia and Ukraine now have access   to a wide variety of invasive and non-invasive lasers  and...
The reasons behind the  widespread application of LLLT in Russia   and Ukraine  are evident.  Today medicine is dominated ...
Ohshiro and Calderhead believe  low  intensity   laser  irradiation may work through effects on the  central nervous   sys...
Intravenous laser blood irradiation  was developed experimentally   by the Russian researchers,  Meshalkin and Sergievskiy...
Trans Dermal Systemic Laser  TDSL Production year:   2008 Laser Medium:   Diode Laser infrared (I.R.)  Ga Al As Laser Emis...
P ercutaenous Laser Irradiation  with the  TDSL <ul><li>Effective  </li></ul><ul><li>Non- invasive </li></ul><ul><li>Pain ...
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Transdermal Systemic Laser Therapy 2009

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Systemic Laser Therapy in Chronic Fatigue 2009

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  • Transdermal Systemic Laser Therapy 2009

    1. 1. Transdermal Systemic Laser Therapy Study 2008 Regenerative Health Clinic Ageless Technologies Ltd. Dirk Budka, MSc Peter Gruenewald, MD
    2. 2. LASER L R A S E ight mplification by timulated mission of adiation
    3. 3. LASER LIGHT A unique electomagnetic wave PHOTON is the smallest effective entity
    4. 4. <ul><li>Energy Transfer / Stimulation </li></ul>EN 2 EN 2 EN 1 EN 1 EN 1 Stimulated Emission s ame phase! s ame direction, S ame wave length, E EN 2 EN 1 EN 2 EN 2 EN 1 EN 2
    5. 5. <ul><li>Laser </li></ul>Reflective mirror EN 1 E = EN 2 Active laser material Semi- transparent mirror Energy pumped
    6. 6. Characteristics of Laser Light <ul><li>Monochromatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow band wave length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: precise colour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coherent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waves in same phase and overlap (interference) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: The waves are in a state of high order. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallelity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V ery small divergence of the light beam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The flow of photons is projected onto a small area. (narrow beam) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: The projection of high energy density onto a small area </li></ul></ul>(overlapping) Coherent light
    7. 7. Three Basic Techniques Intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) by HeNe laser in the red spectrum Percutaneous laser irradiation in the infrared spectrum on to projections of reflexogenic and acupuncture areas. P ercutaenous laser irradiation of blood vessels (blood irradiation)
    8. 8. Light Absorption Absorption ( % ) 500 750 1000 nm 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 100 90 LASER- optic window Haemoglobin Melanin Water 630 – 904 nm
    9. 9. T Moshkovska and J Mayberry Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK Postgraduate Medical Journal2005;81:436-441 Prostaglandin level changes Anti-inflammatory effect Equalisation of osmotic pressure Oedema elimination Stabilisation of lipid peroxidation Reactivation of superoxide dysmutase and catalase Reduction of lipid peroxidation Analgesic effect Activation of neuron metabolism Endorphin level growth Increase of pain threshold Optical quantum Reparation process stimulation ATP accumulation Activation of cellular metabolism Increase of proliferation of fibroblasts and other cells Defective epithelisation Protein and collagen synthesis Capillary formation Immune response stimulation Increase of proliferation of immune modifying cells Accelerate maturation of immune modifying cells Increase production of immunoglobulin Reflexogenic effect Irritation of nerve endings Excitation of nerve centres Stimulation of physiological function
    10. 10. Transdermal Systemic Laser Therapy Study 2008 Regenerative Health Clinic Ageless Technologies Ltd.
    11. 11. Introduction <ul><li>Although Trans-Dermal Laser Therapy (TDSL) can be used for many applications, Ageless Technologies/Regenerative Health Clinic concentrates on: </li></ul><ul><li>FATIGUE SYMPTOMS </li></ul>
    12. 12. Short overview CFS <ul><li>Different names for ONE problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Myalgic Encephalomyelitis </li></ul><ul><li>Myalgic Encephalopathy </li></ul><ul><li>Post Viral Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Low Natural Killer Cell Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Epstein-Barr Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Burn-Out Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Neuro-endocrine-immune Dysfunction Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Mononucleosis Syndrome </li></ul>
    13. 13. Short Overview <ul><li>Different names for ONE problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Myalgic Encephalomyelitis </li></ul><ul><li>Atypical Poliomyelitis </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemic Vasculitis </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemic Neuromyasthenia </li></ul><ul><li>CFS </li></ul><ul><li>Fibromyalgia </li></ul><ul><li>Post-infectious-fatigue-syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Yuppie flu </li></ul>
    14. 14. Short Overview <ul><li>Medical Aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>- Biochemistry disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>- Immune System disturbance incl. microbial diseases </li></ul><ul><li>(Viruses like CMV, HHV-6 and EBV and bacteria infection) </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance of HPA-Axis </li></ul><ul><li>- Psychological problems </li></ul><ul><li>- Hormonal Imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>- Neurally Mediated Hypotension </li></ul><ul><li>- Cardiomyopathy and mitochondria activity </li></ul><ul><li>- Allergies </li></ul>
    15. 15. TDSL - Study <ul><li>Participants: 47 patients </li></ul><ul><li>Period: Feb 08 – Nov 08 </li></ul><ul><li>Devices: TDSL – Clinic Device </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TDSL – Home Device </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>© ® Lasotronic/Dr. Gruenewald </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. TDSL - Study <ul><li>14 patients had no previous diagnosis and presented only various symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>20 patients had more than one previous diagnosis by several medical practitioners (allopathic and complementary). All of them had at least one diagnosis from at least one allopathic practitioner. </li></ul><ul><li>13 patients had one diagnosis by one allopathic practitioner. </li></ul>
    17. 17. TDSL - Study <ul><li>ALL 47 patients presented the (main) symptom/diagnosis: </li></ul><ul><li>CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME </li></ul><ul><li>… which was not specified in 43 patients </li></ul><ul><li>… in 4 patients the diagnosis was ‘Fatigue in Malignant Disease’. </li></ul>
    18. 18. TDSL - Study <ul><li>Possible type of CFS in these 43 patients: </li></ul><ul><li>Post-viral fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Burn-out Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>ME/Fibromyalgia </li></ul><ul><li>Malaise </li></ul>
    19. 19. TDSL - Study <ul><li>All 47 patients had more than one symptom. </li></ul><ul><li>In 39 cases the patients believed that their fatigue symptoms were triggered by a ‘primary disease’ and that the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome was a ‘secondary disease’. </li></ul><ul><li>8 cases were ‘primary’ CFS. </li></ul>
    20. 20. TDSL - Study <ul><li>Presentation of diseases/symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Fibromyalgia </li></ul><ul><li>(IBS) Irritable Bowel Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>(IBD) Crohn’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcerative Colitis </li></ul><ul><li>Coeliac Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Burn-Out symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple allergies/sensitivities </li></ul><ul><li>Previous drug/alcohol abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatitis </li></ul><ul><li>(PFPS) Post Food-Poisoning Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul>
    21. 21. TDSL <ul><li>Of the 43 patients (4 cancer patients excluded) </li></ul><ul><li>- 14 patients suffered from CFS (and related symptoms) for more than 8 years </li></ul><ul><li>- 12 patients between 2 and 8 years </li></ul><ul><li>- 7 patients between 1 and 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>- 10 patients < 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>TDSL success showed no difference between long- , medium -, and short-term – sufferers. </li></ul>
    22. 22. TDSL - Study <ul><li>OWN TESTS BEFORE STUDY: </li></ul><ul><li>All: Glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol/Lipid Profile </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DHEA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cortisol </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CDSA/PCR </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Breath Test </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total IgE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. TDSL - Study <ul><li>OWN TESTS BEFORE STUDY: </li></ul><ul><li>SOME LFT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U & E </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACTH </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EBV IgM/IgG </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CMV IgM/IgG </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HHV-6 IgM/IgG </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HPV IgM/IgG </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. TDSL - Study <ul><li>LASER THERAPY </li></ul><ul><li>The first 10 patients started on 40mW for approx. 30 min. (72 joules). </li></ul><ul><li>After 2-3 sessions the dosage was then increased to 100 joules. (42 min.) </li></ul><ul><li>All other patients started with 100 J. </li></ul>
    25. 25. TDSL - Study <ul><li>LASER THERAPY </li></ul><ul><li>Laser was administered to all patients in the morning hours (6.30 am – 12 pm). </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum treatments: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum treatments: 16 </li></ul>
    26. 26. TDSL Study <ul><li>Laser Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Except the cancer patient, no study-participant had multi-therapy during the laser session. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients did not have other therapies and did not take medications/supplements </li></ul>
    27. 27. TDSL Study <ul><li>Laser Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure was lower at the end of a laser treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Average reading before treatment: 135:85 </li></ul><ul><li>Average reading after treatment: 125:80 </li></ul><ul><li>The pulse increased during the session by up to 20% </li></ul>
    28. 28. TDSL-Study <ul><li>Outcome: </li></ul><ul><li>No benefits were reported after the first session. </li></ul><ul><li>Side-effects: tingling in extremities (34), dry mouth (31), minor headaches (14) </li></ul><ul><li>No further side effects were reported during/after follow-up sessions </li></ul>
    29. 29. TDSL-Study <ul><li>Outcome: </li></ul><ul><li>Patients reported the following benefits of the laser therapy: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in energy (level 1 – 10) </li></ul><ul><li>5 patients did not report any benefit (between 3 and 10 sessions) </li></ul><ul><li>7 patients reported a minor increase in energy </li></ul><ul><li>29 patients reported high increase in energy </li></ul><ul><li>6 patient reported a very high increase in energy (one patient had 24 sessions, another 15) </li></ul>
    30. 30. TDSL - Study <ul><li>Outcome: </li></ul><ul><li>Other reported benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>“ feel detoxified” </li></ul><ul><li>“ feel calm” </li></ul><ul><li>“ brain fog is gone” </li></ul><ul><li>“ sleep better” </li></ul><ul><li>“ less digestive disturbances” </li></ul>
    31. 31. TDSL - Study <ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>10 of 15 patients with low Cortisol level had normal levels after re-tests </li></ul>
    32. 32. TDSL-Study <ul><li>Outcome in relation to GENDER and AGE </li></ul><ul><li>Success of TDSL therapy did not show differences between male/female patients </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>Patients older than 45 reported positive effects of the treatment approx. 2-3 sessions earlier than patients below the age of 45. </li></ul><ul><li>The intensity of energy increase and general well-being was also higher in patients above 45. </li></ul>
    33. 33. TDSL - Study <ul><li>Two case studies: </li></ul><ul><li>Geoffrey S. </li></ul><ul><li>Kate O. </li></ul>
    34. 34. TDSL - Study <ul><li>Study will be available from May 2009 </li></ul>
    35. 35. Increase of ATP – Production (Adenosintriphosphate ) by up to 150% Effect via cell membrane and/or mitochondria Physiological Effect of Laser Light
    36. 36. Difference of the Effect of Red and Infrared Laser RED Infrared Cell membrane Prophyrine Ca ++ influx Mitochondria Cytochrome Flavine Adenosin Monophosphat ATP Protein syntheses, Mitosis, Proliferation B oth types of lasers stimulate ATP production
    37. 37. Mitochondria Power plants of the cell Nucleus Cellular energy ATP – Adenosintriphosphat Quelle:Dr. Wilden Bad Füssing ATP ATP ATP Effect of Laser Light
    38. 38. Quelle:Dr. Wilden Bad Füssing The cellular power plant with i ts antenna pigments Effect of Laser Light Antenna- Pigments of the mitochondrion a bsorbs laser – light The photosensitive enzymes (Porphyrine und Cytochrome) generate small elements of reactive oxygen (singulet-oxygen ) Photobiology - Photochemistry
    39. 39. <ul><ul><li>Cellular metabolic activation and increased functional activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ATP synthesis is increased to up to 150%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulation of repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased cell proliferation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-inflammatory effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microcirculation activation and more efficient tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analgesic effect as a result of increased endorphin release </li></ul></ul>Effect of Laser Light
    40. 40. <ul><ul><li>Immunostimulation with correction of cellular and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>humoral immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I ncreased antioxidant activity in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilising lipid peroxidation in cell membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulation of erythropoesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V asodilatation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normalisation of acid base balance in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexogenic effects on the functional activity of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different organs and systems </li></ul></ul>Effect of Laser Light
    41. 41. T Moshkovska and J Mayberry Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK Postgraduate Medical Journal2005;81:436-441 Prostaglandin level changes Anti-inflammatory effect Equalisation of osmotic pressure Oedema elimination Stabilisation of lipid peroxidation Reactivation of superoxide dysmutase and catalase Reduction of lipid peroxidation Analgesic effect Activation of neuron metabolism Endorphin level growth Increase of pain threshold Optical quantum Reparation process stimulation ATP accumulation Activation of cellular metabolism Increase of proliferation of fibroblasts and other cells Defective epithelisation Protein and collagen synthesis Capillary formation Immune response stimulation Increase of proliferation of immune modifying cells Accelerate maturation of immune modifying cells Increase production of immunoglobulin Reflexogenic effect Irritation of nerve endings Excitation of nerve centres Stimulation of physiological function
    42. 42. Contraindications For Laser Therapy Malignant tumours located in an irradiated area E pilepsy (only in the use of pulsed lasers) Use over the thyroid gland Irradiation of the abdomen during pregnancy Light hypersensitivity Thrombosis in a pelvic vein or a deep vein of the legs
    43. 43. Review: It is time to test low level laser therapy in Great Britain T Moshkovska and J Mayberry Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK Postgraduate Medical Journal 2005; 81 :436-441 © 2005 Fellowship of Postgraduate Medicine Submitted 10 August 2004 Accepted 16 December 2004
    44. 44. “ has been used in Eastern Europe and Asia for the treatment of a wide range of conditions for many years. Its continued acceptance in these populations reflects the efficacy with which it is regarded both by clinicians and their patients. Although there have been a substantial number of reports on its clinical benefit and some practitioners have used the technique in North America and Australasia it has yet to be subjected to detailed assessment through randomised clinical trials . The purpose of this review is to stimulate interest in the technique and to encourage rigorous research into its potential value.” Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) T Moshkovska and J Mayberry Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK Postgraduate Medical Journal 2005; 81 :436-441
    45. 45. Among the 100 selected for evaluation in this review, only 28 could be found on Medline. Many studies have been published in regional or national publications, which are not indexed on Medline or similar databases. The main reasons for this restricted publication include language barriers and lack of availability of professional journals because of financial constraints . Russian Studies on Low Level Laser Therapy T Moshkovska and J Mayberry Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK Postgraduate Medical Journal 2005; 81 :436-441
    46. 46. Most reports are in Russian and the basis for clinical research and practice was first established in Moscow in 1986. The Institute of Laser Medicine was formed through a union of 14 laser centres from different parts of Russia . LLLT emerged as a potential therapeutic modality because of the conversion of military production into areas of commercial practice including medicine. The largest complex of laser research was founded in the closed city of Kaluga and in 1995 this was opened by order of the Russian government. T Moshkovska and J Mayberry Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK Postgraduate Medical Journal 2005; 81 :436-441 Low Level Laser Therapy Research Centres in Russia
    47. 47. As a result clinicians in Russia and Ukraine now have access to a wide variety of invasive and non-invasive lasers and there are numerous specialised laser centres throughout these countries. A wide range of laser applications have been used to treat large numbers of patients and in recent times up to 1.5 million patients have been treated annually . T Moshkovska and J Mayberry Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK Postgraduate Medical Journal 2005; 81 :436-441
    48. 48. The reasons behind the widespread application of LLLT in Russia and Ukraine are evident. Today medicine is dominated by expensive pharmaceuticals and advanced technologies. The ever-growing emergence of resistant bacteria and patient sensitivity to drugs should encourage a search for new therapeutic modalities. Laser irradiation shows particular hope in this area with virtually no contraindications , and limited side effects . T Moshkovska and J Mayberry Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK Postgraduate Medical Journal 2005; 81 :436-441
    49. 49. Ohshiro and Calderhead believe low intensity laser irradiation may work through effects on the central nervous system. They have suggested this occurs through tissue photobioactivation , in which the energy levels of biological structures are changed through light quantum absorption. Human tissue absorbs light energy and this stimulates and modifies metabolic processes. It results in reorganisation of protein polymers . In particular, it changes the structural and functional properties of cell membranes as well as fermentation processes . In this way it has some similarities to the action of sunlight in plant photosynthesis . T Moshkovska and J Mayberry Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK Postgraduate Medical Journal 2005; 81 :436-441
    50. 50. Intravenous laser blood irradiation was developed experimentally by the Russian researchers, Meshalkin and Sergievskiy , and introduced into clinical practice in 1981 . Originally the method was applied in the treatment of cardiovascular abnormalities. History of Intravenous Blood Irradiation T Moshkovska and J Mayberry Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK Postgraduate Medical Journal 2005; 81 :436-441
    51. 51. Trans Dermal Systemic Laser TDSL Production year: 2008 Laser Medium: Diode Laser infrared (I.R.) Ga Al As Laser Emission: 40 mW at end of fibre CW (continuous wave) Laser Class: 3 B Med. Prod. Class: II a Laser Beam: collimated Beam Divergence: 4 0 resp. 14 0 Housing: ABS Batteries: 4 x 1.2 Volt NiMh AAA 850 mAh Operation temperature: -10 º to +32 ºC  
    52. 52. P ercutaenous Laser Irradiation with the TDSL <ul><li>Effective </li></ul><ul><li>Non- invasive </li></ul><ul><li>Pain free </li></ul><ul><li>Athermic </li></ul><ul><li>Very few side-effects </li></ul><ul><li>Initiated in clinic </li></ul><ul><li>Continued at home (where appropriate) </li></ul>

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